Ecological Archives M081-009-A1

Feng Liu, David J. Mladenoff, Nicholas S. Keuler, Lisa Schulte Moore. 2011. Broadscale variability in tree data of the historical Public Land Survey and its consequences for ecological studies. Ecological Monographs 81:259–275.

Appendix A (TABLE A1). Landform and soil properties of subsections in northern Wisconsin (Albert 1995, WDNR 2000, McNab 2007).

Subsection Landform Soil
212Ic: Lake Superior and Islands Glacial lake plain and ice scour Calcareous silt and clay, peat in wetlands
212Jb: Gogebic-Penokee Iron Range Thin glacial till over volcanic bedrock ridge Red loams and sandy loams
212Jc: Winegar Moraines Ice stagnated features with steep ridges, kettle lakes, and wetlands Acidic, rocky, red sandy loam or loamy sand with fragipans common, peat in wetlands
212Ka: Bayfield Sand Plains Pitted outwash plain: flat terraces intersected by hummock sediments Deep loamy sands low in organic matter
212Kb: Mille Lacs Uplands Ground moraine and drumlin fields Acidic loams
212Ob: Green Bay and Islands Glacial lake plain and ice scour Calcareous loams, poorly drained where bedrock near surface
212Qa: St. Croix Moraine Stagnation and end moraine Neutral sandy loam, small inclusions of peat
212Qb: Lincoln Formation Till Plain - Mixed Hardwoods Dissected glacial till plain Poorly drained silt loams over acidic loamy till
212Qc: Lincoln Formation Till Plain - Hemlock Hardwoods Dissected glacial till plain Poorly drained silt loams over acidic loamy till
212Qd: Rib Mountain Rolling Ridges Steeply dissected till plain with exposures of granitic bedrock Well-drained shallow silt loams
212Ta: Green Bay Lobe Stagnation Moraine Parallel end moraines separated by outwash channels and till plain Neutral sandy loam to loam, small inclusions of peat
212Tb: West Green Bay Till Plain Undulating till plain underlain by limestone dolomite bedrock Rocky, podzolized sandy loams interspersed with peat and muck
212Tc: Athelstane Sandy Outwash and Moraines Bedrock knobs surrounded by extensive outwash plains, some pitted Droughty outwash sands
212Te: Green Bay Sandy Lake Plain Glacial lake plain Poorly drained sandy and mucky soils
212Tf: Door Peninsula Various landforms of lacustrine origin underlain by limestone and dolomite Diverse sandy to loamy soils, calcareous and poorly drained where bedrock near surface
212Xa: Glidden Loamy Drift Plain Ground moraine with drumlins in uplands, with inclusions of stagnation and end moraine Acid silt loams, podzolized, rocky, and often poorly drained
212Xb: Northern Highlands Pitted Outwash Pitted outwash plain with moraines Acidic sands
212Xc: Brule and Paint Rivers Drumlinized Ground Moraine Gently rolling drumlins and adjacent swampy depressions Well-drained sandy-loamy or loamy sand, may have silt cap of loess
212Xd: Central-Northwest Wisconsin Loess Plains Undulating, nearly level plain Acidic silt loams, poorly drained and covered with wind-blown silt
212Xe: Perkinstown End Moraine End moraines and outwash channels Acidic sandy loam, small inclusions of peat
212Xf: Hayward Stagnation Moraines Stagnation moraine Sandy loam to loam
212Xg: Crystal Falls Till and Outwash Drumlin ridges and swampy depressions Well-drained sandy-loamy or loamy sand, may have silt cap of loess
212Ya: Superior-Ashland Clay Plain Glacial lake plain and water-reworked moraine Leached calcareous red loams and clays; peat extensive in wetlands
212Za: Outagamie Loamy Till and Silty Lake Plain Undulating till plain with wetlands Rocky, podzolized, pink sandy loams
212Zb: Green Bay Clayey and Silty Lake Plain Flat plain of lacustrine clays Leached red calcareous clays
212Zc: Manitowoc Till Plain Till plain of clayey ground and end moraines Leached red calcareous clays
 
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