Ecological Archives E096-155-D1

Douglas A. Kelt and Dirk H. Van Vuren . 2015. Home ranges of Recent mammals. Ecology 96:1733.


Understanding the factors governing the evolution of home range size has been an active area of macroecological investigation. We compiled a comprehensive database on home ranges and body sizes for a diverse suite of mammals, and segregated these as carnivores, herbivores, and omnivores; carnivorous species ranged in size (g) from 101.34 (Onychomys torridus) to 105.31 (Panthera leo), herbivores from 101.04 (Reithrodontomys raviventris) to 106.60 (Loxodonta africana), and omnivores from 101 (Pseudomys chapmani) to 105.34 (Ursus arctos). These data indicate that scaling relations of home ranges for carnivorous mammals do not differ significantly from those of herbivorous and omnivorous species, and that all three exhibit slopes that are significantly steeper than predicted on the basis of energetic requirements. Additionally, home range size is constrained in bivariate space representing energetic and/or biophysical limitations. These data suggested that simple linear relations may not be appropriate for comparing against the energetically predicted slopes of 0.75 or 1.0. In spite of these generalizations these data represent a biased and small proportion of mammalian species, and comprise a call for further research on the home ranges of underrepresented mammal groups as well as of represented species in additional regions and habitats. These data have since been employed in multiple papers, prompting publication as a Data Paper to make these more readily available to potential users. This metadata file outlines the structure of these data and provides primary references for all species used.


Class I. Data set descriptors

A. Data set identity:

Title: Home range and body size for diverse mammal species.

B. Data set and metadata identification codes:

Suggested Data Set Identity Codes: Mammal_Home_Ranges.txt.

C. Data set description

Principal Investigators:

Douglas A. Kelt
Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology
University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA

Dirk Van Vuren
Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology
University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA

Abstract: The data provided here include home range and body sizes for 285 species of mammals in 177 genera. Data were extracted from 552 published sources, and have been used in multiple papers since we originally published results of analyses in 1999 and 2001. While this likely is the most comprehensive such data set available, it is arguably biased taxonomically and geographically. While some mammal orders are well represented taxonomically most are not. Hence, while all genera in Monotremata, Proboscidea, and Pholidota are represented, these comprise only 60, 66, and 20% of species, respectively; moreover, these are relatively minor radiations. In contrast, we have no species of Paucituberculata, Microbiotheria, Notoryctemorphia, Tubulidentata, Hyracoidea, Cingulata, Scandentia, Dermoptera, and Primates (the latter likely reflecting a bias in data acquisition). The modal proportion of genera and species across 27 terrestrial orders is zero; the median values are 10.8% (genera) and 3.7% (species), suggesting that further data should be sought to confirm generalizations provided by these data.

D. Key words: body mass; home range size; mammals.

Class II. Research origin descriptors

A. Overall project description

Identity: Evolutionary ecology of mammalian home ranges.


Douglas A. Kelt
Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology
University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA

Dirk Van Vuren
Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology
University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA

Period of Study: 1997–indefinite

Objectives: To characterize and quantify the macroecological relationship between home range size and body size across a range of mammals, and to test the hypothesis that herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous species scale identically.

Abstract: Same as above. These data are not part of a larger program of study.

Source(s) of funding: Dept. of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology, University of California Davis, and the Agriculture Experiment Station, University of California..

B. Specific subproject description

Site description: Data were culled from the literature and include data from a variety of habitats. Volant (Chiroptera) and aquatic (Cetacea, Sirenia, pinniped Carnivora) have been excluded.

Experimental/Sampling design: All data were obtained from published literature, written by mammal ecologists.

Research Methods: All methods have been outlined in two publications (Kelt and Van Vuren 1999, 2001). Briefly, we culled relevant literature for data on home ranges for terrestrial mammals. Most studies were based on radiotelemetry and we excluded studies based solely on live trapping. Home ranges were based on minimum convex polygon (MCP) because of its wide use and therefore general comparability. MCP is increasingly questioned for such comparisons because it is simplistic and biased; kernel methods generally provide more meaningful insights.

All species were characterized as carnivorous, herbivorous, or omnivorous on the basis of published information and following guidelines presented by Harestad and Bunnell (1979).

Home range estimates are weighted averages across sexes, using data only for adult animals. If sample sizes were not given, then simple means were calculated across sexes. Home ranges and body masses were transformed to log(10) and analyzed with simple linear regression, analysis of covariance, and segmented regression as outlined in Kelt and Van Vuren (2001).

Taxonomy: Taxonomy used herein follows Wilson and Reeder (2005).

Literature Cited:

Kelt, D. A., and D. Van Vuren. 1999. On the relationship between body size and home range area: consequences of energetic constraints in mammals. Ecology 80:337–400.

Kelt, D. A., and D. H. Van Vuren. 2001. The ecology and macroecology of mammalian home range area. American Naturalist 157:637–645.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. Editors. 2005. Mammal species of the world. A taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. Available online at (; accessed 18 November 2014).

Class III. Data set status and accessibility

A. Status

Latest update: 18 November 2014 (higher taxonomic revisions added, some names updated; no new data added)

Latest Archive date:18 November 2014

Metadata status:18 November 2014, metadata are current.

Data verification: all data was evaluated and double-checked for accuracy.  We outline methods of data verification in our published papers (Kelt and Van Vuren 1999, 2001).

B. Accessibility

Storage location and medium: Original data file exists on senior author’s personal computer in MS Excel format.

Contact person: Douglas A. Kelt, Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology, University of California, Davis CA 95616, phone: +1 530-754-9481, fax: +1 530-752-4154, email: [email protected]

Copyright restrictions: None.

Proprietary restrictions: None.

Costs: None, these data have been provided to multiple colleagues over the years at no cost; publication in Ecological Archives is intended to promote dissemination of these data for scientific use.

Class IV. Data structural descriptors

A. Data Set File

Identity: Mammal_Home_Ranges.txt

Size: 280 records, excluding header row.

Format and storage mode: Ascii text, tab-delimited, no compression.

Header information: Headers are given here as header name followed by more information such as measurement units or other basic descriptor. Further detail on variable definitions are in Section B, variable information. Taxon, Order, Family, Trophic group, Mass (log10 grams), Home range (log10 hectares), References, Notes.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

Special characters/fields: None.

B. Variable definitions

Variable name

Variable definition


Storage type

Range numeric type


Scientific name (Genus, species)





Taxonomic order





Taxonomic family




Trophic Group

Carn = Carnivore, Herb = Herbivore, Omn = Omnivore




Mass (log10)

Log10 transformed mass (g).


Floating point


Home Range (log10)

Log10 transformed home range (ha).


Floating point



Reference source(s) for home range. Data presented are weighted averages across multiple references when available. Taxonomic baseline is Wilson and Reeder (2005)(19 November 2014,





Comment or note on taxonomic change since original publication.




C. Data limitations. As noted in the abstract, these data remain an incomplete survey of mammal species. In the following figure we present the distribution of (a) generic and (b) specific representation for mammalian orders in our dataset, and the proportion of species across all terrestrial mammals and in the 26 orders sampled here (c and d). Hence, 9 orders are represented by no species. Insets to upper panels present the number of proportion of genera and species from each order as a function of the generic and specific richness of each order; these show clearly that more speciose orders are less well sampled than less diverse orders.


Class V. Supplemental descriptors

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This work was funded by the University of California Davis, Department of Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology, and the UC Agriculture Experiment Station.

Literature cited

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