Ecological Archives E096-038-A1

Lee A. Fuiman, Tara L. Connelly, Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri, and James W. McClelland. 2015. Egg boons: central components of marine fatty acid food webs. Ecology 96:362372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0571.1

Appendi ×  A. The data, data sources, and details of the methods used in the meta-analyses of fatty acid content, egg production, and egg mortality rates.

Fatty Acid Content

We conducted a meta-analysis of fatty acid content (mg ind-1) in marine organisms by assembling a data set from published values, supplemented with unpublished data provided by colleagues and our own measurements. Data that were included for animals were selected because they were representative of wild (not captive) samples. Data included for single celled organisms (phytoplankton and microzooplankton) were from cultures. When literature values were reported on a weight basis (e.g., mg g-1 dry mass), they were multiplied by body weight (from separate sources, if necessary) to obtain the content per individual for each of the three selected fatty acids (DHA, EPA, and ARA). Literature that reported individual fatty acids as a percentage of total fatty acids was not used. The final data set for fatty acid data content (Table A1) describes whole body content of DHA, EPA, and ARA for pelagic marine organisms, ranging from phytoplankton to fishes. A few records for demersal eggs of anadromous fishes were included for comparative purposes. In the data set, fatty acid content spanned 17 orders of magnitude for organisms that spanned 6 orders of magnitude in length, with fish eggs occupying the center of the size spectrum.

The fatty acid data set was used to generate empirical scaling relationships to determine whether EFA content of marine eggs was greater than that of other marine organisms of comparable size and how EFA content of marine eggs compares to that of other components of the marine food web. Length was used as the measure of organism size because of its demonstrated power for explaining processes ranging from physiological responses of individuals, to vital rates of populations, and trophic interactions (Miller et al. 1988, Andersen and Beyer 2006, Shin et al. 2010). Scaling relationships were obtained by fitting a log-transformed power function (log10 Y = a + b log10 X, where Y is whole-body fatty acid content, in mg individual-1 and X is organism length, in cm). These regressions excluded data for organisms bearing yolk or oil globules (eggs and yolked larvae). Regression statistics for the scaling relationships for the three essential fatty acids are shown in Table A2.

 

Fish egg production and mortality

Plankton surveys conducted in fish spawning areas worldwide are used to estimate the total number of eggs produced by fish populations and, from that, the size of spawning populations using approaches such as the daily egg production method, the annual egg production method, and the fecundity reduction method. These studies yield quantitative estimates of daily or annual egg production by a species within a geographic area, primarily for abundant, small bodied forage species, such as anchovies and sardines, but also larger, commercially exploited species, such as cod, plaice, and mackerel. In cases where an individual publication reported egg production for a single population over multiple years, a mean value was calculated for all years. When an individual publication reported egg production for multiple subregions, total egg production for all subregions was calculated.

Egg mortality rate is an important component of the calculations and it is also quantified from the plankton survey data as the decline in abundance of eggs with time. Egg mortality rate is most often expressed as a daily rate (Z, in units of d-1) or cumulative mortality rate over the entire egg stage (fertilization to hatching). In cases where an individual publication reported mortality rates for a single population over multiple years or for multiple subregions, a mean mortality rate was calculated for all years or all regions.

Raw data for egg production and egg mortality rates of fish populations are provided in Table A3. The summary of these data (Fig. 2) demonstrates the superabundance of eggs produced by pelagic spawners. Median egg production by individual fish populations is commonly about 1012 eggs per day and 1013 eggs per year. Median egg mortality rate is 33% per day and about 88% between fertilization and hatching.


Table A1. Whole-body content of three essential fatty acids in marine organisms derived from published values or original data.

