Ecological Archives E096-280-A2

Timothy D. Jardine, Ryan Woods, Jonathan Marshall, James Fawcett, Jaye Lobegeiger, Dominic Valdez, and Martin J. Kainz. 2015. Reconciling the role of organic matter pathways in aquatic food webs by measuring multiple tracers in individuals. Ecology 96:32573269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-2153.1

Appendix B. Detailed isotope mixing model outputs and tabulated fatty acid profiles for sources and consumers.

B.1 SIAR outputs

Dietary source proportions, averaged across all sites and times, were highly variable among insects, crustaceans, mollusks and turtles (Table B1). For fishes, large sample sizes within each site and time allowed calculation of source proportions at most sites and times, and there was limited variation within taxa by location or sample period (Table B2). For carp, the median contribution of C4 detritus was >36%, with a maximum of 53%, and the lower values were typically offset by increases in the C3 detrital pathway, such that the range of total terrestrial contribution across sites was only 11% for this species (min = 57%, max = 68%). Likewise, golden perch C4 contribution ranged from 32 to 52% across sites, while the plankton contribution ranged from 19 to 35%. The planktonic pathway was always the dominant source for small bony bream, with a minimum contribution of 34% and a maximum of 78%, while large bony bream used a more balanced mix of sources (Table B2).

B.2 Fatty acid biomarkers

In addition to physiologically-active PUFA and their pre-cursors, we also examined potential source-specific FA biomarkers. While it is biochemically recognized that long-chain SAFA, such as 22:0 and longer, are abundant in terrestrial organic matter (Table B4), these FA are poorly retained in consumers (Fig. 2; see also Kainz et al. 2002). Consistent with other reports that used oleic acid (18:1w9) in consumers as a marker for terrestrial organic matter (e.g. Hebert et al. 2008, Lau et al. 2012, 2013), we identified relatively high 18:1w9 in terrestrial insects, but less in zooplankton (Table B5). Ratios of 16:1w7, a marker for epilithic diatoms (Napolitano 1999, Suschik et al. 2010) to 18:1w9 were <1 in invertebrates with the exception of known grazers, the mayflies Baetidae and Caenidae (Table B5). Ratios were also <1 for all fishes, with only small bony bream (<100mm) exhibiting values that approached 1 (Table B6). While epipelon and epixylon had higher 16:1w7 than 18:1w9, ratios of these two biomarkers were lower (~2:1, Table B4) compared with those reported by Suschik et al. (2010) for the diatom dominated assemblage (~4:1). We suggest that the ratio of these two FA, and 18:1w9 in particular, may provide a robust indicator of aquatic vs. terrestrial resource use in situations where isotopic differentiation between sources is limited (Jardine et al. 2008). As examples, Lau et al. (2012) reported 16:1w7 to 18:1w9 ratios >1 in Ephemeroptera, but <1 in all other insect taxa in oligotrophic Swedish lakes, while Goedkoop et al. (2000) reported ratios ≥1 for all taxa in a large mesotrophic lake where terrestrial inputs were limited. In our data set, 18:1w9 significantly declined with decreasing proportion aquatic diet for all taxa (herbivorous insects, r² = 0.17, F1,44 = 9.043, p = 0.004; predatory insects, r² = 0.33, F1,32 = 15.463, p < 0.001; prawns, r² = 0.27, F1,28 = 10.333, p = 0.003, fishes, r² = 0.28, F1,128 = 49.455, p < 0.001).

B.3 Fatty acids and dietary source proportions

Herbivorous and predatory insects exhibited similar patterns when comparing w3 PUFA with aquatic resource use. Both groups showed significant associations between EPA and the proportion of the diet that was aquatic (herbivores: r² = 0.10, F1,44 = 4.85, p = 0.033; predators: r² = 0.28, F1,32 = 13.01, p = 0.001, Fig. 3A, Table B7). However, ALA was not significantly higher in individuals with a diet that was derived from the aquatic pathway (herbivores: r² = 0.02, F1,44 = 0.65, p = 0.423; predators: r² = 0.05, F1,32 = 1.88, p = 0.179), while the DHA vs. % aquatic relationship was not significant for herbivores (r² = 0.01, F1,44 = 0.23, p = 0.631), but significant for predators (r² = 0.17, F1,32 = 6.72, p = 0.014) (Fig. 3A, Table B7).

