Ecological Archives E096-044-A1

Jana S. Petermann, Vinicius F. Farjalla, Merlijn Jocque, Pavel Kratina, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Nicholas A. C. Marino, Paula M. De Omena, Gustavo C. O. Piccoli, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Gustavo Q. Romero, Martin Videla, and Diane S. Srivastava. 2015. Dominant predators mediate the impact of habitat size on trophic structure in bromeliad invertebrate communities. Ecology 96:428439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0304.1

Appendix A. Figuresand tables showing the absolute biomass of organisms, the effect of latitudinal location, the relative biomass of predator species, habitat complexity, listing all species and statistical results.

FigA1

Fig. A1. Total biomass (log-transformed, in mg) of predators, detritivores, and resources along the habitat size gradient (log-transformed bromeliad volume in l) for (A) sites without and (B) sites with odonates in the regional species pool. Predator biomass is depicted by open symbols and dashed lines (significantly different slopes = 0.17 ± 0.09 and 0.78 ± 0.11 for sites without and with odonates, respectively. See Table S1 for statistical analysis.), detritivore biomass by gray-filled symbols and medium solid lines (slopes = 0.81 ± 0.05 and 0.26 ± 0.09) and resource biomass by black-filled symbols and thick solid lines (slopes = 0.75 ± 0.07 and 0.71 ± 0.06).


 

FigA2

Fig. A2. The latitudinal location of the sites and predator–detritivore biomass ratios in bromeliads at these sites. Data points represent individual bromeliads and are jittered along the x-axis for illustrative purposes.


 

FigA3

Fig. A3. Odonate presence in individual bromeliads along the habitat size gradient (log-transformed bromeliad volume in l) for those sites with odonates in the regional pool. Data points are jittered along the y-axis for illustrative purposes. The relationship was fitted using a generalized linear model with binomial errors.


 

FigA4

Fig. A4. Relative biomass for the different predator species, ranked by highest relative abundance per site. Relative biomass refers to the predator level only and was calculated per bromeliad, data were then averaged across bromeliads and years per site. Odonate species are shown in red. The species labels refer to the "working IDs" in Table A1. The Picinguaba site is not shown because it lacks species-specific biomass data (analyses for this small data set are based on species presence/absence and pooled biomass measurements at each trophic level).


 

 FigA5

Fig. A5. Habitat complexity in the bromeliad decreases with increasing habitat size (log-transformed bromeliad volume in l). Complexity is calculated as log10(number of green leaves/bromeliad volume).


 

Table A1. List of invertebrate species present in the bromeliads at our sites based on the surveys in this study. Many species were identified to species level but were distinguished using morphological characters and were assigned a unique "Working ID" (except for species in the small data set from the Picinguaba site). The morphological and molecular identification of those species is ongoing. Species were assigned to one of two trophic levels: P = Predator, D = Detritivore.

Site

Higher taxonomic group

Family/Subfamily

Species

Working ID

Trophic level

Cardoso, Brazil

Coleoptera

Dytiscidae

Copelatus bimaculatus

Coleoptera.46

P

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae/Omicrini

NA (adult)

Coleoptera.48a

D

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae/Omicrini

NA (larvae)

Coleoptera.48b

P

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.34

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.35

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Atrichopogon sp.

Diptera.349

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Dasyhelea sp.

Diptera.4

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Forcipomyia (Phytohelea) sp.

Diptera.353

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Limnophyes sp.

Diptera.351

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Monopelopia aff. caraguata

Diptera.175

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum marcondesi

Diptera.206

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum kaingang

Diptera.207

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus sp.

Diptera.263

D

Diptera

Chironomidae/Orthocladiinae

NA

Diptera.191

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella infuscata

Diptera.88

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Anopheles bellator

Diptera.10

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex (Microculex) sp.

Diptera.92

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex (Microculex) sp.

Diptera.350

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia sp.

Diptera.307

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.352

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.215

D

Diptera

Sciaridae

NA

Diptera.232

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

NA

Diptera.355

D

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.248

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.246

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia sp.

Diptera.274

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia sp.

Diptera.293

D

Hirudinea

NA

NA

Hirudinea.4

P

Odonata

Coenagrionidae

Leptagrion andromache

Odonata.5

P

 

Trichoptera

Calamoceratidae

Phylloicus bromeliarum

Trichoptera.1

D

Dominica

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae/Sphaeridiinae

NA

Coleoptera.38

P

Coleoptera

Ptilodactylidae

NA

Coleoptera.22

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.26

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.21

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.153

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Larsia/Monopelopia sp.

Diptera.161

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Metriocnemus sp.

Diptera.172

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.70

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.205

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus bromelicola

Diptera.262

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella caribbeana

Diptera.84

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex bisulcatus

Diptera.95

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia greyii

Diptera.304

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.182

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.183

D

Diptera

Sphaeroceridae

NA

Diptera.235

D

Diptera

Stratiomyidae

NA

Diptera.239

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Dolichopeza sp.

Diptera.126

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Limonia sp.