 

 

 

 

Fatty acid content (mg ind-1)

 

Group

Taxon

Species

Size cm

DHA

EPA

ARA

Source

Stages bearing yolk or oil globules

           

zooplankton eggs

Copepoda

Calanus finmarchicus

1.47 × 10-02

3.50 × 10-06

4.50 × 10-06

 

Mayor et al. 2009a

 
 

Calanus helgolandicus

9.00 × 10-03

1.02 × 10-05

8.90 × 10-06

2.00 × 10-07

Pond et al. 1996

macrocrustacean larvae

Decapoda

Paralithodes platypus

1.37 × 10-01

9.40 × 10-04

1.46 × 10-03

1.40 × 10-04

Copeman et al. 2014

fish eggs

Osteichthyes

Centropomis undecimalis

7.50 × 10-02

4.23 × 10-04

9.96 × 10-05

1.77 × 10-04

M. Resley and K. Main unpublished data

 
 
 

7.50 × 10-02

5.53 × 10-04

8.82 × 10-05

2.09 × 10-04

M. Resley and K. Main unpublished data

 
 

Gadus macrocephalus

1.00 × 10-01

1.69 × 10-03

1.12 × 10-03

1.40 × 10-04

Laurel et al. 2010

 
 

Gadus morhua

1.40 × 10-01

2.48 × 10-03

1.40 × 10-03

2.70 × 10-04

Salze et al. 2005, Ouellet 2001

 
 
 

1.50 × 10-01

2.44 × 10-03

1.38 × 10-03

1.80 × 10-04

Laurel et al. 2010

 
 

Morone saxatilis

1.18 × 10-01

1.64 × 10-02

1.02 × 10-02

1.47 × 10-03

Harrell and Woods 1995

 
 

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha

7.08 × 10-01

7.30 × 10+00

5.85 × 10+00

4.91 × 10-01

Ashton et al. 1993

 
 
 

7.74 × 10-01

7.49 × 10+00

6.33 × 10+00

4.29 × 10-01

Ashton et al. 1993

 
 

Sarda sarda

9.40 × 10-02

1.61 × 10-03

5.93 × 10-04

7.77 × 10-05

Ortega and Mourente 2010

 
 

Sciaenops ocellatus

9.50 × 10-02

8.68 × 10-04

3.12 × 10-04

2.64 × 10-04

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Scophthalmus maximus

1.09 × 10-01

1.54 × 10-03

5.04 × 10-04

1.94 × 10-04

Silversand et al. 1996

 
 

Solea solea

1.30 × 10-01

2.45 × 10-03

3.58 × 10-04

2.41 × 10-04

Lund et al. 2008

 
 

Thunnus thynnus

9.80 × 10-02

2.93 × 10-03

7.87 × 10-04

1.59 × 10-04

Ortega and Mourente 2010

 
 

Trachinotus carolinus

9.90 × 10-02

1.18 × 10-03

1.98 × 10-04

2.25 × 10-04

M. Resley and K. Main unpublished data

Stages lacking yolk and oil globules

 
 
 
 
 
 

phytoplankton

Bacillariophyceae

Asterionella glacialis

7.00 × 10-03

 

1.36 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Chaetoceros affinis

2.00 × 10-03

1.07 × 10-11

6.42 × 10-11

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Chaetoceros calcitrans

2.12 × 10-04

5.92 × 10-12

8.21 × 10-11

4.22 × 10-11

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Chaetoceros gracilis

4.17 × 10-04

8.05 × 10-12

1.15 × 10-10

1.23 × 10-10

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Nitzschia closterium

4.80 × 10-04

2.45 × 10-10

3.35 × 10-10

1.81 × 10-10

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Phaeodactylum tricornutum

3.00 × 10-04

2.56 × 10-11

4.00 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Skeletonema costatum

6.65 × 10-04

3.00 × 10-11

9.00 × 10-11

0.00 × 10+00

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Thallasiosira pseudonana

3.94 × 10-04

3.90 × 10-11

1.93 × 10-10

3.00 × 10-12

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Thallasiosira weissflogii

1.22 × 10-03

8.20 × 10-13

4.80 × 10-12

0.00 × 10+00

Chen et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.50 × 10-03

1.00 × 10-11

3.80 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 

Chlorophyceae

Dunaliella bioculata

6.70 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Dunaliella minuta

7.70 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

1.53 × 10-11

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Dunaliella primolecta

8.70 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

4.81 × 10-11

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Dunaliella sp.

