Ecological Archives E096-093-A1

John L. Orrock, Humberto P. Dutra, Robert J. Marquis, and Nicholas Barber. 2015. Apparent competition and native consumers exacerbate the strong competitive effect of an exotic plant species. Ecology 96:10521061. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0732.1

Appendix A. Results of additional analyses and data regarding plant origin and relative frequency.

Table A1. Summary of mixed-model analysis of variance to evaluate the effects of L. maackii vegetation treatment (cover left intact or removed), L. maackii fruit treatment (fruits left intact or removed), and consumer exclosure on the abundance and richness of rare native plant species, defined as species with relative abundance < 0.02.  Species classified as rare were the majority of native species (over 87%, i.e., 50 of 57 native morphospecies). F ratios are presented with numerator degrees of freedom (NDF) and denominator degrees of freedom (DDF) as subscripts.

 

Rare native abundance

 

Rare native richness

 

FNDF,DDF

P

 

FNDF,DDF

P

Veg. Treatment

19.631,6

0.004

 

16.461,6

0.007

Fruit Treatment

1.741,6

0.236

 

0.061,6

0.808

Veg. × Fruit

1.281,6

0.301

 

0.591,6

0.473

Consumer Excl

17.722,16

<0.001

 

22.032,16

<0.001

Veg. × ConExcl

1.861,16

0.187

 

0.061,16

0.939

Fruit × ConExcl

5.851,16

0.012

 

6.741,16

0.008

Veg × Fruit × ConExcl

1.691,16

0.215

 

0.831,16

0.455

 

Table A2. Summary of plants quantified during this study. For individuals that were not identifiable to species (e.g., Geum spp.), plant origin was determined by using the Flora of Missouri (www.mobot.org/missouri) and assigning a taxon to a particular origin if 100% of the species in the state were of that origin. For two cases where there were a mix of native and exotic taxa in the state, we assigned an origin if >95% of the species in the state were of that origin: Carex was assigned a native origin because 132 of 138 Carex spp. in Missouri are native and Juncus spp. was assigned a native origin because 22 of 23 species were native. For cases where a taxon was not >95% of a particular origin, a conservative assignment of "unknown" was given.

Taxonomic name

Family

Origin

Number of seedlings

Proportion of total

Carex spp.

Poaceae

Native

427

0.1809

Geum spp.

Rosaceae

Native

249

0.1055

Ageratina altissima

Asteraceae

Native

225

0.0953

Sanicula spp.

Apiaceae

Native

177

0.0750

Cardamine pensylvanica

Brassicaceae

Native

123

0.0521

Morphospecies 13

Unknown

Unknown

105

0.0445

Taraxacum spp

Asteraceae

Exotic

101

0.0428

Morphospecies 14

Poaceae

Unknown

62

0.0263

Viola sororia

Violacae

Native

62

0.0263

Plantago rugelii

Plantaginaceae

Native

52

0.0220

Poa compressa

Poaceae

Exotic

52

0.0220

Lonicera maackii

Caprifoliaceae

Exotic

48

0.0203

Poa spp.

