Ecological Archives E096-237-A1

Tom P. Bregman, Alexander C. Lees, Nathalie Seddon, Hannah E. A. Macgregor, Bianca Darski, Alexandre Aleixo, Michael B. Bonsall, and Joseph A. Tobias. 2015. Species interactions regulate the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem function in tropical forest fragments. Ecology 96:26922704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-1731.1

Appendix A. Table showing diet and trait variation across bird species identified in communities.

Table A1. Diet and trait (as Principal Components) variation across bird species identified in communities. Trait data are only calculated for frugivores and insectivores; other guilds are highlighted in gray. Trophic trait = second principal component (PC2) score for a composite of beak traits; locomotory trait = PC2 for a composite of traits associated with locomotion, including tarsus, wing and tail measurements; overall size = PC1 from a second PC analysis combining the PC1 scores for both trophic and locomotory traits (PC1 in each case is strongly associated with body size). All species are assigned to seven major guilds (1 = Insectivore, 2 = Frugivore, 3 = Granivore, 4 = Omnivore, 5 = Nectarivore, 6 = Carnivore, 7 = Scavenger).

Taxonomy follows Remsen et al. (2014)1


Species

Guild

Trophic trait

Locomotory trait

Overall size

Accipiter superciliosus

6

 

 

 

Amazilia versicolor

5

 

 

 

Amazona amazonica

2

0.5

0.2

-0.5

Amazona farinosa

3

 

 

 

Amazona kawalli

2

0.6

0.4

-0.8

Amazona ochrocephala

2

0.6

0.2

-0.7

Anabacerthia ruficaudatum

1

0

-0.2

0.5

Anabazenops dorsalis

1

0.1

0.2

-0.2

Ancistrops strigilatus

1

0

0.2

-0.1

Anthracothorax nigricollis

5

 

 

 

Ara ararauna

2

0.8

2.1

-3

Ara chloropterus

2

1.1

2

-3.6

Ara macao

2

1.1

2.4

-3.5

Ara severus

2

0.6

1

-1.2

Arremon taciturnus

1

-0.5

0.5

0.2

Attila cinnamomeus

1

-0.2

0.1

-0.2

Attila spadiceus

1

-0.1

0.4

0

Automolus ochrolaemus

1

0.3

0.1

0

Automolus paraensis

1

0.2

0.1

0.1

Automolus rufipileatus

1

0.2

0.1

-0.1

Baryphthengus martii

4

 

 

 

Berlepschia rikeri

1

0.7

-0.1

-0.1

Brotogeris chrysoptera

5

 

 

 

Bucco capensis

4

 

 

 

Buteo brachyurus

6

 

 

 

Buteo nitidus

6

 

 

 

Cacicus cela

4

 

 

 

Cacicus haemorrhous

4

 

 

 

Calliphlox amethystina

5

 

 

 

Campephilus melanoleucos

1

0.5

0.5

-3.2

Campephilus rubricollis

1

0.8

0.8

-2.9

Camptostoma obsoletum

1

0

-0.3

1.7

Campylopterus largipennis

5

 

 

 

Campylorhamphus procurvoides

1

4.2

-0.4

-0.9

Campylorhynchus turdinus

1

0.6

0.4

0

Cantorchilus leucotis

1

0.5

0.6

0.9

Capito dayi

2

0

-0.2

0.6

Capsiempis flaveola

1

-0.2

-0.2

1.4

Caracara plancus

7

 

 

 

Cathartes melambrotus

7

 

 

 

Celeus elegans

1

0.2

-0.2

-1.6

Celeus grammicus

1

0

-0.2

-0.4

Celeus torquatus

1

0.8

-0.2

-1.4

Ceratopipra rubrocapilla

2

-0.1

0

1.1

Cercomacra cinerascens

1

0

0

0.6

Cercomacra manu

1

-0.1

0.2

0.4

Cercomacra nigrescens

1

0

0.5

0.5

Certhiasomus stictolaemus

1

0.3

-0.3

0.4

Chamaeza nobilis

1

-0.3

2.2

-0.9

Chelidoptera tenebrosa

1

0.1

-0.7

0.4

Chiroxiphia pareola

2

0

-0.2

1

Chlorophanes spiza

2

-0.2

-0.1

1

Cissopis leverianus

2

0.1

0

0.4

Claravis pretiosa

3

 

 

 