6.70 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

Chen et al. 2012

 
 

Dunaliella tertiolecta

3.81 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Nannochloris atomus

4.78 × 10-04

4.00 × 10-14

1.31 × 10-11

2.05 × 10-12

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Nannochloris sp.

2.00 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

2.20 × 10-10

Viso and Marty 1993

 

Cryptophyceae

Chroomonas fragarioides

9.00 × 10-04

4.46 × 10-10

9.12 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Chroomonas salina

8.66 × 10-04

4.36 × 10-10

9.12 × 10-10

7.60 × 10-11

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Rhodomonas baltica

1.00 × 10-03

1.87 × 10-10

1.87 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Rhodomonas sp.

7.10 × 10-04

3.90 × 10-13

8.10 × 10-13

4.00 × 10-14

Chen et al. 2012

 

Dinophyceae

Amphidinium sp.

2.00 × 10-03

2.61 × 10-09

1.20 × 10-09

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Procentrum micans

6.00 × 10-03

3.06 × 10-09

1.09 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Prorocentrum dentatum

1.21 × 10-03

7.41 × 10-12

5.90 × 10-13

0.00 × 10+00

Chen et al. 2012

 
 

Scrippsiella trochoidea

2.50 × 10-03

7.88 × 10-09

1.88 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 

Prasinophyceae

Tetraselmis marina

1.20 × 10-03

 

5.39 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Tetraselmis suecica

4.15 × 10-04

2.64 × 10-11

1.39 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 
 

1.07 × 10-03

3.60 × 10-13

1.73 × 10-10

6.48 × 10-11

Volkman et al. 1989

 

Prymnesiophyceae

Chrysotila lamellosa

4.50 × 10-04

1.00 × 10-11

6.00 × 10-12

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Chrysotila stipitata

7.78 × 10-04

4.50 × 10-12

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Emiliania huxleyi

7.00 × 10-04

1.38 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Hymenomonas elongata

6.25 × 10-04

6.00 × 10-11

6.50 × 10-11

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 
 

Isochrysis sp.

4.60 × 10-04

9.96 × 10-11

2.40 × 10-12

0.00 × 10+00

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Pavlova lutheri

5.58 × 10-04

3.01 × 10-10

6.30 × 10-10

3.20 × 10-13

Volkman et al. 1989

 
 

Pavlova pinguis

4.50 × 10-04

5.20 × 10-12

8.06 × 10-11

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 

Raphidophyceae

Heterosigma akashiwo

2.60 × 10-03

3.84 × 10-10

4.60 × 10-09

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

 

Rhodophyceae

Porphyridium cruentum

7.00 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

2.66 × 10-10

7.97 × 10-10

Viso and Marty 1993

 

Xanthophyceae

Heterothrix sp.

9.00 × 10-04

7.10 × 10-12

2.91 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Viso and Marty 1993

microzooplankton

Ciliata

Strombidium sulcatum

2.48 × 10-03

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

0.00 × 10+00

Chen et al. 2012

 
 

Uronema sp.

1.20 × 10-03

7.12 × 10-10

6.71 × 10-10

2.33 × 10-10

Chu et al. 2009

 

Dinophyceae

Luciella mosanensis

1.26 × 10-03

4.45 × 10-10

2.88 × 10-11

0.00 × 10+00

Chu et al. 2009

 
 

Pfiesteria piscicida

3.00 × 10-03

2.86 × 10-09

2.17 × 10-10

0.00 × 10+00

Chu et al. 2009

zooplankton

Cladocera

Evadne nordmanni

1.00 × 10-01

8.31 × 10-05

8.64 × 10-05

2.70 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.00 × 10-01

7.00 × 10-05

1.10 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

Gonçalves et al. 2012

 
 

Podon sp.