Poaceae

Unknown

44

0.0186

Morphospecies 5

Unknown

Unknown

41

0.0174

Acalypha spp

Euphorbiaceae

Unknown

40

0.0169

Lamium purpureum

Lamiaceae

Exotic

39

0.0165

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Vitaceae

Native

36

0.0152

Elymus villosus

Poaceae

Native

33

0.0140

Vitis spp

Vitaceae

Native

31

0.0131

Amphicarpa bracteata

Fabaceae

Native

27

0.0114

Eupatorium serotinum

Asteraceae

Native

27

0.0114

Oxalis spp

Oxiladaceae

Native

24

0.0102

Celtis occidentalis

Cannabaceae

Native

21

0.0089

Panicum acuminatum

Poaceae

Native

20

0.0085

Phryma leptostachya

Verbenaceae

Native

20

0.0085

Solanum carolinense

Solanaceae

Native

20

0.0085

Galium aparine

Rubiaceae

Native

19

0.0080

Polygonum virginianum

Polygonaceae

Native

17

0.0072

Leersia virginica

Poaceae

Native

16

0.0068

Chenopodium album

Amaranthaceae

Exotic

15

0.0064

Leersia oryzoides

Poaceae

Native

14

0.0059

Phacelia purshii

Boraginaceae

Native

14

0.0059

Cinna arundinacea

Poaceae

Native

11

0.0047

Circaea canadensis

Onagraceae

Native

10

0.0042

Conyza canadensis

Asteraceae

Native

10

0.0042

Phytolacca americana

Phytolaccaceae

Native

9

0.0038

Desmodium spp

Fabaceae

Native

7

0.0030

Morphospecies 8

Unknown

Unknown

7

0.0030

Erigeron annuus

Asteraceae

Native

6

0.0025

Impatiens capensis

Balsaminaceae

Native

6

0.0025

Asplenium spp.

Aspleniaceae

Native

5

0.0021

Erigeron philadelphicus

Asteraceae

Native

5

0.0021

Pilea pumila

Urticaceae

Native

5

0.0021

Poa annua

Poaceae

Exotic

5

0.0021

Polygonum hydropiperoides

Polygonaceae

Native

4

0.0017

Rubus spp.

Rosaceae

Native

4

0.0017

Arenaria serpyllifolia

Caryophyllaceae

Exotic

3

0.0013

Carya ovata

Juglandaceae

Native

3

0.0013

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Oleaceae

Native

3

0.0013

Morus alba

Moraceae

Exotic

3

0.0013

Polygonum scandens

Polygonaceae

Native

3

0.0013

Symphoricarpos occidentalis

Caprifoliaceae

Native

3

0.0013

Morphospecies 11

Unknown

Unknown

3

0.0013

Morphospecies 6

Unknown

Unknown

3

0.0013

Acalypha rhomboidea

Euphorbiaceae

Native

2

0.0008

Elephantopus carolinianus

Asteraceae

Native

2

0.0008

Juncus spp.

Juncaceae

Native

2

0.0008

Lobelia inflata

Campanulaecae

Native

2

0.0008

Muhlenbergia schreberi

Poaceae

Native

2

0.0008

Rosa multiflora

Rosaceae

Exotic

2

0.0008

Smilax hispida

Smilacaceae

Native

2

0.0008

Ulmus rubra

Ulmaceae

Native

2

0.0008

Zanthoxylum americanum

Rutaceae

Native

2

0.0008

Agrimonia pubescens

Rosaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Carduus nutans

Asteraceae

Exotic

1

0.0004

Desmodium paniculatum

Fabaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Dicentra cucullaria

Fumaricaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Erechtites hieracifolia

Asteraceae

Native

1

0.0004

Gleditsia triacanthos

Fabaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Hypericum punctatum

Hypericaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Lonicera japonica

Caprifoliaceae

Exotic

1

0.0004

Menispermum canadense

Menispermaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Physalis spp.

Solanaceae

Unknown

1

0.0004

Prunus serotina

Rosaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Ribes missouriense

Grossulariaceae

Native

1

0.0004

Rosaceae spp.

Rosaceae

Unknown

1

0.0004

Sassafras albidum

Lauraceae

Native

1

0.0004

Solidago altissima

Asteraceae

Native

1

0.0004

Sonchus oleraceus

Asteraceae

Exotic

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 9

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 1

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 10

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 12

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 2

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 3

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 4

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

Morphospecies 7

Unknown

Unknown

1

0.0004

 

FigA1

Fig. A1. The effect of experimental manipulation of L. maackii fruit manipulation and consumer exclosure on the number of seedlings of rare native species (defined as species with relative abundance of <0.02) and the species richness of rare native seedlings. Means are presented ± 1 SE; Bars that do not share a letter are significantly different (P < 0.05).


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