Coccycua minuta

1

0

-0.7

-0.7

Coereba flaveola

5

 

 

 

Colonia colonus

1

-0.5

-2.2

0.3

Columbina talpacoti

3

 

 

 

Conopophaga aurita

1

-0.4

1.3

0.5

Coragyps atratus

7

 

 

 

Corythopis torquatus

1

-0.1

0.8

0.7

Cotinga cayana

2

-0.1

0

0.7

Cranioleuca gutturata

1

0.3

-0.3

1

Crax fasciolata

2

0.3

-1.2

-2

Crotophaga ani

1

-1.5

-0.1

-3.3

Crypturellus cinereus

4

 

 

 

Crypturellus obsoletus

4

 

 

 

Crypturellus soui

4

 

 

 

Crypturellus strigulosus

4

 

 

 

Crypturellus tataupa

1

0.1

1.6

-0.4

Crypturellus undulatus

2

-0.1

-0.9

0.2

Crypturellus variegatus

4

 

 

 

Cyanerpes caeruleus

5

 

 

 

Cyanerpes nitidus

4

 

 

 

Cyanocompsa cyanoides

3

 

 

 

Cyclarhis gujanensis

1

-0.5

0.4

0.1

Cymbilaimus lineatus

1

-0.7

0.5

-0.6

Cyphorhinus arada

1

0.3

0.8

0.8

Dacnis cayana

2

-0.1

0

1.1

Dacnis flaviventer

2

-0.2

0

1.1

Dacnis lineata

2

-0.1

0

1.1

Daptrius ater

7

 

 

 

Deconychura longicauda

1

0.4

-0.3

-0.3

Dendrexetastes rufigula

1

0.1

-0.2

-1.2

Dendrocincla fuliginosa

1

0.4

0

-0.7

Dendrocincla merula

1

0.4

0.1

-0.2

Dendrocolaptes certhia

1

0.7

-0.1

-1.8

Dendrocolaptes picumnus

1

0.8

0

-1.9

Dendroplex picus

1

1

-0.2

-0.3

Deroptyus accipitrinus

2

0.6

0.5

-0.7

Discosura langsdorffi

5

 

 

 

Dromococcyx pavoninus

1

0.4

-0.7

-1

Dromococcyx phasianellus

1

0.3

-1.1

-1.7

Drymophila devillei

1

0

-0.2

1.1

Dryocopus lineatus

1

0.4

-0.2

-2.6

Electron platyrhynchum

1

-0.4

-2.2

-3

Empidonomus varius

1

-0.4

-0.7

0.4

Epinecrophylla leucophthalma

1

0.1

0

1.3

Epinecrophylla ornata

1

0

-0.1

1.3

Euphonia chlorotica

2

-0.1

-0.1

1.1

Euphonia chrysopasta

2

0

-0.1

1.1

Euphonia minuta

2

-0.1

0

1.2

Euphonia rufiventris

2

0

-0.1

1

Falco rufigularis

6

 

 

 

Falco sparverius

1

-1.2

0.4

-2

Florisuga mellivora

5

 

 

 

Formicarius analis

1

0

1.5

-0.1

Formicarius colma

1

0

1.3

0.1

Forpus modestus

3

 

 

 

Galbula cyanicollis

1

2.2

-1

-0.2

Galbula dea

1

3.4

-2.1

-1.5

Galbula ruficauda

1

3.4

-1.4

-0.7

Geotrygon montana

3

 

 

 

Geotrygon violacea

3

 

 

 

Geranospiza caerulescens

6

 

 

 

Glaucis hirsutus

5

 

 

 

Glyphorynchus spirurus

1

0

-0.4

0.8

Grallaria varia

1

-0.3

3.6

-1.7

Granatellus pelzelni

1

-0.2

-0.1

1.1

Gymnoderus foetidus

2

0

0

0

Habia rubica

1

-0.6

0

-0.2

Harpagus bidentatus

1

-1.7

0.8

-3.4

Heliomaster longirostris

5

 

 

 

Heliothryx auritus

5

 

 

 

Hemithraupis flavicollis

1

-0.2

-0.4

1.1

Hemitriccus griseipectus

1

-0.1

-0.3

1.4

Hemitriccus minor

1

0

-0.1

1.5

Herpetotheres cachinnans

6

 

 

 

Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus

1

0

0.1

1.2

Hylexetastes perrotii

1

0.3

0.5

-2

Hylocharis cyanus

5

 

 

 

Hyloctistes subulatus

1

0.5

0

0.4

Hylopezus berlepschi

1

0

2.6

-0.2

Hylopezus whittakeri

1

0

2.2

-0.1

Hylophilus hypoxanthus

1

0.1

-0.2

1.3

Hylophilus ochraceiceps

1

0

0

1.3

Hylophilus semicinereus

1

0

0.1

1.2

Hylophylax naevius

1

-0.1

0.4

1

Hypocnemis striata

1

0

0.3

1

Hypocnemoides maculicauda

1

0.2

0.4

1.1

Ibycter americanus

1

-1.2

0.1

-6.2

Icterus cayanensis

5

 

 

 

Ictinia plumbea

1

-1.5

0

-3.4

Jacamerops aureus

1

0.9

-1.7

-2.4

Lamprospiza melanoleuca

2

0

-0.1

0.7

Lanio versicolor

1

-0.2

-0.6

0.7

Laniocera hypopyrra

1

-0.3

-0.3

-0.1

Lathrotriccus euleri

1

-0.3

-0.3

1.1

Legatus leucophaius

2

-0.1

0.1

0.9

Lepidocolaptes albolineatus

1

1

-0.6

0.2

Lepidothrix nattereri

2

-0.1

0

1.2

Leptodon cayanensis

1

-1.2

-0.7

-4.9

Leptopogon amaurocephalus

1

0

-0.5

1.2

Leptotila rufaxilla

3

 

 

 

Leptotila verreauxi

3

 

 

 

Leucopternis kuhli

6

 

 

 

Lipaugus vociferans

2

-0.1

0.1

0.5

Lophotriccus galeatus

1

-0.1

-0.1

1.6

Machaeropterus pyrocephalus

2

-0.1

-0.1

1.2

Malacoptila rufa

1

0

-0.2

-0.4

Manacus manacus

2

-0.1

-0.2

1.1

Megarynchus pitangua

1

-0.8

-0.5

-1.7

Melanerpes cruentatus

4

 

 

 

Micrastur mintoni

6

 

 

 

Micrastur mirandollei

6

 

 

 

Micrastur ruficollis

6

 

 

 

Micrastur semitorquatus

6

 

 

 

Microcerculus marginatus

1

0.4

0.9

1.1

Microrhopias quixensis

1

0.1

-0.1

1.1

Mionectes oleagineus

2

-0.1

0

1.1

Mitu mitu

2

0.6

-1.5

-3.1

Molothrus oryzivorus

4

 

 

 