Like insects, crustaceans had higher EPA than DHA, and were similar to predatory insects in their response for w3 PUFA. Prawns had higher ALA (r² = 0.30, F1,28 = 12.18, p = 0.002) and DHA (r² = 0.23, F1,28 = 8.78, p = 0.006, Fig. 3D) but not EPA (r² = 0.02, F1,28 = 0.67, p = 0.419), when the aquatic diet contribution was high. Data for crayfish were consistent with those of prawns (Fig. 3D), but were not tested separately because of small sample sizes.

For fish, all three w3 PUFA were significantly higher when the contribution from aquatic sources was high (ALA, r² = 0.22, F1,128 = 35.27, p < 0.001; EPA, r² = 0.32, F1,128 = 59.14, p < 0.001; DHA, r² = 0.12, F1,128 = 17.01, p < 0.001, Fig. 3G). This grouping of fishes in a single regression masks a gradient from carp that had low relative aquatic contribution and low w3 PUFA, to bony bream that had a high relative aquatic and w3 PUFA contribution.

Taxa varied in the relationship between dietary patterns and w6 PUFA. Herbivorous insects did not have significantly lower LIN or ARA when feeding on the aquatic source pathway (p > 0.05, Fig. 3B) and predators had lower LIN (r² = 0.15, F1,32 = 6.03, p = 0.020) but no difference in ARA (p > 0.05) when aquatic diet contribution was high (Fig. 3B). Prawns showed no significant relationship between LIN and aquatic diet contribution (r² = 0.11, F1,28 = 3.50, p = 0.071), but ARA was lower at high aquatic diet contribution (r² = 0.25, F1,28 = 9.88, p = 0.004, Fig. 3E). By contrast, LIN was significantly lower in fish when % aquatic was high (r² = 0.31, F1,128 = 58.43, p < 0.001, Fig. 3H), whereas ARA showed no change (r² < 0.01, F1,128 = 0.41, p = 0.525).

Table B1. SIAR posterior distributions (median and upper and lower 95% credible interval) for insects, mollusks, crustaceans and reptiles in waterholes of the Border Rivers system, southwestern Queensland, Australia.

Dietary source proportions (%)

Taxon

n

Plankton

Periphyton

C3 detritus

C4 detritus

Herbivorous aquatic insects

Ephemeroptera

13

64 (49–75)

6 (0–25)

7 (0–27)

20 (12–28)

Chironomidae

8

51 (30–64)

7 (0–28)

9 (0–37)

30 (21–39)

Corixidae

15

32 (2–49)

8 (0–55)

12 (0–58)

40 (29–48)

Trichoptera

8

68 (60–76)

1 (0–7)

1 (0–7)

28 (21–35)

Coleoptera

10

6 (0–26)

33 (2–59)

16 (1–49)

42 (33–52)

Predatory aquatic insects

Dytiscidae

6

7 (0–31)

31 (1–63)

20 (1–54)

38 (27–50)

Gerridae

11

36 (20–50)

10 (1–30)

13 (1–36)

39 (32–46)

Notonectidae

10

50 (2–64)

7 (0–80)

6 (0–68)

31 (10–40)

Odonata

14

64 (55–72)

3 (0–13)

3 (0–14)

27 (21–34)

Terrestrial insects

Formicidae

15

17 (2–34)

15 (1–42)

13 (1–40)

51 (43–58)

Orthoptera

20

4 (0–18)

18 (1–41)

12 (0–34)

62 (35–55)

Crustaceans

Macrobrachium australiense

208

58 (56–59)

0 (0–0)

0 (0–1)

42 (40–43)

Cherax spp.

14

47 (34–57)

5 (0–19)

6 (0–24)

39 (33–46)

Mollusks

Hyriidae

15

72 (63–80)

3 (0–13)

4 (0–15)

19 (12–26)

Reptiles

Chelodina longicollis

11

20 (4–36)

15 (1–39)

15 (1–39)

48 (40–56)

 

Table B2. Variation in space (5 waterholes) and time (3 sampling events) in fish catch and estimates of dietary source proportions as calculated with stable C and N isotopes and SIAR.

Dietary source proportions (%)

Site

Month

Spp.

