Ecological Archives E096-225-A1

Joleah B. Lamb, David H. Williamson, Garry P. Russ, and Bette L. Willis. 2015. Protected areas mitigate diseases of reef-building corals by reducing damage from fishing. Ecology 96:25552567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-1952.1

Appendix A. Additional tables, methods, and results.

Table A1. Permitted and restricted activities in three management zones surveyed in this study. Additional information available from www.gbrmpa.gov.au

Activity

Marine National Park
MNP

Habitat Protection
HP

Conservation Park
CP

Line fishing

No

Yes

Limited a

Boating, diving, photography

Yes

Yes

Yes

Crabbing (trapping)

No

Yes

Limited b

Harvest fishing for aquarium fish, coral and beachworm

No

Permit

Permit

Harvest fishing for sea cucumber, trochus, tropical rock lobster

No

Permit

No

Limited collecting

No

Yes

Yes

Limited impact research (non-extractive)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Limited spearfishing (snorkel only)

No

Yes

Yes

Bait netting

No

Yes

Yes

Netting (other than bait netting)

No

Yes

No

Research (other than non-extractive)

Permit

Permit

Permit

Shipping (other than a designated shipping area)

Permit

Permit

Permit

Tourism program

Permit

Permit

Permit

Traditional use of marine resources

Permit

Permit

Permit

Trawling

No

No

No

Trolling

No

Yes c

Yes c

a  One hand-held rod or one hand-held line per person, with no more than one hook attached

b Four crab pots or collapsible traps

c No more than three lines per person and up to six hooks combined total per person

 

Table A2. Fish species categorised into functional and taxonomic groups according to targeted fishery status in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.

Family

Species

Functional Group

Fishery status

Acanthuridae

Acanthurus blochii

Detritivore

Non-target

Acanthurus dussumieri

Detritivore

Non-target

Acanthurus grammoptilus

Detritivore

Non-target

Acanthurus lineatus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Acanthurus nigricauda

Detritivore

Non-target

Acanthurus nigrofuscus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Acanthurus xanthopterus

Detritivore

Non-target

Ctenochaetus binotatus

Detritivore

Non-target

Ctenochaetus striatus

Detritivore

Non-target

Naso annulatus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Naso brevirostris

Algal cropper

Non-target

Naso lituratus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Naso tuberosus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Naso unicornis

Algal cropper

Non-target

Prionurus microlepidotus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Zebrasoma scopas

Algal cropper

Non-target

Zebrasoma veliferum

Algal cropper

Non-target

Chaetodontidae

Chaetodon aureofasciatus

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon auriga

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon baronessa

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon citrinellus

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon flavirostris

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon lineolatus

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon lunula

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon lunulatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Chaetodon melannotus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Chaetodon ornatissimus

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon plebeius

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon rafflesi

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon rainfordi

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon speculum

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon trifascialis

Corallivore

Non-target

Chaetodon ulietensis

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Chaetodon vagabundus

Corallivore

Non-target

Chelmon rostratus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Coradion altivelis

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Coradion chrysostomus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Heniochus acuminatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Heniochus monoceros

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Heniochus varius

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Parachaetodon ocellatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Ephippidae

Platax orbicularis

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Platax teira

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Platax pinnatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Platax teira

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Haemulidae

Diagramma pictum

Large predator

Secondary Target

Plectorhinchus chaetodontoides

Large predator

Secondary Target

Plectorhinchus flavomaculatus

Large predator

Secondary Target

Plectorhinchus gibbosus

Large predator

Secondary Target

Plectorhinchus lessonii

Large predator

Secondary Target

Plectorhinchus unicolor

Large predator

Secondary Target

Kyphosidae

Kyphosus spp.

Algal cropper

Non-target

Microcanthus strigatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Labridae

Anampses geographicus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Anampses neoguinaicus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Bodianus axillaris

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Bodianus loxozonus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Bodianus mesothorax

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Cheilinus chlorurus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Cheilinus fasciatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Cheilinus trilobatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Cheilinus undulatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Choerodon anchorago

Benthic carnivore

Secondary target

Choerodon cyanodus

Benthic carnivore

Secondary target

Choerodon fasciatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Choerodon graphicus

Benthic carnivore

Secondary target

Choerodon monostigma

Benthic carnivore

Secondary target

Choerodon schoenleinii

Benthic carnivore

Secondary target

Choerodon vitta

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Epibulus insidiator

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Gomphosus varius

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Halichoeres melanurus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Hemigymnus fasciatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Hemigymnus melapterus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Labrichthys unilineatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Labroides bicolor

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Labroides dimidiatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Labropsis australis

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Oxycheilinus diagramma

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Psuedolabrus guentheri

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Stethojulis bandanensis

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Stethojulis strigiventer

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Thalassoma hardwicke

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Thalassoma jansenii

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Thalassoma lunare

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Thalassoma lutescens

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Lethrinidae

Gymnocranius spp.