Momotus momota

1

0.3

-1.9

-3.2

Monasa morphoeus

1

0

-0.9

-1.6

Monasa nigrifrons

1

0.1

-0.8

-2

Myiarchus ferox

1

-0.4

-0.2

-0.2

Myiarchus tuberculifer

1

-0.3

-0.2

0.1

Myiarchus tyrannulus

1

-0.4

-0.1

-0.3

Myiopagis caniceps

1

-0.1

-0.1

1.3

Myiopagis gaimardii

1

-0.2

0

1.2

Myiornis ecaudatus

1

0

-0.2

2

Myiozetetes cayanensis

1

-0.3

-0.3

0.5

Myiozetetes luteiventris

1

-0.3

-0.6

0.9

Myrmeciza atrothorax

1

0

0.8

0.8

Myrmeciza hemimelaena

1

0

0.8

1

Myrmoborus leucophrys

1

0

0.8

0.7

Myrmoborus myotherinus

1

0

0.9

0.8

Myrmothera campanisona

1

0

2.8

-0.3

Myrmotherula axillaris

1

0.2

0

1.5

Myrmotherula brachyura

1

0.2

0.3

1.6

Myrmotherula hauxwelli

1

0.1

0.6

1.4

Myrmotherula longipennis

1

-0.2

0

1.1

Myrmotherula menetriesii

1

0.1

0

1.4

Myrmotherula sclateri

1

0.2

0.2

1.6

Nonnula ruficapilla

1

-0.1

-0.6

0.6

Notharchus hyperrynchus

1

-0.8

-0.4

-2.3

Notharchus ordii

1

-0.5

-0.6

-1

Notharchus tectus

1

-0.6

-0.6

-0.2

Nystalus striolatus

1

-0.1

-0.3

-1

Odontophorus gujanensis

2

0.1

-0.6

0.3

Odontorchilus cinereus

1

0.3

-0.1

1.4

Onychorhynchus coronatus

1

-0.2

-0.4

0.5

Ornithion inerme

1

-0.1

-0.3

1.8

Orthopsittaca manilata

2

0.6

0.8

-0.9

Pachyramphus castaneus

1

-0.4

0

0.6

Pachyramphus marginatus

1

-0.5

0.1

0.5

Pachyramphus minor

1

-0.8

0

-0.3

Pachyramphus polychopterus

1

-0.5

-0.1

0.4

Parkerthraustes humeralis

1

-1.1

0.1

-0.6

Patagioenas cayennensis

2

-0.2

0.1

0.4

Patagioenas picazuro

2

-0.2

0.1

0.1

Patagioenas plumbea

2

-0.2

0.3

0.3

Patagioenas speciosa

2

-0.2

0.1

0.4

Patagioenas subvinacea

2

-0.2

0.2

0.5

Penelope jacquacu

2

0

-0.6

-1.3

Phaethornis bourcieri

5

 

 

 

Phaethornis hispidus

5

 

 

 

Phaethornis ruber

5

 

 

 

Phaethornis superciliosus

5

 

 

 

Pheugopedius genibarbis

1

0.2

0.5

0.7

Philydor erythrocercum

1

0

-0.1

0.3

Philydor erythropterum

1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Philydor pyrrhodes

1

0.1

0.1

0.4

Phlegopsis nigromaculata

1

0

1.2

0.1

Piaya cayana

1

-0.5

-1.6

-3.1

Piaya melanogaster

1

-0.3

-0.6

-2.6

Piculus chrysochloros

1

0.2

-0.1

-0.6

Piculus flavigula

1

0

-0.3

-0.1

Picumnus aurifrons

1

0

-0.2

1.5

Pionites leucogaster

2

0.3

0.2

0.1

Pionus menstruus

2

0.4

0.2

-0.1

Pipile cujubi

2

0

-0.2

-1.2

Pipra fasciicauda

2

-0.1

-0.1

1.1

Piprites chloris

1

-0.4

-0.1

1

Pitangus lictor

1

0.4

-0.3

0.2

Pitangus sulphuratus

4

 

 

 

Platyrinchus platyrhynchos

1

-1.1

-0.3

0.9

Platyrinchus saturatus

1

-0.9

0.2

1

Poecilotriccus latirostris

1

-0.1

0.3

1.3

Psarocolius bifasciatus

4

 

 

 

Psarocolius decumanus

4

 

 

 

Psittacara leucophthalmus

2

0.5

0.6

-0.3

Psophia viridis

2

-0.1

-3.3

-1.2

Pteroglossus beauharnaesii

2

-0.9

0

-1.3

Pteroglossus bitorquatus

2

-0.6

-0.1

-0.8

Pteroglossus castanotis

2

-1.2

-0.1

-1.5

Pteroglossus inscriptus

2

-0.5

-0.1

-0.6

Pygiptila stellaris

1

-0.2

0.3

0.2

Pyriglena leuconota

1

0

1.2

0.1

Pyrrhura amazonum

2

0.3

0.5

0.3

Pyrrhura perlata

2

0.2

0.5

0.3

Ramphastos tucanus

2

-1.7

-0.5

-3

Ramphastos vitellinus

2

-1.1

-0.4

-2.1

Ramphocaenus melanurus

1

1.1

0.4

1.2

Ramphocelus carbo

2

0

-0.1

0.7

Ramphotrigon fuscicauda

1

-0.3

-0.4

0.4

Ramphotrigon megacephalum

1

-0.4

-0.3

0.9

Ramphotrigon ruficauda

1

-0.5

-0.5

0.5

Rhegmatorhina gymnops

1

0.1

1

0.4

Rhytipterna simplex

1

-0.3

-0.3

-0.2

Rupornis magnirostris

6

 

 

 

Sakesphorus luctuosus

1

0

0.3

0

Saltator coerulescens

1

-1

0.1

-1.1

Saltator grossus

4

 

 

 

Saltator maximus

4

 

 

 