Diptera.165

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia dominicana

Diptera.292

D

Diptera

Tipulidae/Hexatominae

NA

Diptera.160

D

Oligochaeta

Enchytridae

NA

Oligochaeta.8

D

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.1

P

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.2

P

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.3

P

 

Platyhelminthes

Planariidae

Planaria sp.

Platyhelminthes.4

P

Honduras

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Ora sp.

Coleoptera.45

D

Diptera

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigaster

Diptera.346

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.323

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.324

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.325

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.318

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.319

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.320

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.321

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.322

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Aedes sp.

Diptera.328

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Aedes sp.

Diptera.329

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.327

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhychites sp.

Diptera.330

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomia sp.

Diptera.331

P

Diptera

Dolichopodidae

NA

Diptera.343

P

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.341

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.342

P

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.344

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.340

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

Telmatoscopus sp.

Diptera.339

D

Diptera

Sciaridae

NA

Diptera.345

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.335

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.336

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.337

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum  sp.

Diptera.338

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum sp.

Diptera.333

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Meromacrus sp.

Diptera.334

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Ocyptamus sp.

Diptera.332

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.347

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia sp.

Diptera.326

D

Oligochaeta

Enchytridae

NA

Oligochaeta.15

D

 

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.13

P

Macae, Brazil

Coleoptera

Elmidae

NA

Coleoptera.14

D

Coleoptera

Hydrophilidae

NA

Coleoptera.18

P

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.27

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.28

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.29

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.30

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Atrichopogon sp.

Diptera.15

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.46

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.47

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.48

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.50

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Culicoides sp.

Diptera.45

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Forcypomyia sp.

Diptera.115

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.49

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.51

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Larsia sp.

Diptera.65

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.354

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.64

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.66

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.68

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus sp.

Diptera.67

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella sp.

Diptera.86

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.101

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.102

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.103

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.104

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.105

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.106

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Microculex sp.

Diptera.113

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhynchites sp.

Diptera.284

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia sp.

Diptera.300

D

Diptera

Empididae

NA

Diptera.133

D

Diptera

Empididae

NA

Diptera.134

D

Diptera

Empididae

NA

Diptera.135

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.143

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.144

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.219

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

NA

Diptera.355

D

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.251

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.252

P

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

Diptera.253

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.278

D

 

Odonata

Coenagrionidae

Leptagrion sp.

Odonata.3

P

Picinguaba, Brazil

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

NA

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Chironomidae/Tanypodinae

NA

NA

P

Diptera

Corethrelidae

NA

NA

P

Diptera

Culicidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Culicidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Culicidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

NA

NA

NA

D

Diptera

NA

NA

NA

D

Diptera

NA

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Tabanidae

NA

NA

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

NA

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

NA

D

Odonata

NA

NA

NA

P

 

Trichoptera

NA

NA

NA

D

Costa Rica

Coleoptera

Dytiscidae

NA

Coleoptera.13

P

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

NA

Coleoptera.31

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.39

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.40

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.41

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Chironomus sp.

Diptera.81

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Monopelopia sp.

Diptera.257

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.54

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.55

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.57

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

NA

Diptera.56

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.203

D

Diptera

Chironomidae/Orthocladiinae

NA

Diptera.188

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella sp.

Diptera.85

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Anopheles kompii

Diptera.11

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Anopheles neivai

Diptera.12

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex daumastocampa

Diptera.96

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex jenningsi

Diptera.97

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Orthopodomyia sp.

Diptera.192

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhynchites sp.

Diptera.282

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia abebela

Diptera.296

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia circumcincta

Diptera.297

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia melanopus

Diptera.298

D

Diptera

Dolichopodidae

NA

Diptera.124

D

Diptera

Ephydridae

NA

Diptera.136

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.120

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.121

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.122

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.118

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.119

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.117

D

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.311

D

Diptera

Periscelididae

NA

Diptera.196

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

Pericoma sp.

Diptera.209

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

Copestylum sp.

Diptera.82

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

NA

Diptera.243

D

Diptera

Syrphidae

NA

Diptera.310

D

Diptera

Tabanidae

Stibasoma fulvohirtum

Diptera.237

P

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.270

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.271

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.314

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.315

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepholia sp.

Diptera.269

D

Hirudinea

NA

NA

Hirudinea.1

P

Hirudinea

NA

NA

Hirudinea.2

P

Hirudinea

NA

NA

Hirudinea.3

P

Odonata

Pseudostigmatidae

Mecistogaster modesta

Odonata.4

P

Oligochaeta

NA

NA

Oligochaeta.14

D

Oligochaeta

Naididae

Aulophorus sp.

Oligochaeta.13

D

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.11

D

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.10

D

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.12

D

Unknown

NA

NA

Unknown.1

D

Unknown

NA

NA

Unknown.2

D

 

Unknown

NA

NA

Unknown.3

D

Puerto Rico

Coleoptera

Ptilodactylidae

NA

Coleoptera.22

D

Coleoptera

Scirtidae

Scirtes sp.