6.00 × 10-02

7.65 × 10-05

1.12 × 10-04

3.30 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 

Copepoda

Acartia clausi

1.20 × 10-01

1.78 × 10-04

6.88 × 10-05

2.40 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.20 × 10-01

6.00 × 10-05

6.00 × 10-05

0.00 × 10+00

Gonçalves et al. 2012

 
 

Acartia tonsa

1.50 × 10-01

5.10 × 10-04

5.10 × 10-04

3.00 × 10-05

Gonçalves et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.50 × 10-01

6.25 × 10-03

1.30 × 10-02

0.00 × 10+00

Hazzard and Kleppel 2003

 
 

Calanus finmarchicus

3.00 × 10-01

1.30 × 10-03

1.05 × 10-03

 

Mayor et al. 2009b

 
 

Calanus helgolandicus

3.20 × 10-01

2.12 × 10-03

1.40 × 10-03

4.50 × 10-05

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 

Centropages hamatus

1.30 × 10-01

4.00 × 10-04

1.23 × 10-04

2.80 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 

Centropages typicus

1.80 × 10-01

7.29 × 10-04

1.94 × 10-04

5.20 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.80 × 10-01

3.63 × 10-03

2.14 × 10-03

0.00 × 10+00

Gonçalves et al. 2012

 
 

Eurytemora velox 

1.20 × 10-01

1.10 × 10-04

8.00 × 10-05

0.00 × 10+00

Gonçalves et al. 2012

 
 

Paracalanus parvus

1.00 × 10-01

1.46 × 10-04

4.92 × 10-05

1.80 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 

Pseudocalanus sp.

2.10 × 10-01

2.94 × 10-04

3.55 × 10-04

3.90 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 

Temora longicornis

1.50 × 10-01

2.92 × 10-04

1.28 × 10-04

3.60 × 10-06

Tiselius et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.50 × 10-01

1.60 × 10-04

1.00 × 10-04

0.00 × 10+00

Gonçalves et al. 2012

macrocrustaceans

Decapoda

Callinectes sapidus

1.35 × 10+01

4.67 × 10+01

5.74 × 10+01

2.88 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Callinectes sapidus ♀

1.35 × 10+01

2.02 × 10+01

2.53 × 10+01

1.48 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Callinectes sapidus gravid ♀

1.35 × 10+01

7.02 × 10+01

6.68 × 10+01

2.92 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Callinectes similis ♀

6.95 × 10+00

1.52 × 10+01

1.86 × 10+01

1.09 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Callinectes similis ♂

4.04 × 10+00

2.48 × 10+00

4.14 × 10+00

1.12 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Farfantepenaeus aztecus

1.25 × 10+01

1.19 × 10+01

1.15 × 10+01

5.04 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Litopenaeus setiferus

1.25 × 10+01

9.89 × 10+00

1.33 × 10+01

7.10 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Panulirus cygnus

1.50 × 10+00

1.18 × 10-01

7.88 × 10-02

 

Saunders et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.60 × 10+00

1.73 × 10-01

1.13 × 10-01

1.95 × 10-02

Wang 2013

 
 
 

1.60 × 10+00

3.03 × 10-01

1.82 × 10-01

2.93 × 10-02

Wang 2013

 
 
 

1.80 × 10+00

2.99 × 10-01

1.82 × 10-01

3.14 × 10-02

Wang 2013

 
 
 

1.80 × 10+00

2.92 × 10-01

1.71 × 10-01

2.71 × 10-02

Wang 2013

 
 
 

2.10 × 10+00

2.76 × 10-01

1.77 × 10-01

3.34 × 10-02

Wang 2013

 
 
 

2.10 × 10+00

4.56 × 10-01

2.69 × 10-01

4.60 × 10-02

Wang 2013

 

Euphausiacea

Euphausia superba

3.00 × 10+00

2.85 × 10+00

2.31 × 10+01

1.90 × 10+00

Cripps et al. 1999

 
 
 

3.64 × 10+00

3.37 × 10+00

3.08 × 10+01

1.60 × 10+00

Cripps et al. 1999

 
 
 