Schiffornis turdina

1

-0.3

0.2

0.3

Sclerurus albigularis

1

0.6

0.2

0.4

Sclerurus caudacutus

1

0.6

0.2

0.3

Sclerurus mexicanus

1

1

0.3

0.5

Sclerurus rufigularis

1

0.5

0.2

0.7

Selenidera gouldii

2

-0.3

-0.2

-0.6

Sittasomus griseicapillus

1

0.2

-0.5

0.7

Spizaetus ornatus

6

 

 

 

Spizaetus tyrannus

6

 

 

 

Sublegatus modestus

1

-0.3

-0.2

1.2

Synallaxis cherriei

1

0.1

-0.1

1.1

Synallaxis rutilans

1

0.1

-0.1

0.9

Syndactyla ucayalae

1

0.2

0.4

-0.5

Tachyphonus cristatus

1

-0.3

-0.1

0.3

Tachyphonus luctuosus

1

-0.3

-0.3

0.9

Tangara chilensis

2

-0.1

0

1

Tangara cyanicollis

2

-0.1

-0.1

1

Tangara gyrola

2

-0.1

0

1

Tangara nigrocincta

2

0

0

1

Tangara schrankii

2

-0.1

-0.1

1

Tangara velia

2

-0.1

0

1

Taraba major

1

-0.3

1.4

-1

Terenotriccus erythrurus

1

-0.2

-0.1

1.7

Thalurania furcata

5

 

 

 

Thamnomanes caesius

1

-0.2

-0.2

0.6

Thamnomanes saturninus

1

-0.2

0.1

0.6

Thamnophilus aethiops

1

-0.2

0.2

0.4

Thamnophilus amazonicus

1

-0.2

0.1

0.5

Thamnophilus palliatus

1

-0.3

0.3

0.2

Thamnophilus schistaceus

1

-0.1

0.2

0.6

Thamnophilus stictocephalus

1

-0.2

0.1

0.4

Thraupis episcopus

2

0

-0.1

0.7

Thraupis palmarum

2

-0.1

-0.1

0.8

Threnetes leucurus

5

 

 

 

Tinamus major

2

-0.1

-1.3

-0.2

Tinamus tao

4

 

 

 

Tityra inquisitor

1

-1

0

-1.1

Tityra semifasciata

1

-0.9

0.5

-1.3

Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum

1

-0.2

0.1

1.3

Tolmomyias assimilis

1

-0.5

0

0.8

Tolmomyias flaviventris

1

-0.5

-0.1

1.1

Tolmomyias poliocephalus

1

-0.4

-0.2

1.2

Touit huetii

2

0.1

0.2

0.6

Troglodytes aedon

1

0.4

0.2

1.4

Trogon collaris

1

-0.9

-1.7

-0.4

Trogon curucui

4

 

 

 

Trogon melanurus

4

 

 

 

Trogon ramonianus

4

 

 

 

Trogon rufus

1

-1.3

-2

-0.8

Trogon viridis

4

 

 

 

Turdus albicollis

4

 

 

 

Turdus hauxwelli

4

 

 

 

Turdus lawrencii

1

-0.1

0.2

-0.4

Tyranneutes stolzmanni

1

-0.2

-0.3

1.8

Tyrannopsis sulphurea

1

-0.5

-0.1

-0.4

Tyrannulus elatus

2

-0.1

0

1.2

Tyrannus albogularis

1

-0.3

-0.7

-0.5

Tyrannus melancholicus

1

-0.5

-0.8

-0.6

Tyrannus savana

1

-0.3

-2.2

-0.6

Veniliornis affinis

1

0.5

-0.2

-0.6

Vireo olivaceus

1

0

-0.1

1

Vireolanius leucotis

1

-0.2

0.4

0.5

Volatinia jacarina

3

 

 

 

Willisornis poecilinotus/vidua

1

0

0.7

0.8

Xenops minutus

1

0.2

-0.4

1.2

Xenops tenuirostris

1

0.2

-0.4

1.5

Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus

1

1.6

1.3

-1.9

Xiphorhynchus spixi/elegans

1

0.9

0

-0.4

Xiphorhynchus guttatus

1

1.3

-0.1

-1.2

Xiphorhynchus obsoletus

1

0.7

-0.1

-0.1

Zimmerius gracilipes

2

-0.1

-0.1

1.2

1Remsen, J. V., Jr., C. D. Cadena, A. Jaramillo, M. Nores, J. F. Pacheco, J. Pérez-Emán, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. 2014. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithologists' Union. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html. Downloaded July 2014.


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