Coleoptera.26

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.21

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.153

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.154

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.155

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.149

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.150

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.151

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Leptoconopinae

NA

Diptera.384

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Boreochlus.sp.

Diptera.387

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Metriocnemus sp.

Diptera.174

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Metriocnemus sp.

Diptera.385

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Monopelopia sp.

Diptera.177

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Paratanytarsus sp.

Diptera.388

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Smittia sp.

Diptera.386

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Stempellinella sp.

Diptera.389

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus bromelicola

Diptera.390

D

Diptera

Corethrellidae

Corethrella belkini

Diptera.83

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex antillummagnorum

Diptera.93

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex sp.

Diptera.391

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis

Diptera.280

P

Diptera

Culicidae

Wyeomyia sp.

Diptera.301

D

Diptera

Muscidae

NA

Diptera.394

D

Diptera

Phoridae

NA

Diptera.395

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

Alepia zavortinkii

Diptera.9

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.210

D

Diptera

Psychodidae

NA

Diptera.220

D

Diptera

Rhagionidae

NA

Diptera.229

P

Diptera

Scatopsidae

NA

Diptera.231

D

Diptera

Sphaeroceridae

NA

Diptera.392

D

Diptera

Sphaeroceridae

NA

Diptera.393

D

Diptera

Sphaeroceridae

NA

Diptera.235

D

Diptera

Stratiomyidae

NA

Diptera.239

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Brachypremna sp.

Diptera.396

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Limonia sp.

Diptera.165

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

NA

Diptera.397

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia dominicana

Diptera.292

D

Diptera

Tipulidae/Hexatominae

NA

Diptera.160

D

Oligochaeta

Enchytridae

NA

Oligochaeta.8

D

Oligochaeta

Naididae

Aulophorus superterrenus

Oligochaeta.2

D

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.5

P

 

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.7

P

Saba

Diptera

 Stratiomyidae

NA

Diptera.240

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Bezzia sp.

Diptera.18

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

Culicoides sp.

Diptera.1

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae

NA

Diptera.43

P

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.153

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.154

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Forcipomyiinae

NA

Diptera.155

D

Diptera

Ceratopogonidae/Leptoconopinae

NA

Diptera.294

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Larsia/Monopelopia sp.

Diptera.256

P

Diptera

Chironomidae

Metriocnemus sp.

Diptera.173

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Polypedilum sp.

Diptera.205

D

Diptera

Chironomidae

Tanytarsus bromelicola

Diptera.262

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Culex bisulcatus

Diptera.95

D

Diptera

Culicidae

Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis

Diptera.280

P

Diptera

NA

NA

Diptera.182

D

Diptera

Sphaeroceridae

NA

Diptera.235

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Limonia sp.

Diptera.165

D

Diptera

Tipulidae

Trentepohlia dominicana

Diptera.292

D

Diptera

Tipulidae/Hexatominae

NA

Diptera.160

D

Oligochaeta

Enchytridae

NA

Oligochaeta.6

D

Oligochaeta

Naididae

Aulophorus superterreneus

Oligochaeta.13

D

 

Platyhelminthes

NA

NA

Platyhelminthes.6

P

 

Table A2. Results of the linear mixed effects model analysis testing main effects and two-way interactions on the absolute biomass of resources, detritivores and predators in each bromeliad (all log-transformed) with "site" as a random effect. Habitat size = log-transformed bromeliad volume [mL], df= degrees of freedom (numerator df, denominator df). P values <0.05 printed in bold.

  Biomass resources Biomass detrivores Biomass predators

 

df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P

Latitude

1,3

3.50

0.1581

1,5

9.45

0.0277

1,5

5.69

0.0628

Odonate presence

1,3

0.61

0.4913

1,5

0.95

0.3739

1,5

1.69

0.2501

Habitat size

1,352

346.30

<0.0001

1,632

341.15

<0.0001

1,533

68.27

<0.0001

Latitude × Habitat size

1,352

0.09

0.7613

1,632

0.24

0.6213

1,533

3.04

0.0816

Odonate presence × Habitat size

1,352

0.95

0.3292

1,632

0.03

0.8587

1,533

21.64

<0.0001

 

Table A3. Results of the linear mixed effects model analysis testing main effects and two-way interactions on biomass ratios (log-transformed) with "site" as a random effect. Here, we test the effect of tabanid presence in the regional pool instead of odonate presence. Habitat size = log-transformed bromeliad volume [mL], df= degrees of freedom (numerator df, denominator df). P values <0.05 printed in bold.

  Detritivore-resource ratio Predator-detritivore ratio

 

df

F

P

df

F

P

Latitude

1,3

4.37

0.1278

1,5

22.57

0.0051

Tabanid presence

1,3

1.01

0.3895

1,5

0.79

0.4136

Habitat size

1,350

19.86

<0.0001

1,529

2.88

0.0902

Latitude × Habitat size

1,350

0.82

0.3671

1,529

3.01

0.0831

Tabanid presence × Habitat size

1,350

1.45

0.2293

1,529

0.15

0.7008


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