4.16 × 10+00

7.12 × 10+00

5.38 × 10+01

2.73 × 10+00

Cripps et al. 1999

cephalopods

Octopoda

Octopus vulgaris

9.40 × 10-01

1.90 × 10-01

1.21 × 10-01

3.09 × 10-02

Navarro and Villanueva 2003

 
 
 

2.27 × 10+00

1.72 × 10+00

1.21 × 10+00

6.64 × 10-01

Navarro and Villanueva 2003

 
 
 

3.07 × 10+00

3.30 × 10+00

2.38 × 10+00

8.20 × 10-01

Navarro and Villanueva 2003

 

Teuthida

Loligo opalescens

2.38 × 10+01

1.44 × 10+02

6.55 × 10+01

7.30 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

fishes

Osteichthyes

Brevoortia patronus

1.28 × 10+01

2.13 × 10+01

8.57 × 10+00

2.69 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Champsocephalus gunnari

3.12 × 10+01

4.77 × 10+02

7.35 × 10+02

4.01 × 10+01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Chloroscombrus chrysurus

8.30 × 10+00

1.15 × 10+01

4.10 × 10+00

1.67 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Electrona carlsbergi

9.00 × 10+00

1.46 × 10+02

1.58 × 10+02

1.24 × 10+01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Electrona subaspera

7.20 × 10+00

6.38 × 10+01

4.93 × 10+01

2.90 × 10+00

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Gadus macrocephalus

5.20 × 10-01

1.47 × 10-03

9.60 × 10-04

1.40 × 10-04

Laurel et al. 2010

 
 

Gadus morhua

4.50 × 10-01

1.62 × 10-03

8.10 × 10-04

5.00 × 10-05

Laurel et al. 2010

 
 

Gymnoscopelus fraseri

5.10 × 10+00

7.38 × 10+00

3.53 × 10+00

3.24 × 10-01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 
 

7.20 × 10+00

4.49 × 10+01

4.39 × 10+01

2.55 × 10+00

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Gymnoscopelus nicholsi

1.23 × 10+01

2.33 × 10+02

2.83 × 10+02

1.69 × 10+01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Gymnoscopelus piabilis

1.04 × 10+01

8.64 × 10+01

7.28 × 10+01

6.24 × 10+00

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Harengula jaguana

6.60 × 10+00

8.65 × 10+00

3.27 × 10+00

1.06 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 
 

1.41 × 10+01

6.15 × 10+01

4.83 × 10+01

8.70 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Lagodon rhomboides

1.04 × 10+01

1.80 × 10+01

9.76 × 10+00

1.39 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Limanda ferruginea

3.00 × 10-01

3.50 × 10-04

2.30 × 10-04

4.00 × 10-05

Copeman et al. 2002

 
 

Micropogonias undulatus

1.46 × 10+01

5.52 × 10+01

4.68 × 10+01

3.70 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Mugil cephalus

2.58 × 10+01

4.01 × 10+02

8.09 × 10+02

1.46 × 10+02

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Mugil curema

1.28 × 10+01

4.13 × 10+01

9.16 × 10+01

2.66 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Opisthonema oglinum

7.50 × 10+00

7.58 × 10+00

2.44 × 10+00

6.80 × 10-01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 
 

1.77 × 10+01

1.94 × 10+02

5.64 × 10+01

3.13 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Orthopristis chrysoptera

1.15 × 10+01

1.73 × 10+01

1.06 × 10+01

8.79 × 10+00

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Protomyctophum tenisoni

4.10 × 10+00

6.66 × 10+00

4.31 × 10+00

2.73 × 10-01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 
 

4.90 × 10+00

1.38 × 10+01

6.99 × 10+00

5.10 × 10-01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Sardinella aurita

1.97 × 10+01

1.91 × 10+02

6.63 × 10+01

2.81 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Scomber scombrus

3.19 × 10+01

2.28 × 10+03

7.36 × 10+02

4.04 × 10+02

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 
 

Protomyctophum tenisoni

4.10 × 10+00

6.66 × 10+00

4.31 × 10+00

2.73 × 10-01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 
 

4.90 × 10+00

1.38 × 10+01

6.99 × 10+00

5.10 × 10-01

Lea et al. 2002

 
 