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lethrinus atkinsoni

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lethrinus laticaudis

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lethrinus lentjan

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lethrinus miniatus

Intermediate predator

Primary target

Lethrinus nebulosus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lethrinus obsoletus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lethrinus ornatus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Monotaxis grandoculis.

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanidae

Lutjanus argentimaculatus

Large predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus carponotatus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus fulviflamma

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus fulvus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus lemniscatus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus lutjanus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus monostigma

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus quinquelineatus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus russelli

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Lutjanus sebae

Intermediate predator

Primary target

Lutjanus vitta

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Symphorus nematophorus

Large predator

Non-target

Mullidae

Parupeneus barberinus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Parupeneus bifasciatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Parupeneus ciliatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Parupeneus indicus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Muraenidae

Echidna nebulosa

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Gymnothorax favagineus

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Gymnothorax javanicus

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Gymnothorax meleagris

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Gymnothorax undulatus

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Gymnothorax javanicus

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Gymnothorax meleagris

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Nemipteridae

Scolopsis bilineatus

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Scolopsis margaritifer

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Scolopsis monogramma

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Pomacanthidae

Centropyge bicolor

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Centropyge bispinosus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Centropyge nox

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Centropyge tibicen

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Centropyge vrolikii

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Chaetodontoplus douboulayi

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Chaetodontoplus meredithi

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Pomacanthus imperator

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Pomacanthus semicirculatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Pomacanthus sexstriatus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Pomacanthus xanthometapon

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Pygoplites diacanthus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

Pomacentridae

Abudefduf bengalensis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Abudefduf sexfasciatus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Abudefduf vaigiensis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Abudefduf whitleyi

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Abudefduf sexfasciatus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Abudefduf vaigiensis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Abudefduf whitleyi

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Acanthochromis polyacanthus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amblyglyphidodon aureus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amblyglyphidodon curacao

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amphiprion akindynos

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amphiprion chrysopterus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amphiprion clarkia

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amphiprion melanopus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Amphiprion perideraion

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis amboinensis

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis atripectoralis

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis atripes

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis nitida

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis retrofasciatus

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis ternatensis

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chromis weberi

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chrysiptera rex

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chrysiptera rollandi

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Chrysiptera talboti

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Dascyllus aruanus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Dascyllus melanurus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Dascyllus trimaculatus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Dascyllus reticulatus

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Dischistodus melanotus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Dischistodus perspicillatus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Dischistodus prosopotaenia

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Hemiglyphidodon plagiometapon

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Neoglyphidodon melas

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Neoglyphidodon nigroris

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Plectroglyphidodon dickii

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus adelus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus amboinensis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus australis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus bankanensis

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus brachialis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus chrysurus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus coelestis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus lepidogenis

Planktivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus moluccensis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus nagasakiensis

Omnivorous pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus vaiuli

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Pomacentrus wardi

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Stegastes apicalis

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Stegastes fasciolatus

Territorial pomacentrid

Non-target

Scaridae

Bolbometapon muricatum

Excavating grazer

Non-target

Cetoscarus bicolor

Excavating grazer

Non-target

Chlorurus bleekeri

Excavating grazer

Non-target

Chlorurus microrhinus

Excavating grazer

Non-target

Chlorurus sordidus

Excavating grazer

Non-target

Hipposcarus longiceps

Excavating grazer

Non-target

Scarus altipinnis

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus chamaeleon

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus dimidiatus

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus flavipectoralis

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus frenatus

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus ghobban

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus globiceps

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus niger

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus psittacus

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus rivulatus

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus rubroviolaceus

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus schlegeli

Scraping scarid

Non-target

Scarus spinus

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Scarus tricolor

Scraping grazer

Non-target

Serranidae

Aethaloperca rogga

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Anyperodon leucogrammicus

Large predator

Secondary target

Cephalopholis boenak

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Cephalopholis cyanostigma

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Cephalopholis microprion

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Cromileptes altivelis

Large predator

Primary target

Diploprion bifasciatus

Intermediate predator

Non-target

Epinephelus caerulopunctatus

Large predator

Secondary target

Epinephelus fasciatus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Epinephelus fuscoguttatus