Biomass in catch (g)

Site total (%)

Plankton

Periphyton

C3 detritus

C4 detritus

Booligar

June

N. erebi (small)

254

2

34 (18–50)

23 (3–43)

24 (3–44)

19 (11–28)

N. erebi (large)

907

6

14 (1–34)

30 (4–58)

29 (3–53)

27 (18–36)

C. carpio

10760

71

14 (1–37)

21 (1–48)

19 (1–45)

43 (31–56)

N. hyrtlii

2680

18

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

579

4

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

August

C. carpio

108599

97

13 (1–34)

18 (1–45)

15 (1–41)

50 (38–64)

C. auratus

2025

2

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

1009

1

29 (8–46)

13 (1–37)

16 (1–42)

40 (30–50)

November

N. erebi (small)

16

0

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N. erebi (large)

726

1

41 (27–55)

13 (1–35)

16 (1–39)

28 (21–35)

C. carpio

54149

97

12 (1–27)

23 (2–46)

13 (1–37)

50 (43–58)

C. auratus

692

1

27 (5–47)

21 (2–45)

21 (2–46)

30 (19–42)

Gidi Gidi

June

N. erebi (small)

6

0

47 (28–69)

20 (1–45)

27 (3–54)

4 (0–13)

N. erebi (large)

887

13

40 (23–56)

27 (4–50)

25 (3–48)

8 (1–16)

C. carpio

3915

56

13 (1–34)

16 (1–43)

14 (1–40)

53 (41–67)

C. auratus

408

6

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

1780

25

21 (2–41)

21 (2–45)

20 (1–44)

37 (26–49)

August

N. erebi (small)

2

0

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N. erebi (large)

2167

51

37 (25–50)

26 (7–43)

26 (7–43)

12 (5–18)

C. carpio

364

9

16 (1–40)

21 (1–48)

18 (1–45)

41 (28–56)

C. auratus

505

12

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

1210

28

24 (8–39)

21 (3–40)

20 (2–40)

35 (28–43)

November

C. carpio

7169

41

17 (3–31)

22 (3–41)

16 (1–38)

44 (37–51)

C. auratus

1514

9

29 (7–47)

24 (2–47)

24 (2–47)

25 (13–36)

L. unicolor

195

1

30 (5–52)

16 (1–44)

20 (1–48)

32 (18–46)

M. ambigua

7169

41

28 (14–41)

18 (2–36)

17 (2–36)

36 (30–43)

T. tandanus

1422

8

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

St George

June

N. erebi (small)

187

1

43 (10–70)

15 (1–49)

22 (1–61)

15 (2–31)

N. erebi (large)

1619

8

34 (6–53)

32 (2–67)

17 (1–56)

15 (5–24)

C. carpio

11275

53

22 (2–42)

18 (1–44)

17 (1–45)

40 (29–53)

N. hyrtlii

4413

21

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

1591

8

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

1870

9

30 (13–42)

7 (0–24)

9 (0–31)

52 (45–59)

August

N. erebi (small)

22

0

43 (12–67)

16 (1–51)

21 (1–59)

16 (3–30)

N. erebi (large)

380

4

17 (2–33)

37 (15–61)

34 (11–54)

12 (4–20)

C. carpio

9184

88

12 (1–35)

23 (2–50)

19 (1–45)

43 (31–56)

C. auratus

229

2

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N. hyrtlii

316

3

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

109

1

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

138

1

19 (2–39)

19 (1–44)

18 (1–44)

42 (31–53)

November

N. erebi (small)

17

0

44 (17–70)

20 (1–49)

27 (2–58)

7 (0–21)

N. erebi (large)

387

0

39 (19–57)

22 (2–48)

24 (2–50)

15 (6–24)

C. carpio

88659

97

11 (1–26)

19 (2–41)

17 (1–39)

51 (44–58)

L. unicolor

1274

1

24 (3–45)

15 (1–43)

16 (1–44)

41 (30–54)

M. ambigua

1130

1

21 (1–43)

11 (1–45)

14 (1–47)

48 (36–60)

Talwood

June

N. erebi (small)

42

0

78 (63–90)

6 (0–21)

8 (0–28)

5 (0–12)

N. erebi (large)

242

3

36 (18–55)

28 (4–50)

28 (4–51)

9 (1–19)

C. carpio

1276

15

20 (2–41)

22 (2–46)

20 (1–45)

37 (26–49)

C. auratus

484

6

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

1453

17

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

4993

59

35 (20–47)

11 (1–30)

15 (1–35)

38 (31–45)

August

C. carpio

2892

34

16 (1–38)

26 (3–49)

22 (2–46)

36 (24–48)

C. auratus

930

11

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

548

6

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

4181

49

25 (9–39)

23 (4–40)

21 (3–40)

32 (25–40)

November

N. erebi (large)

8798

30

40 (27–53)