Sardinella aurita

1.97 × 10+01

1.91 × 10+02

6.63 × 10+01

2.81 × 10+01

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 

 

Scomber scombrus

3.19 × 10+01

2.28 × 10+03

7.36 × 10+02

4.04 × 10+02

L.A. Fuiman unpublished data

 

Table A2. Regression statistics for scaling relationships for three essential fatty acids. Data were fitted to a log-transformed power function (log10 Y = a + b log10 X, where Y is whole-body fatty acid content and X is organism length). Regressions use data in Table A1, e × cluding yolk-bearing stages (eggs and early larvae) of zooplankton and fishes and are depicted in Fig. 1.

Fatty acid

a

b

95% confidence interval for b

n

Adjusted R²

P

DHA

-1.29

2.84

2.76 – 2.91

91

0.985

< 0.001

EPA

-1.37

2.76

2.67 – 2.86

94

0.974

< 0.001

ARA

-2.05

2.66

2.52 – 2.75

67

0.970

< 0.001


 

Table A3. Egg production and egg mortality rate for fish populations with planktonic eggs. Egg production is the estimated number of eggs produced by the sampled population per day (daily) or per year (annual). Mortality rate is the instantaneous rate (Z) per day (daily) or from fertilization until hatching (cumulative).

   

Egg production

 

Mortality rate

 

Family

Species

Daily

Annual

 

Daily

Cumulative

Source

Clupeidae

Etrumeus sadina

2.45 × 10+11

6.29 × 10+13

 

5.52 × 10-01

1.10 × 10+00

Houde 1977

 

Harengula jaguana

2.98 × 10+11

4.87 × 10+13

 

2.60 × 10+00

2.10 × 10+00

Houde 1977

 

Opisthonema oglinum

3.28 × 10+11

5.24 × 10+13

 

4.39 × 10-01

3.68 × 10-01

Houde 1977

 

Sardina pilchardus

6.90 × 10+12

 
 
 
 

Bernal et al. 2011

 
 

4.79 × 10+12

 
 
 
 

ICES 2004

 

Sardinella brasiliensis

 

1.50 × 10+12

 
 
 

Matsuura 1998

 

Sardinops melanostictus

 

7.95 × 10+13

 
 
 

Ishida 2006

 
 
 

4.89 × 10+13

 

5.00 × 10-01

 

Tanaka 1974

 
 
 

2.08 × 10+14

 
 

3.35 × 10+00

Nakai and Hattori 1962

 

Sardinops sagax 

1.28 × 10+12

 
 

1.20 × 10-01

4.50 × 10-01

Lo et al. 1996

 
 
 
 
 

2.12 × 10+00

 

Smith et al. 1989

 
 
 
 
 

3.10 × 10-01

9.30 × 10-01

Smith 1973

 
 
 

2.82 × 10+12

 
 
 

van der Lingen et al. 2001

 

Sprattus sprattus

6.10 × 10+11

 
 
 
 

Kraus and Koster 2004

 
 
 
 
 

3.16 × 10-01

 

Voss et al. 2011

Engraulidae

Anchoa mitchilli

 
 
 

6.90 × 10-01

6.90 × 10-01

Houde 1987

 
 
 
 
 

1.48 × 10+00

 

Purcell et al. 1994

 

Encrasicholina devisi

9.50 × 10+06

 
 
 
 

Milton et al. 1995

 

Encrasicholina heterolobus

9.75 × 10+06

 
 
 
 

Milton et al. 1995

 

Encrasicholina purpurea

1.68 × 10+08

 
 
 
 

Somerton et al. 1993

 

Engraulis anchoita

1.86 × 10+13

 
 

8.68 × 10-01

 

Krautz et al. 2007

 
 
 

3.16 × 10+15

 
 

2.30 × 10+00

Ciechomski and Capezzani 1973

 
 
