Ecological Archives E096-221-A2

Karen A. Stahlheber, Kimberly L. Crispin, Cassidy Anton, and Carla M. D'Antonio. 2015. The ghosts of trees past: savanna trees create enduring legacies in plant species composition. Ecology 96:25102522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-2035.1

Appendix B. Additional results from analyses of the plant community.

Table B1. Similarity Percentage (SIMPER) analysis indicating species responsible for at least 70% of the difference between locations relative to the tree crown at Mesa (location main effect in PERMANOVA). Bolded species are more associated with the location also listed in bold in the comparison. The proportional contribution is given in parentheses following species name.

Comparison

Mesa 2008

Mesa 2009

Mesa 2010

Under vs.

Edge

Bromus diandrus (0.292)

Hordeum murinum (0.202)

Galium aparine (0.110)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.051)

Carduus pycnocephalus (0.048)

Bromus diandrus (0.288)

Hordeum murinum (0.233)

Galium aparine (0.089)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.071)

Avena spp. (0.042)

Bromus diandrus (0.252)

Hordeum murinum (0.182)

Avena spp. (0.155)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.117)

Under vs.

Open edge

Bromus diandrus (0.253)

Hordeum murinum (0.150)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.092)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.091)

Galium aparine (0.068)

Avena spp. (0.059)

Bromus diandrus (0.280)

Hordeum murinum (0.176)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.103)

Avena spp. (0.076)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.057)

Bromus diandrus (0.246)

Hordeum murinum (0.213)

Avena spp. (0.172)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.084)

Under vs.

Open

Bromus diandrus (0.231)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.182)

Hordeum murinum (0.120)

Stipa pulchra (0.066)

Galium aparine (0.056)

Avena spp. (0.037)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.031)

Bromus diandrus (.254)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.141)

Hordeum murinum (0.130)

Avena spp. (0.094)

Stipa pulchra (0.053)

Galium aparine (0.041)

Bromus diandrus (0.252)

Hordeum murinum (0.182)

Avena spp. (0.155)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.117)

Edge vs.

Open edge

Bromus diandrus (0.246)

Hordeum murinum (0.125)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.102)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.095)

Galium aparine (0.082)

Avena spp. (0.065)

Bromus diandrus (0.284)

Hordeum murinum (0.120)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.112)

Avena barbata (0.087)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.083)

Galium aparine (0.044)

Bromus diandrus (0.255)

Avena spp. (0.149)

Hordeum murinum (0.147)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.091)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.072)

Edge vs.

Open

Bromus diandrus (0.233)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.181)

Hordeum murinum (0.094)

Stipa pulchra (0.068)

Galium aparine (0.066)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.044)

Avena spp. (0.042)

Bromus diandrus (0.293)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.143)

Avena spp. (0.100)

Hordeum murinum (0.085)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.056)

Stipa pulchra (0.050)

Bromus diandrus (0.244)

Avena spp. (0.149)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.127)

Hordeum murinum (0.120)

Erodium cicutarium (0.052)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.044)

Open edge vs.

Open

Bromus diandrus (0.250)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.191)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.089)

Stipa pulchra (0.084)

Avena spp. (0.077)

Bromus madritensis (0.035)

Bromus diandrus (0.283)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.141)

Avena barbata (0.135)

Stipa pulchra (0.065)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.055)

Avena fatua (0.041)

Bromus diandrus (0.224)

Avena spp. (0.184)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.110)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.075)

Erodium cicutarium (0.067) Stipa pulchra (0.056)

 

Table B2. Similarity Percentage (SIMPER) analysis indicating species responsible for at least 70% of the difference between locations relative to the tree crown at Figueroa and Lisque (location main effect in PERMANOVA). Bolded species are more associated with the location also listed in bold in the comparison. The proportional contribution is given in parentheses following species name.

Comparison

Figueroa

Lisque

Under vs.

Edge

Bromus diandrus (0.570)

Galium aparine (0.118)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.083)

Bromus hordeaceus (.275)

Bromus diandrus (0.261)

Bromus madritensis (0.217)

Under vs.

Open

Bromus diandrus (0.414)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.188)

Avena spp. (0.128)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.246)

Bromus diandrus (0.182)

Bromus madritensis (0.178) Corethrogyne filaginifolia (0.086)

Festuca myuros (0.055)

Edge vs.

Open

Bromus diandrus (0.447)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.155)

Avena spp. (0.120)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.258)

Bromus diandrus (0.207)

Corethrogyne filaginifolia (0.108)

Festuca myuros (0.061)

Bromus madritensis (0.035) Croton setigerus (0.051)

 

 

Table B3. Species with significant positive association with a particular oak species, according to indicator species analysis. At Mesa, we have included a species if it was significant in at least one of the three years surveyed. Significance codes: *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, • p < 0.10 (after Sidak’s correction for multiple comparisons).

Oak Species

Figueroa

Lisque

Mesa

Q. agrifolia

N/A

N/A

Agoseris heterophylla**

Bromus carinatus

Bromus hordeacus*

Claytonia perfoliata

Crassula connata

Croton setigerus

Geranium molle*

Hordeum murinum*

Lomatium utriculatum

Plantago erecta

Sanicula bipinnata**

Silene gallica**

Torilis arvensis*

Viola pedunculata**

Q. douglasii

Hordeum murinum*

Centaurea melitensis*

N/A

Q. lobata

Bromus hordeacus

Quercus seedlings •

none

Bromus diandrus**

Erigeron foliosus

Medicago polymorpha

Trifolium ciliolatum**

 

Table B4. Similarity Percentage (SIMPER) analysis indicating species responsible for at least 70% of the differences between living oak species (species main effect in PERMANOVA). Bolded species are more associated with the location also listed in bold in the comparison. The proportional contribution is given in parentheses following species name.

Comparison

Mesa 2008

Mesa 2009

Mesa 2010

Q. agrifoliavs. Q. lobata

Bromus diandrus (0.288)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.119)

Hordeum murinum (0.113)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.063)

Galium aparine (0.061)

Avena spp. (0.052)

Stipa pulchra (0.043)

Bromus diandrus (0.287)

Hordeum murinum (0.122)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.110)

Avena spp. (0.099)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.055)

Galium aparine (0.042)

Bromus diandrus (0.252)

Hordeum murinum (0.167)

Avena spp. (0.155)

Bromus hordeaceus (0.083)

Amsinckia menziesii (0.059)

 

 

Fig. B1. NMDS of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix of survey plots showing all locations relative to the tree crown. Sites are indicated by different colors. Final stress of three-dimensional solution = 0.139 after 20 iterations.


 

 

Fig. B2. Simpson’s D (dominance index) values by site, species and year. For the two species of tree at Mesa, the different pattern fills represent the years (2008 – 2010 from left to right). Higher values of D indicate lower diversity.


 

 

Fig. B3. Species richness by site, species and year, where Simpson’s Index differed among locations relative to the crown. For the two species of tree at Mesa, the different pattern fills represent the years (2008 – 2010 from left to right).


 

 

Fig. B4. Mean native cover (± 1 SE) associated with location relative to the crown for Q. agrifolia and Q. lobata at Mesa. Data shown are from 2009, 2008 data are similar. Means and standard errors shown have been back-transformed from a logit-transformation used in a SLS linear model. Location (F3,76 = 4.65, p = 0.005) and species (F1,76 = 4.45, p = 0.04) effects are significant, but the interaction is not.


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