Ecological Archives E096-249-A1

Andrew J. Larson, James A. Lutz, Daniel C. Donato, James A. Freund, Mark E. Swanson, Janneke Hillerislambers, Douglas G. Sprugel, and Jerry F. Franklin. 2015. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests. Ecology 96:28552861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/15-0628.1

Appendix A. Structure, composition, mortality rates, and statistical tests for individual plots.

Table A1. Initial and final stand density and species composition for the study plots.

 

Trees

 

Density (trees/ha)

 

Basal area (m²/ha)

 

Initial sample

Final sample

 

Initial sample

Final sample

 

Initial sample

Final sample

Young forest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A1

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

196

66

 

54,444

18,333

 

33.9

124.7

   Abies amabilis

195

65

 

54,167

18,056

 

33.6

123.9

   Tsuga heterophylla

1

1

 

278

278

 

0.4

0.8

A2

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

413

91

 

114,722

25,278

 

48.2

151.8

   Abies amabilis

413

91

 

114,722

25,278

 

48.2

151.8

A3

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

624

153

 

173,333

42,500

 

43.2

138.6

   Abies amabilis

624

153

 

173,333

42,500

 

43.2

138.6

A5

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

531

107

 

147,500

29,722

 

42.8

117.8

   Abies amabilis

531

107

 

147,500

29,722

 

42.8

117.8

A8

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

516

124

 

143,333

34,444

 

56.6

140.3

   Abies amabilis

511

120

 

141,944

33,333

 

52.9

110.3

   Tsuga heterophylla

5

4

 

1,389

1,111

 

3.7

30.0

C2

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

540

61

 

150,000

16,944

 

49.8

120.7

   Abies amabilis

539

60

 

149,722

16,667

 

49.6

118.2

   Tsuga heterophylla

1

1

 

278

278

 

0.2

2.5

C4

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

277

95

 

76,944

26,389

 

64.7

167.1

   Abies amabilis

274

93

 

76,111

25,833

 

62.1

161.3

   Thuja plicata

2

1

 

556

278

 

2.1

4.7

   Abies procera

1

1

 

278

278

 

0.5

1.0

C6

1978

2009

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

310

101

 

86,111

28,056

 

41.6

149.2

   Abies amabilis

308

100

 

85,556

27,778

 

40.6

139.9

   Tsuga heterophylla

2

1

 

556

278

 

1.1

9.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Old forests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AV02

1977

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

334

277

 

334

277

 

72.3

70.4

   Abies amabilis

216

175

 

216

175

 

30.1

28.7

   Tsuga heterophylla

109

94

 

109

94

 

33.7

34.0

   Thuja plicata

5

5

 

5

5

 

3.6

4.0

   Pseudotsuga menziesii

4

3

 

4

3

 

4.9

3.7

AO03

1977

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

246

201

 

246

201

 

96.7

98.4

   Abies amabilis

162

128

 

162

128

 

37.4

35.8

   Tsuga heterophylla

72

62

 

72

62

 

22.3

25.0

   Thuja plicata

9

8

 

9

8

 

26.7

26.2

   Pseudotsuga menziesii

3

3

 

3

3

 

10.3

11.5

AG05

1978

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

421

348

 

421

348

 

79.3

81.8

   Abies amabilis

200

148

 

200

148

 

28.6

25.1

   Thuja plicata

99

95

 

99

95

 

22.1

26.3

   Tsuga heterophylla

81

68

 

81

68

 

7.0

7.0

   Taxus brevifolia

22

18

 

22

18

 

0.7

0.7

   Pseudotsuga menziesii

19

19

 

19

19

 

20.9

22.8

AV06

1978

2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

434

338

 

434

338

 

45.0

46.8

   Abies amabilis

271

200

 

271

200

 

21.2

20.9

   Tsuga heterophylla

146

123

 

146

123

 

15.9

15.7

   Thuja plicata

6

6

 

6

6

 

2.0

2.6

   Pseudotsuga menziesii

6

6

 

6

6

 

6.5

7.1

   Cupressus nootkatensis

3

3

 

3

3

 

0.4

0.6

   Pinus monticola

2

0

 

2

0

 

0.1

0

AV14

1978

2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

250

195

 

250

195

 

69.8

60.1

   Abies amabilis

132

94

 

132

94

 

33.7

27.9

   Tsuga heterophylla

113

98

 

113

98

 

26.4

26.7

   Cupressus nootkatensis

5

3

 

5

3

 

9.8

5.5

AM16

1978

2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

349

309

 

349

309

 

60.6

60.2

   Abies amabilis

148

133

 

148

133

 

12.1

13.2

   Cupressus nootkatensis

113

101

 

113

101

 

20.2

19.5

   Tsuga mertensiana

63

52

 

63

52

 

19.0

17.8

   Tsuga heterophylla

25

23

 

25

23

 

9.3

9.7

AR07

1978

2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

423

370

 

423

370

 

78.2

78.5

   Cupressus nootkatensis

158

142

 

158

142

 

19.8

21.3

   Abies amabilis

148

113

 

148

113

 

30.6

25.7

   Tsuga mertensiana

117

115

 

117

115

 

27.7

31.5

AE10

1978

2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

   All trees

616

553

 

616

553

 

92.6

98.2

   Cupressus nootkatensis

322

294

 

322

294

 

38.7

41.4

   Abies amabilis

281

250

 

281

250

 

48.3

51.3

   Tsuga mertensiana

6

6

 

6

6

 

2.3

2.6

   Abies lasiocarpa

5

1

 

5

1

 

1.0

0.4

   Abies procera

2

2

 

2

2

 

22.3

2.5

 

Table A2. Study duration in years and annualized tree mortality rates for each plot.

Young

 

Old-growth

Site

Duration (yr)

Mortality (% yr-1)

 

Site

Duration (yr)

Mortality (% yr-1)

   A1

31

3.48

 

   AV02

31

0.60

   A2

31

4.69

 

   AO03

31

0.65

   A3

31

3.85

 

   AG05

30

0.63

   A5

31

5.03

 

   AV06

29

0.86

   A8

31

4.53

 

   AV14

30

0.82

   C2

31

6.78

 

   AM16

29

0.42

   C4

31

3.33

 

   AR07

29

0.46

   C6

31

3.63

 

   AE10

29

0.37

Average

31

4.42

 

Average

29.8

0.60

 

Table A3. Results of Diggle-Cressie-Loosmore-Ford goodness-of-fit tests used to evaluate predictions1-3 listed in Table 1 for individual plots, each of which is based on n = 999 simulations of spatially random mortality (random labeling).

TableA3

1 Symbols - / 0 / + indicate dead trees are less, not different, or more aggregated (respectively) than expected.

2 Symbols - / 0 / + indicate initial neighborhoods of dying trees are less crowded, do not differ, or are more crowded than initial neighborhoods of surviving trees than expected.

3 Symbols - / 0 / + indicate surviving trees are more uniform, not different, or more aggregated than expected.

 

FigA1

Fig. A1. Stem maps for young plots showing tree locations at study initiation and status (live/dead) at the last census.


 

FigA2

Fig. A2. Stem maps for old-growth plots showing tree locations at study initiation and status (live/dead) at the last census.


 

FigA3

Fig. A3. Diameter distributions (at initial census) for individual young plots showing trees that died and survived during the study.


 

FigA4

Fig. A4. Diameter distributions (at initial census) for individual old-growth plots showing trees that died and survived during the study. The 110 cm dbh class includes all trees >105 cm dbh, up to the maximum tree dbh of 241.5 cm.


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