Large predator

Secondary target

Epinephelus lanceolatus

Large predator

Non-target

Epinephelus merra

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Epinephelus ongus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Epinephelus quoyanus

Intermediate predator

Secondary target

Plectropomus laevis

Large predator

Primary target

Plectropomus leopardus

Large predator

Primary target

Plectropomus maculatus

Large predator

Primary target

Siganidae

Siganus argenteus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus corallinus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus doliatus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus fuscescens

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus javus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus lineatus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus puellus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus punctatus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus spinus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Siganus vulpinus

Algal cropper

Non-target

Zanclidae

Zanclus cornutus

Benthic carnivore

Non-target

 

Table A3. Mean prevalencea of coral disease at sites within reserves and sites open to fishing, and results (F statistics) of univariate 3-level nested analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparing disease prevalence between sites differing in fishing status (fished vs protected), wave exposure (sheltered versus exposed) and among replicate sites nested within these two factors (all replicate site comparisons were significant; results not shown). n: denotes number of transects. Colonies surveyed = 80,866

Variable

Reserve
(n = 62)

 

Fished
(n = 60)

 

ANOVA

Mean ± SE prevalence

 

Mean ± SE prevalence

 

Exposure

Fishing status

Exposure × Fishing Status

Total disease

0.98 ± 0.15

4.05 ± 0.36

3.6 (ns)

43.4 (***)

< 0.01 (ns)

Skeletal eroding band

0.55 ± 0.09

2.34 ± 0.25

2.7 (ns)

35.0 (***)

0.2 (ns)

Brown band

0.14 ± 0.06

0.65 ± 0.09

0.4 (ns)

11.7 (**)

0.3 (ns)

Black band

  0.01 ± 0.007

0.16 ± 0.05

1.5 (ns)

2.3 (ns)

0.2 (ns)

White syndrome

0.24 ± 0.05

0.81 ± 0.08

4.0 (ns)

30.2 (***)

0.1 (ns)

Growth anomalies

0.02 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.02

1.3 (ns)

2.1 (ns)

0.03 (ns)

Atramentous necrosis

-

0.05 ± 0.02

0.03 (ns)

3.6 (ns)

0.2 (ns)

a Mean prevalence calculated as the percentage of colonies with disease for each disease type or as a percentage of the total number of diseased corals per transect. Analyses performed on data transformed to the square root. ***: P < 0.001; **: P <0.01; *: P < 0.05; ns: not significant

Table A4. Comparisons of included model variables between reserves (n = 63 transects) and fished locations (n = 60 transects). Results (F statistics) of a 2-level nested ANOVA comparing abundance or disease prevalence between reserve status (fished vs protected) and replicate sites (nested within reserve status).

 

Reserve Status

 

ANOVA

 

Variable

Reserve
mean ± SE

Fished
mean ± SE

 

Status

Site (Status)

Difference

(A) Coral Assemblages and cover

Coral density

740.3 ± 154.6

582.7 ± 145.8

0.1(ns)

9.6(***)

No

Coral genera diversity

Coral genera richness

2.4 ± 0.2

6.1 ± 0.3

2.6 ± 0.2

6.1 ± 0.2

1.3(ns)

0.6(ns)

1.9(**)

1.6(*)

No

No

Total coral cover

26.3 ± 1.9

26.5 ± 2.4

0.4(ns)

5.7(***)

No

   Acroporidae

5.3 ± 0.9

7.1 ± 0.9

1.1(ns)

3.4(***)

No

   Agaricidae

1.3 ± 0.3

1.6 ± 0.7

0.02(ns)

1.7(*)

No

   Faviidae

4.5 ± 0.8

3.7 ± 0.6

1.5(ns)

5.6(***)

No

   Fungidae

0.1 ± 0.05

0.1 ± 0.04

0.03(ns)

1.0(ns)

No

   Merulinidae

0.4 ± 0.1

0.9 ± 0.3

0.8(ns)

4.7(***)

No

   Mussidae

0.7 ± 0.2

0.5 ± 0.1

1.3(ns)

1.5(ns)

No

   Oculiniidae

1.0 ± 0.7

0.3 ± 0.07

0.5(ns)

2.6(***)

No

   Pectiniidae

1.0 ± 0.3

1.1 ± 0.3

0.5(ns)

5.4(***)

No

   Pocilloporidae

0.9 ± 0.2

0.9 ± 0.3

0.009(ns)

1.3(ns)

No

   Poritidae

10.4 ± 2.0

9.7 ± 2.5

0.002(ns)

