José Miguel Ponciano, Mark L. Taper, Brian Dennis, and Subhash R. Lele. 2009. Hierarchical models in ecology: confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and model selection using data cloning. Ecology 90:356–362.


Appendix A: A proof showing that the ratio of two likelihoods initially written as the ratio of two integrals can be written as the integral of a ratio, as shown in steps 2 and 5 of the data cloned likelihood ratio algorithm and of the profile likelihood algorithm, respectively.
Ecological Archives E090-027-A1.

Appendix B: Simulation study.
Ecological Archives E090-027-A2.


Supplement 1: R program illustrating the calculations needed to construct a profile likelihood for one of the Stochastic Beverton-Holt state space model parameters.
Ecological Archives E090-027-S1.


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