25 (7–43)

26 (7–44)

9 (3–16)

C. carpio

18171

63

16 (4–28)

26 (9–42)

21 (4–38)

37 (31–44)

C. auratus

715

2

12 (1–37)

19 (1–48)

15 (1–44)

48 (35–65)

L. unicolor

834

3

26 (4–46)

17 (1–42)

18 (1–45)

36 (25–48)

M. ambigua

424

1

25 (4–45)

19 (1–43)

19 (1–45)

35 (24–47)

Wyenbah

June

N. erebi (small)

150

4

73 (62–82)

4 (0–15)

4 (0–17)

18 (9–25)

N. erebi (large)

675

20

35 (14–54)

26 (3–50)

27 (3–51)

12 (2–24)

C. carpio

1344

39

11 (1–33)

23 (2–48)

18 (1–44)

45 (34–59)

N. hyrtlii

623

18

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

186

5

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

448

13

28 (6–45)

10 (1–34)

12 (1–40)

46 (37–56)

August

N. erebi (small)

79

5

59 (44–74)

12 (1–33)

21 (2–44)

5 (0–13)

C. carpio

987

66

15 (1–37)

17 (1–45)

15 (1–42)

49 (37–62)

N. hyrtlii

138

9

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

L. unicolor

188

12

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

M. ambigua

96

6

28 (5–47)

16 (1–42)

17 (1–45)

36 (25–49)

November

N. erebi (small)

208

5

54 (34–75)

14 (1–41)

23 (2–52)

5 (0–15)

N. erebi (large)

1567

41

44 (26–62)

21 (2–48)

22 (2–49)

11 (3–20)

C. carpio

1791

46

6 (0–19)

27 (5–47)

15 (1–36)

50 (43–58)

L. unicolor

112

3

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

 

 

M. ambigua

129

3

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

 

Table B3. Ordinary least squares regressions of dietary source proportions against log body mass (g) for four common and abundant species. Coefficients (B) are indicated for significant regressions.

Table B3

 

Table B4. Fatty acid (% of total) profiles for primary producers in waterholes

Aquatic sources

Terrestrial sources

FAME

seston

periphyton

 

