Ecological Archives A017-091-A5

E. E. Holmes, L. W. Fritz, A. E. York, and K. Sweeney. 2007. Age-structured modeling reveals long-term declines in the natality of western Steller sea lions. Ecological Applications 17:2214–2232.

Appendix E. Summary of Steller sea lion sightability studies.

TABLE E1. Summary of studies which report the proportion of time onshore for Steller sea lions. Some studies do not adjust for the tendency of Steller sea lions to forage at night and haul-out on land during the day. In this case, the proportion of time onshore is an underestimate of daytime sightability. All studies are from the Gulf of Alaska except Higgins et al. (1988).


1. No correction for daylight vs. night attendance patterns.

2. Corrected for daylight vs. night attendance pattern


Brandon, E. A. A. 2000. Maternal investment in Steller sea lions in Alaska . Ph.D. thesis. Texas A&M University, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Call, K. A., B. S. Fadely, A. Greig, and M. J. Rehberg. 2007. At-sea and on-shore cycles of juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) derived from satellite dive recorders: A comparison between declining and increasing populations. Deep-Sea Research 54:298–310.

Higgins, L. V., D. P. Costa, A. C. Huntley, and B. J. L. Boleuf. 1988. Behavioral and physiological measurements of maternal investment in the Steller sea lion, Eumetopias jubatus. Marine Mammal Science 4:44–58.

Loughlin, T. R., J. T. Sterling, R. L. Merrick, J. L. Sease, and A. E. York. 2003. Diving behavior of immature Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Fishery Bulletin 101:566–582.

Maniscalco, J. M., P. Parker, and S. Atkinson. 2006. Interseasonal and interannual measures of maternal care among individual Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of Mammalogy 87:304–311.

Merrick, R. L., and T. Loughlin. 1997. Foraging behavior of adult female and young-of-year Steller sea lions in Alaskan waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75:776–786.

Milette, L. L. 1999. Behaviour of lactating Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) during the breeding season: a comparison between a declining and stable population in Alaska. M.S. thesis. University of British Columbia.

Milette, L. L., and A. W. Trites. 2003. Maternal attendance patterns of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from stable and declining populations in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:340–348.

Trites, A. W., and B. T. Porter. 2002. Attendance patterns of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their young during winter. Journal of Zoology 256:547–556.

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