Ecological Archives M082-009-A1

Joseph Mascaro, R. Flint Hughes, and Stefan A. Schnitzer. 2012. Novel forests maintain ecosystem processes after the decline of native tree species. Ecological Monographs 82:221–238.

Appendix A (Fig. A1). Map of 17 site locations in lower Puna and Hilo, Hawai'i Island. Novel, exotic-dominated forests are denoted as "E", and native forests as "N". Rainfall trend lines follow Giambelluca et al. (1986). Modified from Zimmerman et al. (2008). A planned 18th site ("N6") was abandoned due to lack of property access.

Literature Cited

Giambelluca, T. W., M. A. Nullet, and T. A. Schroeder. 1986. Rainfall atlas of Hawai'i. State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Water and Land Development, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Zimmerman, N., R. F. Hughes, S. Cordell, P. Hart, H. K. Chang, D. Perez, R. K. Like, and R. Ostertag. 2008. Patterns of primary succession of native and introducted plants in lowland wet forests in Eastern Hawai'i. Biotropica 40:277–284.

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