Leaf litter

Herbaceous
plants

Grasses

14:0

5.9

±

2.4

5.4

±

2.2

4.5

±

1.8

0.6

±

0.5

0.8

±

0.5

15:0

2.1

±

1.2

1.3

±

1.0

1.2

±

0.6

0.2

±

0.3

0.2

±

0.2

16:0

26.3

±

3.8

26.4

±

4.0

22.3

±

3.6

16.8

±

3.0

17.8

±

2.9

17:0

0.7

±

0.3

0.4

±

0.3

1.2

±

0.5

0.2

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.1

18:0

14.0

±

7.9

7.6

±

5.4

6.1

±

1.6

1.7

±

0.8

2.3

±

0.8

20:0

0.7

±

0.4

0.6

±

0.4

2.9

±

0.7

0.6

±

0.3

2.2

±

3.4

21:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.5

±

0.4

0.3

±

0.2

0.5

±

0.6

22:0

0.8

±

0.6

0.8

±

0.6

3.4

±

1.2

1.1

±

0.8

1.5

±

0.9

23:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

1.3

±

0.5

0.6

±

0.6

1.2

±

2.0

24:0

0.5

±

1.0

0.8

±

0.8

4.6

±

3.2

1.7

±

2.2

1.8

±

0.9

26:0

0.1

±

0.4

0.4

±

0.7

4.7

±

2.9

0.8

±

0.7

1.0

±

0.6

28:0

0.2

±

0.8

0.5

±

1.3

4.6

±

3.7

0.6

±

0.7

1.1

±

1.1

∑SAFA

51.3

±

12.1

44.2

±

8.4

57.5

±

8.8

25.3

±

5.3

31.0

±

7.3

14:1w5

0.1

±

0.2

0.1

±

0.3

0.1

±

0.2

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

16:1w9

3.6

±

2.5

2.3

±

2.2

0.9

±

0.9

0.2

±

0.2

0.3

±

0.2

16:1w7

4.0

±

1.8

15.2

±

8.7

3.1

±

1.8

0.2

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

18:1w9

10.2

±

6.3

8.2

±

4.1

8.8

±

4.2

5.7

±

4.7

3.3

±

2.3

18:1w7

2.4

±

0.6

2.0

±

1.0

3.7

±

1.7

0.5

±

0.2

0.5

±

0.2

20:1w9

0.1

±

0.2

0.5

±

0.5

0.2

±

0.4

0.1

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

24:1w9

0.1

±

0.4

0.2

±

0.4

0.2

±

0.4

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

∑MUFA

22.5

±

8.0

34.1

±

7.2

17.4

±

5.4

7.2

±

5.2

4.6

±

2.4

18:2w6

3.9

±

4.0

3.7

±

1.7

9.8

±

5.0

19.6

±

5.5

19.9

±

5.8

18:3w3

6.4

±

5.0

4.5

±

4.0

7.1

±

8.9

47.3

±

10.6

44.0

±

12.3

18:4w3

2.2

±

3.0

0.4

±

0.4

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

20:3w6

0.0

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.2

0.4

±

0.7

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.1

20:4w6

0.6

±

0.7

1.3

±

0.7

0.9

±

0.6

0.1

±

0.4

0.0

±

0.1

20:3w3

0.1

±

0.2

0.1

±

0.2

0.0

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

20:5w3

2.7

±

2.0

5.2

±

3.0

0.8

±

0.7

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

22:5w3

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.3

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.1

22:6w3

1.6

±

2.0

1.1

±

0.9

0.4

±

0.6

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

∑PUFA

21.8

±

14.2

18.6

±

8.0

20.2

±

12.3

67.5

±

8.8

64.3

±

7.9

w3:w6

3.0

±

2.5

2.1

±

1.4

 

0.7

±

0.5

2.6

±

1.2

2.4

±

1.0

 

Table B5. Fatty acid (% of total) profiles for invertebrates in waterholes

Terrestrial insects

FAME

Formicidae

Orthoptera

 

Zooplankton

14:0

1.0

±

0.8

2.4

±

3.0

3.5

±

0.8

15:0

0.2

±

0.4

0.2

±

0.3

1.5

±

0.4

16:0

15.2

±

8.6

21.0

±

10.3

16.5

±

1.7

17:0

0.4

±

0.3

1.0

±

1.2

1.2

±

0.3

18:0

9.2

±

3.2

9.1

±

3.2

4.1

±

1.0

20:0

0.9

±

0.4

0.6

±

0.7

0.3

±

0.1

21:0

0.0

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.4

0.1

±

0.1

22:0

0.5

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.3

0.4

±

0.1

23:0

0.3

±

0.9

0.0

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.0

24:0

0.4

±

0.8

0.1

±

0.3

0.2

±

0.1

26:0

0.0

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.2

0.0

±

0.0

28:0

0.4

±

0.4

0.3

±

0.5

0.5

±

0.3

∑SAFA

28.7

±

10.1

35.6

±

9.3

28.5

±

3.2

14:1w5

0.3

±

0.2

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

16:1w9

0.6

±

0.6

0.4

±

0.4

0.9

±

0.8

16:1w7

3.6

±

2.6

2.0

±

1.9

3.9

±

2.1

18:1w9

44.9

±

10.5

19.3

±

9.0

3.5

±

2.6

18:1w7

0.9

±

0.5

0.7

±

0.6

3.6

±

1.2

20:1w9

0.1

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.1

24:1w9

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.2

0.7

±

0.2

∑MUFA

50.7

±

10.0

22.8

±

9.3

13.6

±

4.6

18:2w6

16.2

±

8.3

17.1

±

10.7

2.8

±

1.2

18:3w3

1.5

±

1.3

23.7

±

12.1

10.1

±

2.3

18:4w3

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

2.6

±

1.3

20:3w6

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.1

20:4w6

1.4

±

1.3

0.1

±

0.2

3.3

±

1.2

20:3w3

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.8

±

0.3

20:5w3

0.7

±

0.7

0.1

±

0.3

13.7

±

2.3

22:5w3

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.8

±

0.2

22:6w3

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

12.8

±

3.8

∑PUFA

20.4

±

10.5

41.2

±

14.0

54.6

±

7.2

w3:w6

0.1

±

0.1

1.8

±

1.2

 

6.3

±

2.4

Table B5 (continued)

Aquatic insects

Herbivores

Predators

FAME

Ephemeroptera

Chironomidae

Corixidae

Coleoptera

Trichoptera

 

