Ecological Archives E096-174-A1

Posy E. Busby, Louis J. Lamit, Arthur R. Keith, George Newcombe, Catherine A. Gehring, Thomas G. Whitham, and Rodolfo Dirzo. 2015. Genetics-based interactions among plants, pathogens, and herbivores define arthropod community structure. Ecology 96:16841694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-2031.1

Appendix A. Tables showing model results for pathogen and herbivore resistance, foliar arthropods encountered in surveys and their feeding habit, and model results showing pathogen effects on herbivores and predators/scavengers.

Table A1.Linear model results showing that resistance to the pathogen, both in terms of leaf biomass remaining and leaf area damaged, and herbivory (leaf area eaten by herbivores) varied among Populus species and hybrids, and among genotypes within species and hybrids. 

 

Full model

P. fremontii

P. x hinkleyana

P. angustifolia

Leaf biomass

df

F

p

df

F

p

df

F

p

df

F

p

Species (S)

2

27

<0.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treatment (T)

1

37

<0.001

1

0.51

0.48

1

13

<0.001

1

48

<0.001

S × T

2

3.3

0.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genotype (G)

13

28

<0.001

3

19

<0.001

3

62

<0.001

7

22

<0.001

G × T

13

1.5

0.13

3

0.37

0.77

3

2.4

0.076

7

2.4

0.025

Residuals

218

 

 

57

 

 

56

 

 

105

 

 

Leaf area damaged
(pathogen-inoculated plants)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Species

2

31

<0.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genotype

13

8.5

<0.001

3

7.8

<0.001

3

4.3

0.013

7

8.6

<0.001

Residuals

108

 

 

29

 

 

27

 

 

52

 

 

Herbivory
(control plants)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Species

2

18

<0.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genotype

13

3.4

<0.001

3

1.6

0.21

3

3.3

0.033

13

3.5

0.0038

Residuals

110

 

 

28

 

 

29

 

 

53

 

 

Herbivory
(pathogen-inoculated plants)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Species

2

11

<0.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genotype

13

0.76

0.7

3

0.49

0.69

3

0.14

0.94

7

1.2

0.34

Residuals

108

 

 

29

 

 

27

 

 

52

 

 

 

Table A2. Foliar arthropods encountered in surveys, and their feeding habit.

Arthropod

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Feeding Habit

Anthocoreid

Hemiptera

Anthocoreidae

Anthocoris

antevolens

Predaceous

BEB

Hemiptera

Rhopalidae

Boisea

trivitatta

Herbivorous

Braconid

Hymenoptera

Braconidae

 

1

Parasitoid

Leafhopper (brn mttld)

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

 

2

Herbivorous

Cercopid (brn)

Hemiptera

Cercopidae

 

1

Herbivorous

Chait. (grn)

Hemiptera

Aphididae

Chaitophorus

populellus

Herbivorous

Coen.

Odonata

Coenagrionidae

Argia

1

Predaceous

Chrys. egg

Neuroptera

Chrysopidae

Chrysopa

1

Predaceous

fly (dolich.)

Diptera

Dolichopodidae

 

1

Predaceous

fly (muscid)

Diptera

Muscidae

 

1

Scavenger

fly (unkn.)

Diptera

 

 

1

unknown

grasshppr

Orthoptera

Acrididae

Melanoplus

sanguinipes

Herbivorous

Leafhopper (fisheye)

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

 

3

Herbivorous

Leafhopper (grn)

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

Gypona

4

Herbivorous

Leafhopper (skunk)

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

 

1

Herbivorous

Leafhopper (turq.)

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

 

5

Herbivorous

Membracid (grn)

Hemiptera

Membracidae

 

1

Herbivorous

midge

Diptera

Chironomidae

 

1

Herbivorous

mite (red)

Acari

Trombiculidae

 

1

Parasitic

ant (myrmecine)

Hymenoptera

Formicidae

Tetramorium

caespitum

Scavenger

Cocc. Nymph

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

 

1

Predaceous

punky

Diptera

Ceratapogonidae

 

1

Predaceous

spider (Araniella)

Araneae

Araneidae

Araniella

displicata

Predaceous

spider (lycosid)

Araneae

Lycosidae

 

1

Predaceous

spider (unkn. Purp.)

Araneae

Araneidae

 

1

Predaceous

spider (unkn. tan/gry)

Araneae

Araneidae

 

2

Predaceous

stem borer

Lepidoptera

Tortricidae

Gypsonoma

haimbachiana

Herbivorous

thrip (blk)

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Phlaeothripidae

1

Predaceous

thrip (yllw)

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

Phlaeothripidae

2

Predaceous

T-dip

Diptera

Muscidae

 

2

Scavenger

tiny T-dip

Diptera

Muscidae

 

3

Scavenger

weevil (blk)

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Anthonominae

1

Herbivorous

 

Table A3. Permanova and linear model results for herbivores and predators/scavengers.

 

Herbivores

Predators

 

df

F

p

df

F

p

Community composition

 

 

 

 

Treatment (T)

1

2.4

0.025

1

1.6

0.14

Species (S)

2

1.5

0.46

2

0.56

0.802

T × S

2

0.75

0.7

2

1.2

0.23

Leaf biomass

1

1.5

0.14

1

1.2

0.27

Leaf area damaged

1

0.99

0.45

1

0.86

0.52

Stem mass

1

0.98

0.45

1

0.6

0.78

Genotype (G)

13

0.95

0.63

13

1

0.44

T × G

13

1.1

0.35

13

0.99

0.52

Residuals

195

 

 

195

 

 

Arthropod abundance

 

 

 

 

Treatment (T)

1

2.3

0.13

1

5.1

0.025

Species (S)

2

2.5

0.09

2

1.3

0.26

T × S

2

0.95

0.39

2

0.017

0.98

Leaf biomass

1

1.5

0.22

1

6.3

0.013

Leaf area damaged

1

1.8

0.18

1

0.74

0.39

Stem mass

1

0.02

0.89

1

2.7

0.1

Genotype (G)

13

0.8

0.66

13

1.5

0.14

T × G

13

1.2

0.28

13

0.43

0.96

Residuals

195

 

 

195

 

 

Arthropod richness

 

 

 

 

Treatment (T)

1

3.9

0.05

1

5.7

0.018

Species (S)

2

1.1

0.33

2

1.7

0.18

T × S

2

0.54

0.58

2

0.03

0.97

Leaf biomass

1

0.78

0.38

1

8.1

0.005

Leaf area damaged

1

0.42

0.52

1

0.73

0.39

Stem mass

1

0.07

0.78

1

2.8

0.098

Genotype (G)

13

0.89

0.57

13

1.5

0.14

T × G

13

0.97

0.48

13

0.45

0.95

Residuals

195

 

 

195

 

 


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