8.2(***)

No

   Siderastreidae

0.2 ± 0.09

0.2 ± 0.1

0.3(ns)

1.1(ns)

No

   Other hard coral

0.4 ± 0.1

0.2 ± 0.1

2.4(ns)

3.1(***)

No

(B) Benthic characteristics and coral health

Sediment grain size

8.1 ± 0.5

6.9 ± 0.4

1.4(ns)

1.7(*)

No

Coral physical damage

0.9 ± 0.1

3.5 ± 0.9

8.2(**)

1.6(*)

Fished > Reserve

Sediment tissue death

2.2 ± 0.3

2.4 ± 0.3

0.8(ns)

3.6(***)

No

Derelict fishing line

2.1 ± 1.5

6.5 ± 1.8

6.8(**)

3.0(***)

Fished > Reserve

Site complexity

13.3 ± 0.6

    12.6 ± 0.7

0.2(ns)

7.6(***)

No

Macroalgae cover

2.5 ± 0.7

4.3 ± 1.3

1.9(ns)

5.4(***)

No

Coral Drupella scars

0.5 ± 0.2

0.9 ± 0.2

3.5(ns)

5.8(***)

No

Coral bleaching

0.6 ± 0.08

1.0 ± 0.2

5.0(*)

1.7(ns)

Fished > Reserve

(C) Fish assemblages and functional groups

Density of coral trout

2.7 ± 0.4

1.0 ± 0.2

13.2(***)

1.1(ns)

Reserve > Fished

Taxonomic diversity

71.9 ± 1.1

76.0 ± 0.9

5.1(*)

2.9(***)

Reserve > Fished

Total species

37.5 ± 0.9

37.1 ± 0.5

0.004(ns)

3.2(***)

No

Total individuals

281.8 ± 13.5

271.6 ± 16.2

0.2(ns)

4.2(***)

No

Algal croppers

6.8 ± 1.6

4.5 ± 0.5

1.0(ns)

2.1(ns)

No

Scraping grazers

17.9 ± 1.9

18.1 ± 2.8

0.05(ns)

3.7(ns)

No

Benthic carnivores

16.1 ± 1.0

19.1 ± 1.2

1.4(ns)

4.2(***)

No

Excavating grazers

1.5 ± 0.5

2.6 ± 0.6

3.4(ns)

1.1(ns)

No

Om. Pomacentrids

135.1 ± 8.9

144.1 ± 10.6

0.4(ns)

8.3(***)

No

Terr. Pomacentrids

11.3 ± 1.7

18.7 ± 1.8

3.6(ns)

6.4(***)

No

Plank. Pomacentrids

63.4 ± 7.1

31.4 ± 6.6

5.0(*)

3.4(***)

Reserve > Fished

Corallivores

7.1 ± 0.6

6.7 ± 0.5

0.05(ns)

3.6(***)

No

Dentrivores

2.0 ± 0.3

2.0 ± 0.3

0.03(ns)

1.7(*)

No

Other primary target pred.

2.4 ± 0.2

1.6 ± 0.3

3.7(ns)

1.3(ns)

No

Secondary target pred.

7.3 ± 2.2

11.4 ± 1.1

2.9(ns)

0.8(ns)

No

Non-target pred.

9.7 ± 0.5

11.5 ± 0.7

 

3.8(ns)

1.9(**)

No

Data square root transformed to meet assumptions of variance where necessary.

***: P < 0.001; **: P <0.01;  *: P < 0.05; ns: not significant.

 

Table A5. Results of distance-based multivariate linear model (DISTLM) for coral disease prevalence showing the proportion of variation explained by significant zoning, environmental and biological variables (P < 0.005).

Percentage variation explained by individual axes

Axis

% explained variation out of fitted model

% explained variation out of total variation

Individual

Cumulative

Individual

Cumulative

Protection Status

89.70

89.70

39.65

39.65

SedDeath

7.81

97.52

3.45

43.10

GrainSize

1.66

99.17

0.73

43.83

Damage

0.60

99.77

0.26

44.10

Fishing line

0.23

100.00

0.10

44.23

 

Table A6. Pearson correlations between reserve status or environmental variables and each of the two dbRDA axes.

Protection status

SedDeath

Grainsize

Damage

Fishing line

RDA1

-0.902

-0.007

-0.201

0.527

0.346

RDA2

0.034

0.856

0.487

-0.258

0.293

 

Table A7. Mean prevalence of six coral diseases in three management zones in the Whitsunday Island region (see Table 1). n = number of transects per management zone. SE = standard error of the mean, SEB = skeletal eroding band, WS = white syndromes, BBD = black band disease, BrB = brown band disease, GA = growth anomalies, and AtN = atramentous necrosis. Number of colonies surveyed = 80,866.