Dytiscidae

Gerridae

Notonectidae

Odonata

14:0

2.4

±

1.1

2.5

±

1.8

2.6

±

0.8

1.9

±

0.4

1.9

±

1.8

0.8

±

0.4

1.5

±

0.5

1.0

±

0.5

1.6

±

0.7

15:0

0.9

±

0.6

1.4

±

0.7

1.5

±

0.8

0.8

±

0.4

0.6

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.3

0.6

±

0.2

1.0

±

0.3

16:0

23.3

±

5.1

22.2

±

1.8

20.8

±

3.8

22.2

±

3.0

21.4

±

5.6

20.4

±

7.1

18.9

±

3.6

21.3

±

8.2

16.5

±

2.9

17:0

1.2

±

0.8

1.7

±

0.2

1.1

±

0.3

0.7

±

0.3

1.6

±

0.4

0.8

±

0.2

0.5

±

0.2

1.6

±

0.3

2.8

±

0.5

18:0

10.4

±

10.0

13.5

±

5.2

7.2

±

3.1

5.7

±

1.0

8.2

±

3.6

6.6

±

1.2

8.9

±

1.8

11.0

±

3.6

11.5

±

3.5

20:0

0.3

±

0.2

1.2

±

0.4

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.3

0.4

±

0.2

0.4

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.9

±

0.2

21:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

22:0

0.4

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.3

0.2

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.2

0.6

±

0.2

23:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

24:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.3

26:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

28:0

1.1

±

3.6

0.4

±

0.7

0.1

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.5

0.1

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.6

0.2

±

0.3

0.4

±

0.5

∑SAFA

40.0

±

16.9

43.3

±

4.6

34.0

±

2.2

32.1

±

1.9

34.9

±

4.8

29.8

±

6.2

31.1

±

3.5

36.5

±

5.1

35.9

±

4.7

14:1w5

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.2

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

16:1w9

0.6

±

0.3

0.6

±

0.1

0.6

±

0.2

1.4

±

2.1

0.6

±

0.3

0.6

±

0.2

0.4

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.2

0.6

±

0.4

16:1w7

9.4

±

4.9

6.8

±

1.7

11.2

±

5.1

10.5

±

4.0

4.7

±

2.0

2.7

±

1.5

3.7

±

1.0

4.7

±

2.7

4.2

±

1.9

18:1w9

8.3

±

3.6

9.6

±

3.3

17.1

±

2.7

23.4

±

6.1

20.1

±

5.4

27.2

±

4.8

34.2

±

6.0

15.2

±

1.7

11.6

±

3.5

18:1w7

9.9

±

4.2

6.1

±

1.5

1.8

±

0.5

3.1

±

1.4

2.2

±

0.8

1.9

±

0.4

1.4

±

0.4

1.9

±

0.6

8.4

±

1.1

20:1w9

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

24:1w9

0.1

±

0.4

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

∑MUFA

28.6

±

10.3

23.5

±

2.3

31.5

±

5.4

38.9

±

3.8

28.1

±

5.5

32.9

±

6.2

40.0

±

6.4

22.5

±

4.4

25.2

±

5.2

18:2w6

5.9

±

3.5

17.2

±

4.9

7.2

±

2.6

7.4

±

2.1

14.5

±

7.1

17.4

±

5.7

17.5

±

4.5

7.2

±

2.3

10.6

±

2.6

18:3w3

6.8

±

4.7

3.0

±

2.3

8.2

±

2.8

5.9

±

1.6

6.7

±

4.8

9.4

±

8.5

2.3

±

0.8

8.2

±

1.6

4.4

±

1.8

18:4w3

0.3

±

0.2

0.1

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.2

0.5

±

0.3

0.2

±

0.3

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.2

0.3

±

0.2

20:3w6

0.1

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.2

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.0

0.3

±

0.2

20:4w6

4.4

±

1.7

3.0

±

1.2

4.0

±

1.3

4.1

±

1.8

4.5

±

2.5

5.4

±

4.1

3.9

±

1.1

5.8

±

1.0

7.3

±

1.4

20:3w3

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.3

20:5w3

10.6

±

4.7

3.8

±

2.4

9.5

±

3.0

6.1

±

2.8

7.1

±

5.4

2.8

±

2.6

3.9

±

1.0

15.3

±

4.0

10.2

±

1.9

22:5w3

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.3

±

0.4

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.1

22:6w3

0.2

±

0.2

0.0

±

0.0

1.2

±

1.4

0.6

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.4

0.3

±

0.4

0.1

±

0.1

1.2

±

0.8

0.7

±

1.2

∑PUFA

30.1

±

10.3

28.7

±

5.1

33.7

±

6.8

27.4

±

5.1

34.8

±

7.1

36.7

±

12.4

28.4

±

5.4

40.2

±

9.2

36.1

±

4.5

n3:n6

1.9

±

1.1

0.4

±

0.3

1.6

±

0.5

1.1

±

0.5

1.1

±

1.2

 

0.5

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.1

1.9

±

0.2

0.9

±

0.3

 

Table B6. Fatty acid (% of total) for fishes in waterholes.

