Ecological Archives E096-167-A2

Sarah H. Pasquini, S. Joseph Wright, and Louis S. Santiago. 2015. Lianas always outperform tree seedlings regardless of soil nutrients: results from a long-term fertilization experiment. Ecology 96:15761586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-1660.1

Appendix B. Mixed linear model results for the factorial, incomplete-block design comparing statistical model that includes species and statistical model that does not include species.

Table B1. Mixed linear model results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization effects on leaf physiological traits for liana and tree seedlings using statistical model that includes species nested within growth form.

 

ETRmax

qP

PFDsat

 

F

P

F

P

F

P

Rep

0.00

 

0.00

 

0.00

 

Block (Rep)

1.10

 

0.25

 

0.57

 

Form

13.50

0.0003

18.28

<0.0001

11.87

0.0006

Species (Form)

4.77

<0.0001

3.70

<0.0001

4.38

<0.0001

Ttotal

10.65

0.0012

26.20

<0.0001

10.41

0.0014

N

0.05

0.8286

0.86

0.3554

0.00

0.9483

P

6.25

0.0129

4.57

0.0333

0.91

0.3415

K

0.31

0.5808

1.73

0.1896

0.60

0.4405

N × P

3.70

0.0552

1.43

0.2328

2.21

0.1382

N × K

0.16

0.6880

0.00

0.9682

0.17

0.6790

P × K

7.13

0.0079

6.51

0.0112

6.28

0.0126

N × Form

2.19

0.1400

1.04

0.3081

0.62

0.4305

P × Form

0.22

0.6397

1.71

0.1915

0.08

0.7753

K × Form

0.00

0.9657

0.22

0.6398

0.01

0.9068

AIC

1201.6

 

467.5

 

1720.9

 

Sample size

394

 

393

 

394

 

Data presented are F statistics for fixed and random effects and P values for fixed effects. Bolded values are statistically significant P values using Family Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected P value (P < 0.0237). Total light transmission (Ttotal; proportion of above-canopy ambient), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax; μmol m-2 s-1), photochemical quenching (qP; unitless), and saturating photon flux density (PFDsat; μmol m-2 s-1). Rep and Block (Rep) are random effects, and all other variables are fixed effects.

 

Table B2. Mixed linear model results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization effects on morphological traits for liana and tree seedlings using statistical model that includes species nested within growth form.

 

Relative crown depth

Relative crown area

Leaf thickness

Leaf angle

 

F

P

F

P

F

P

F

P

Rep

3.54

 

2.72

 

0.76

 

21.20

 

Block (Rep)

1.63

 

3.65

 

0.78

 

2.44

 

Form

20.61

<0.0001

5.14

0.0239

21.09

<0.0001

7.46

0.0066

Species (Form)

8.43

<0.0001

11.52

<0.0001

12.88

<0.0001

3.72

<0.0001

Ttotal

0.01

0.9091

0.07

0.7875

0.18

0.6700

1.10

0.2957

N

0.56

0.4538

0.86

0.3545

0.41

0.5213

1.20

0.2738

P

2.98

0.0850

1.04

0.3086

1.24

0.2669

4.01

0.0461

K

0.47

0.4931

0.29

0.5922

0.04

0.8357

4.17

0.0420

N × P

0.15

0.6973

1.14

0.2865

0.13

0.7166

1.37

0.2418

N × K

0.01

0.9349

0.43

0.5107

2.23

0.1359

0.89

0.3454

P × K

0.03

0.8540

0.02

0.8786

1.22

0.2692

14.14

0.0002

N × Form

2.14

0.1443

3.37

0.0673

0.01

0.9326

0.09

0.7639

P × Form

0.19

0.6641

2.93

0.0879

0.17

0.6836

1.82

0.1787

K × Form

0.01

0.9091

1.67

0.1972

0.01

0.9299

0.00

0.9715

AIC

72.1

 

1136.2

 

-1389.4

 

3063.9

 

Sample size

388

 

390

 

381

 

382

 

Data presented are F statistics for fixed and random effects and P values for fixed effects. Bolded values are statistically significant P values using Family Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected P value (P < 0.0115). Total light transmission (Ttotal; proportion of above-canopy ambient), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), relative crown depth (cm), relative crown area (cm²), leaf thickness (mm), and leaf angle (degrees from main stem). Rep and Block (Rep) are random effects, and all other variables are fixed effects.

 

Table B3. Mixed linear model results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization effects on morphological traits for liana and tree seedlings using statistical model that includes species nested within growth form.

 

Internode length

Petiole length

SLA

 

F

P

F

P

F

P

Rep

2.74

 

2.17

 

0.50

 

Block (Rep)

0.58

 

0.86

 

0.43

 

Form

9.05

0.0028

471.37

<0.0001

28.84

<0.0001

Species (Form)

10.40

<0.0001

189.29

<0.0001

54.27

<0.0001

Ttotal

0.17

0.6846

1.01

0.3155

6.73

0.0099

N

0.60

0.4407

1.62

0.2033

0.75

0.3867

P

0.69

0.4054

0.00

0.9743

0.22

0.6409

K

0.57

0.4519

1.33

0.2500

11.73

0.0007

N × P

4.78

0.0295

0.02

0.8915

1.73

0.1889

N × K

0.42

0.5180

3.10

0.0793

1.86

0.1729

P × K

0.02

0.8828

0.61

0.4362

1.92

0.1663

N × Form

0.00

0.9454

0.04

0.8491

0.46

0.4990

P × Form

0.30

0.5860

6.87

0.0091

2.76

0.0975

K × Form

1.51

0.2206

2.89

0.0901

3.28

0.0710

AIC

2625.9

 

692.3

 

2239.7

 

Sample size

383

 

390

 

393

 

Data presented are F statistics for fixed and random effects and P values for fixed effects. Bolded values are statistically significant P values using Family Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected P value (P < 0.0115). Total light transmission (Ttotal; proportion of above-canopy ambient), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), internode length (mm), petiole length (mm), and specific leaf area (SLA; m²/kg). Rep and Block (Rep) are random effects, and all other variables are fixed effects.