 

Reserves (60 transects)

 

Fished (33 transects)

 

Limited fishing (27 transects)

ANOVA

 

Prev ± SE

 

Prev ± SE

 

Prev ± SE

Zone

Site (Zone)

SEB

0.5 ± 0.1

 

1.5 ± 0.3

3.3 ± 0.3

35.2 (***)

32.1 (ns)

WS

0.2 ± 0.05

0.6 ± 0.1

1.0 ± 0.1

18.7 (***)

0.2 (ns)

BrB

0.1 ± 0.06

0.5 ± 0.2

0.9 ± 0.2

8.5 (***)

1.2 (ns)

BBD

0.01 ± 0.007

0.08 ± 0.03

0.3 ± 0.1

2.3 (ns)

1.3 (ns)

GA

0.02 ± 0.02

0.07 ± 0.03

0.03 ± 0.02

1.4 (ns)

1.2 (ns)

AtN

-

 

0.02 ± 0.02

 

0.1 ± 0.1

1.9 (ns)

0.8 (ns)

a Mean prevalence calculated as the percentage of colonies with disease for each management zone as a percentage of the total number of corals per transect. Analyses performed on data transformed to the square root. ***: P < 0.001; **: P <0.01; *: P < 0.05; ns: not significant.

Supplemental Methods

Sampling sediment and grain size classification

Each sediment core was sampled by driving a 60 ml plastic syringe with the end removed perpendicularly into the sediment in order to not disturb the layers. Replicate cores for each site were placed in a sterile 50 ml polypropylene tube until examined for grain size classification. Replicate sediment cores were classified into an incremental categorical scale ranging between 1 (very coarse) and 10 (very fine) by taking the mode of 5 measurements for each sample: (1) 1410–2000μm; (2) 1000–1410μm; (3) 710–1000μm; (4) 500–710μm; (5) 250–500μm; (6) 250–350μm; (7) 177–250μm; (8) 125–177μm; (9) 88-–125μm; and (10) 62–88μm.

 

Supplemental Results

Taxonomic comparisons of disease prevalence

Table A8. Mean taxonomic prevalencea of coral disease at sites within reserves (n = 63 transects) and sites open to fishing (n = 60 transects). N = number of surveyed colonies.

Coral disease prevalence (%)

Coral Family

N

SEB

WS

BrB

BBD

GA

AtN

Total

Fished

Acroporidae

4958

4.31

1.47

1.72

1.27

0.16

0.16

9.08

Agariciidae

790

0.45

0.54

0.14

1.30

-

-

2.44

Faviidae

2488

1.05

0.22

0.04

0.19

0.04

-

1.53

Fungiidae

214

-

-

-

-

0.15

-

0.15

Merulinidae

355

0.89

0.29

-

1.64

-

-

2.82

Mussidae

695

1.05

1.53

0.36

0.25

-

-

3.18

Oculiniidae

516

5.02

0.30

-

2.00

-

-

7.32

Pectiniidae

592

0.12

1.39

0.13

0.72

-

-

2.36

Pocilloporidae

1507

10.44

-

0.61

2.02

-

-

13.07

Poritidae

22507

0.45

1.56

0.19

0.27

-

-

2.47

Siderastreidae

89

0.69

0.25

0.03

0.26

0.01

-

1.24

Reserve

Acroporidae

4947

0.84

0.24

0.27

0.23

0.04

0.01

1.64

Agariciidae

1178

0.43

0.27

-

-

0.11

-

0.80

Faviidae

3669

0.16

0.03

-

-

-

-

0.18

Fungiidae

209

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Merulinidae

337

-

0.42

-

-

-

-

0.42

Mussidae

1024

0.12

0.64

-

0.18

-

-

0.93

Oculiniidae

432

1.92

0.40

-

0.73

-

-

3.04

Pectiniidae

737

0.29

0.52

-

0.31

-

-

1.12

Pocilloporidae

707

3.96

-

0.07

0.81

-

-

4.84

Poritidae

32383

0.16

0.58

-

0.03

-

-

0.77

Siderastreidae

73

 -

 -

1.56

 -

 -

1.56

a Mean taxonomic prevalence of disease was calculated as the percentage of colonies with disease for each disease type per coral family at the transect level (n = 3 transects per site).


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