FAME

carp

golden perch

bony bream (>100mm)

hyrtl's tandan

spangled perch

goldfish

bony bream (<100 mm)

14:0

0.6

±

0.4

1.8

±

1.0

2.6

±

1.8

1.4

±

0.2

1.1

±

0.4

0.4

±

0.1

3.7

±

2.5

15:0

0.5

±

0.2

0.6

±

0.2

1.2

±

0.8

0.6

±

0.1

0.7

±

0.2

0.7

±

0.4

1.9

±

2.2

16:0

19.2

±

2.1

22.3

±

2.9

25.5

±

3.4

21.7

±

0.6

21.2

±

1.0

18.1

±

1.4

24.9

±

2.4

17:0

0.6

±

0.2

0.9

±

0.3

1.0

±

0.5

0.8

±

0.3

0.8

±

0.2

1.1

±

0.4

1.0

±

0.6

18:0

7.3

±

1.3

7.8

±

2.0

6.0

±

1.4

8.6

±

0.2

8.4

±

0.7

10.3

±

1.0

5.3

±

1.6

20:0

0.2

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.5

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

21:0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.1

±

0.1

22:0

0.2

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.1

23:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

24:0

0.0

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.1

26:0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.1

0.0

±

0.0

28:0

0.5

±

0.7

1.1

±

2.0

0.3

±

0.5

0.1

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.2

0.4

±

0.6

0.2

±

0.3

∑SAFA

29.3

±

2.6

35.4

±

5.6

37.5

±

4.2

34.4

±

0.5

33.5

±

1.2

32.1

±

2.3

37.9

±

3.8

14:1w5

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

0.0

±

0.0

16:1w9

0.5

±

0.3

0.9

±

1.4

0.5

±

0.3

0.5

±

0.4

1.2

±

1.4

0.7

±

0.5

0.6

±

0.3

16:1w7

2.2

±

1.2

3.7

±

2.1

4.4

±

4.5

4.4

±

1.5

2.6

±

1.1

1.1

±

0.3

4.2

±

3.7

18:1w9

15.3

±

6.8

14.3

±

6.6

7.2

±

4.7

24.8

±

10.1

11.7

±

5.1

8.6

±

4.9

5.6

±

3.1

18:1w7

2.4

±

0.6

2.6

±

0.7

2.0

±

0.6

3.7

±

0.2

2.2

±

0.5

2.4

±

0.4

1.9

±

0.4

20:1w9

1.0

±

0.7

0.5

±

0.2

0.5

±

0.5

2.3

±

0.8

0.4

±

0.2

0.6

±

0.3

0.3

±

0.3

24:1w9

0.2

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.1

0.1

±

0.1

0.4

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.1

∑MUFA

22.0

±

7.9

23.2

±

10.0

15.5

±

10.0

36.1

±

11.7

19.0

±

7.8

14.0

±

4.8

13.8

±

7.7

18:2w6

12.3

±

5.8

5.7

±

1.9

2.9

±

0.7

3.7

±

0.5

5.1

±

2.1

6.3

±

3.3

2.9

±

0.9

18:3w3

2.1

±

2.4

2.0

±

1.2

4.1

±

1.6

1.6

±

0.1

1.3

±

0.7

1.7

±

0.9

6.6

±

3.4

18:4w3

0.2

±

0.1

0.2

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.2

0.2

±

0.0

0.2

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.6

±

0.6

20:3w6

1.1

±

0.3

0.6

±

0.1

0.5

±

0.1

0.7

±

0.2

0.8

±

0.1

0.8

±

0.5

0.5

±

0.1

20:4w6

12.8

±

4.9

8.8

±

4.1

9.8

±

4.0

4.9

±

2.7

9.8

±

3.2

15.1

±

0.7

8.3

±

4.4

20:3w3

0.3

±

0.2

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.1

0.3

±

0.2

0.4

±

0.2

0.4

±

0.1

20:5w3

3.9

±

1.8

3.1

±

1.5

7.3

±

1.7

2.2

±

0.9

1.4

±

0.5

4.7

±

0.8

8.0

±

2.9

22:5w3

2.1

±

0.9

3.5

±

1.8

1.4

±

0.4

1.9

±

0.7

2.6

±

0.7

2.4

±

0.2

1.4

±

0.6

22:6w3

10.5

±

5.0

11.4

±

6.4

16.2

±

8.6

9.3

±

7.8

21.4

±

6.3

18.0

±

5.7

14.1

±

7.7

∑PUFA

47.2

±

6.8

39.9

±

10.1

45.8

±

13.2

26.5

±

13.2

46.1

±

6.9

51.8

±

4.6

47.1

±

10.4

w3:w6

0.7