 

Table B4. Mixed linear model results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization effects on physiological traits for liana and tree seedlings using statistical model that does not include species.

 

ETRmax

qP

PFDsat

 

F

P

F

P

F

P

Rep

0.00

 

0.00

 

0.00

 

Block (Rep)

1.15

 

0.27

 

0.62

 

Form

13.04

0.0003

17.47

<0.0001

11.83

0.0006

Ttotal

7.12

0.0080

20.91

<0.0001

7.33

0.0071

N

0.06

0.8108

0.80

0.3715

0.00

0.9906

P

6.20

0.0132

4.27

0.0394

0.99

0.3197

K

0.20

0.6576

1.31

0.2538

0.40

0.5260

N × P

3.81

0.0516

1.42

0.2337

2.33

0.1280

N × K

0.17

0.6811

0.03

0.8702

0.21

0.6444

P × K

6.19

0.0133

5.52

0.0193

5.76

0.0169

N × Form

2.24

0.1354

1.23

0.2688

0.71

0.4002

P × Form

0.12

0.7330

1.42

0.2344

0.05

0.8171

K × Form

0.01

0.9315

0.29

0.5879

0.08

0.7725

AIC

1240.2

 

473.3

 

1771.2

 

Sample size

394

 

393

 

394

 

Data presented are F statistics for fixed and random effects and P values for fixed effects. Bolded values are statistically significant P values using Family Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected P value (P < 0.0144). Total light transmission (Ttotal; proportion of above-canopy ambient), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax; μmol m-2 s-1), photochemical quenching (qP; unitless). and saturating photon flux density (PFDsat; μmol m-2 s-1). Rep and Block (Rep) are random effects, and all other variables are fixed effects.

 

Table B5. Mixed linear model results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization effects on morphological traits for liana and tree seedlings using statistical model that does not include species.

 

Relative crown depth

Relative crown area

Leaf thickness

Leaf angle

 

F

P

F

P

F

P

F

P

Rep

3.17

 

2.13

 

0.66

 

19.42

 

Block (Rep)

1.53

 

2.89

 

0.50

 

2.03

 

Form

18.01

<0.0001

4.59

0.0329

16.66

<0.0001

6.83

0.0093

Ttotal

0.14

0.7102

0.00

0.9490

0.87

0.3509

0.72

0.3979

N

0.46

0.4996

0.73

0.3921

0.25

0.6192

1.15

0.2834

P

1.93

0.1658

1.32

0.2509

1.33

0.2504

4.19

0.0413

K

0.49

0.4862

0.13

0.7137

0.10

0.7504

3.88

0.0496

N × P

0.04

0.8377

0.85

0.3565

0.01

0.9392

0.94

0.3330

N × K

0.04

0.8501

0.19

0.6599

1.26

0.2624

0.79

0.3739

P × K

0.00

0.9757

0.01

0.9032

0.49

0.4848

13.78

0.0002

N × Form

1.10

0.2954

2.52

0.1135

0.00

0.9893

0.05

0.8181

P × Form

0.14

0.7079

2.93

0.0879

0.12

0.7263

1.81

0.1793

K × Form

0.00

0.9668

1.20

0.2738

0.00

0.9698

0.01

0.9166

AIC

107.5

 

1227.0

 

-1358.1

 

3147.6

 

Sample size

388

 

390

 

381

 

382

 

Data presented are F statistics for fixed and random effects and P values for fixed effects. Bolded values are statistically significant P values using Family Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected P value (P < 0.0033). Total light transmission (Ttotal; proportion of above-canopy ambient), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), relative crown depth (cm), relative crown area (cm²), leaf thickness (mm), and leaf angle (degrees from main stem). Rep and Block (Rep) are random effects, and all other variables are fixed effects.

 

Table B6. Mixed linear model results of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization effects on morphological traits for liana and tree seedlings using statistical model that does not include species.

 

Internode length

Petiole length

SLA

 

F

P

F

P

F

P

Rep

2.15

 

0.48

 

0.29

 

Block (Rep)

0.51

 

0.23

 

0.21

 

Form

8.07

0.0048

71.01

<0.0001

11.63

0.0007

Ttotal

0.11

0.7439

0.98

0.3219

2.84

0.0927

N

0.85

0.3569

0.09

0.7627

0.39

0.5351

P

0.82

0.3672

0.07

0.7844

0.06

0.8046

K

0.22

0.6396

0.16

0.6872

5.22

0.0229

N × P

2.97

0.0854

0.13

0.7182

0.65

0.4219

N × K

0.17

0.6813

0.32

0.5731

0.86

0.3532

P × K

0.00

0.9590

0.47

0.4937

0.89

0.3472

N × Form

0.02

0.8815

0.01

0.9361

0.10

0.7480

P × Form

0.37

0.5432

1.46

0.2278

1.38

0.2405

K × Form

0.68

0.4111

0.45

0.5015

0.97

0.3242

AIC

2757.9

 

1367.9

 

2619.3

 

Sample size

383

 

390

 

393

 

Data presented are F statistics for fixed and random effects and P values for fixed effects. Bolded values are statistically significant P values using Family Discovery Rate (FDR) corrected P value (P < 0.0033). Total light transmission (Ttotal; proportion of above-canopy ambient), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), internode length (mm), petiole length (mm), and specific leaf area (SLA; m²/kg). Rep and Block (Rep) are random effects, and all other variables are fixed effects.


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