Ecological Archives E096-149-A5

Joseph A. LaManna, Amy B. Hemenway, Vanna Boccadori, and Thomas E. Martin. 2015. Bird species turnover is related to changing predation risk along a vegetation gradient. Ecology 96:16701680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-1333.1

Appendix E. Changes in density with both PC axes for bird species and combined nest predators.

Table E1. Changes in density with both PC axes (PCconiferand PCdeciduous) for bird species and combined nest predators in western Montana, USA. For each species, chi-squared statistics from likelihood ratio tests (χ²), p value, standardized effect size (standardized regression coefficients ±1 SE), and link function are presented. Significant effects (p < 0.05) are bolded and marginally significant effects (p < 0.10) are italicized. Bird species are ordered according to effect size of PCconiferand PCdeciduous (see Fig. 3a).

Species

PCconiferχ²

p value

PCconiferEffect Size

PCconifer Effect Size SE

PCdeciduousχ²

p value

PCdeciduous Effect Size

PCdeciduous Effect Size SE

Link Function

House Wren

10.22

0.001

-0.552

0.133

0.21

0.643

---

---

log

Western Wood-pewee

11.75

0.001

-0.531

0.116

0.17

0.677

---

---

log

Mountain Bluebird

15.32

< 0.001

-0.377

0.070

1.01

0.315

---

---

log

Northern Flicker

13.47

< 0.001

-0.367

0.074

0.10

0.749

---

---

log

Red-naped Sapsucker

7.82

0.005

-0.315

0.112

3.24

0.072

0.193

0.112

identity

Mountain Chickadee

4.52

0.033

-0.111

0.052

0.53

0.468

---

---

identity

Red-breasted Nuthatch

2.54

0.111

-0.090

0.058

0.08

0.771

---

---

identity

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

10.97

0.001

0.366

0.101

0.16

0.693

---

---

identity

Chipping Sparrow

12.34

0.000

0.698

0.177

0.00

0.959

---

---

identity

Dark-eyed Junco

14.18

< 0.001

0.748

0.172

0.00

0.944

---

---

identity

Yellow-rumped Warbler

0.14

0.709

---

---

3.96

0.047

0.209

0.105

identity

Lincoln's Sparrow

9.49

0.002

-0.584

0.176

5.73

0.017

0.462

0.195

identity

Yellow Warbler

3.02

0.082

-0.299

0.237

4.78

0.029

0.474

0.188

log

Dusky Flycatcher

4.46

0.035

0.422

0.125

12.17

< 0.001

0.487

0.128

identity

Warbling Vireo

0.03

0.859

---

---

18.04

< 0.001

0.686

0.132

identity

American Robin

11.08

0.001

---

---

5.85

0.016

0.734

0.306

identity

Combined Nest Predators

21.23

< 0.001

0.919

0.121

7.81

0.005

---

---

identity


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