±

0.3

1.2

±

0.6

2.1

±

0.4

1.5

±

0.4

1.6

±

0.6

1.2

±

0.4

2.4

±

0.7

 

Table B7. Regression relationships between individual PUFA (% fatty acid) and proportion of the diet derived from aquatic sources for insects, crustaceans and fishes in waterholes of the Border Rivers system, Queensland, Australia. Coefficients (B) are indicated for significant regressions.

PUFA

Taxon

n

r²

B

F

p

ALA

herbivorous insects

44

0.02

 

0.65

0.423

ALA

predatory insects

32

0.05

 

1.88

0.179

EPA

herbivorous insects

44

0.10

0.13

4.85

0.033

EPA

predatory insects

32

0.28

0.31

13.01

0.001

DHA

herbivorous insects

44

0.01

 

0.23

0.631

DHA

predatory insects

32

0.17

0.05

6.72

0.014

 

LIN

herbivorous insects

44

0.01

 

0.37

0.547

LIN

predatory insects

32

0.15

–0.26

6.03

0.020

ARA

herbivorous insects

44

0.01

 

0.38

0.540

ARA

predatory insects

32

0.01

 

0.34

0.565

 

ALA

prawns

28

0.30

0.07

12.18

0.002

EPA

prawns

28

0.02

 

0.67

0.419

DHA

prawns

28

0.23

0.12

8.78

0.006

 

LIN

prawns

28

0.11

 

3.50

0.071

ARA

prawns

28

0.25

-0.26

9.88

0.004

 

ALA

fishes

128

0.22

0.10

35.27

<0.001

EPA

fishes

128

0.32

0.17

59.14

<0.001

DHA

fishes

128

0.12

0.24

17.01

<0.001

 

LIN

fishes

128

0.31

-0.27

58.43

<0.001

ARA

fishes

128

<0.01

 

0.41

0.525

 

Literature cited

Goedkoop, W., L. Sonesten, G. Ahlgren, and M. Boberg. 2000. Fatty acids in profundal invertebrates and their major food resources in Lake Erken, Sweden: seasonal variation and trophic interactions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:2267–2279.

Hebert, C. E., D. V. C. Weseloh, A. Idrissi, M. T. Arts, R. O'Gorman, O. T. Gorman, B. Locke, C. P. Madenjian, and E. F. Roseman. 2008. Restoring piscivorous fish populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes causes seabird dietary change. Ecology 89:891–897.

Jardine. T. D., K. A. Kidd, J. T. Polhemus, and R. A. Cunjak. 2008. An elemental and stable isotope assessment of water strider feeding ecology and lipid dynamics: synthesis of lab and field studies. Freshwater Biology 53:2192–2205.

Kainz, M., M. Lucotte, and C. C. Parrish. 2002. Methyl mercury in zooplankton – the role of size, habitat, and food quality. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 59:1606–1615.

Lau, D. C. P., T. Vrede, J. Pickova, and W. Goedkoop. 2012. Fatty acid composition of consumers in boreal lakes – variation across species, space and time. Freshwater Biology 57:24–38.

Lau, D. C. P., W. Goedkoop, and T. Vrede. 2013. Cross-ecosystem differences in lipid composition and growth limitation of a benthic generalist consumer. Limnology and Oceanography 58:1149–1164.

Napolitano, G. E. 1999. Fatty acids as trophic and chemical markers in freshwater ecosystems Pages 21–37 in M. T. Arts and B. C. Wainman, editors. Lipids in freshwater ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, USA.

Sushchik, N. N., M. I. Gladyshev, E. A. Ivanova, and E. S. Kravchuk. 2010. Seasonal distribution and fatty acid composition of littoral microalgae in the Yenisei River. Journal of Applied Phycology 22:11–24.


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