 
 
 

2.76 × 10-01

 

Pajáro et al. 2007

 

Engraulis capensis

4.33 × 10+13

 
 

1.74 × 10-01

 

Armstrong et al. 1988

 
 

3.98 × 10+13

 
 

1.97 × 10-01

3.93 × 10-01

Shelton et al. 1993

 
 
 

2.27 × 10+13

 
 
 

van der Lingen et al. 2001

 

Engraulis encrasicolus

 
 
 

1.12 × 10+00

2.81 × 10+00

Dahlberg 1979

 
 

1.24 × 10+12

 
 

7.45 × 10-01

 

Garcia and Palomera 1996

 
 

4.63 × 10+11

 
 

5.65 × 10-01

1.13 × 10+00

Palomera and Pertierra 1993

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Santiago and Sanz 1992

 
 

1.33 × 10+12

 
 

3.97 × 10-01

 

Somarakis et al. 2012

 
 

1.12 × 10+11

 
 

5.27 × 10-01

 

Somarakis et al. 2002

 

Engraulis encrasicolus

3.77 × 10+12

 
 
 
 

ICES 2004

 
 

2.34 × 10+12

 
 
 
 

ICES 2004

 
 

3.94 × 10+13

 
 
 
 

Palomera 1992

 

Engraulis japonicus

 
 
 

3.57 × 10-01

 

Hayasi 1966

 
 

5.32 × 10+12

 
 

6.57 × 10-01

2.05 × 10+00

Kim and Lo 2001

 
 

2.31 × 10+13

 
 

1.11 × 10+00

3.41 × 10+00

Kim and Lo 2001

 
 
 

5.77 × 10+14

 
 
 

Kono and Zenitani 2008

 

Engraulis mordax 

1.80 × 10+13

 
 

2.40 × 10-01

 

Fiedler et al. 1986

 
 

1.82 × 10+13

 
 
 
 

Picquelle and Stauffer 1985

 
 

1.70 × 10+13

 
 

2.90 × 10-01

2.50 × 10+00

Bindman 1986

 
 

7.49 × 10+12

 
 

3.50 × 10-01

 

CoteroAltamirano and GreenRuiz 1997

 
 

1.81 × 10+13

 
 
 
 

Hewitt 1985

 

Engraulis ringens

 
 
 

3.86 × 10-01

 

Alheit 1987

 
 
 
 
 

6.74 × 10-01

 

Braun et al. 2004 in Krautz et al. 2007

 
 
 
 
 

9.10 × 10-01

 

Santander et al. 1983

 
 
 
 
 

1.12 × 10+00

 

Smith et al. 1989

 

Spratteloides delicatulus

2.93 × 10+07

 
 
 
 

Milton et al. 1995

 

Spratteloides lewisi

1.68 × 10+08

 
 
 
 

Milton et al. 1995

Gadidae

Gadus morhua

 

3.60 × 10+12

 

2.49 × 10-01

 

Armstrong et al. 2001

 
 
 

1.33 × 10+14

 
 
 

Bondarenko et al. 2003

 
 
 

4.67 × 10+12

 
 
 

Daan 1981

 
 
 

3.70 × 10+13

 
 
 

Daan et al. 1985

 
 

2.50 × 10+11

 
 

1.10 × 10-01

 

Fossum 1988

 
 
 

1.50 × 10+13

 
 
 

Sundby and Bratland 1987

 
 
 

9.85 × 10+12

 
 

3.18 × 10+00

Heessen and Rijnsdorp 1989

 
 
 
 
 

5.00 × 10-02

7.00 × 10-01

Houde 1987

 
 

6.08 × 10+11

2.42 × 10+13

 
 
 

Kraus et al. 2012

 
 
 

1.55 × 10+12

 
 
 

Maxwell et al. 2012

 
 
 
 
 

1.39 × 10-01

 

Mountain et al. 2003

 
 
 
 
 

2.40 × 10-01

 

Voss et al. 2011

 

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

 

5.58 × 10+12

 
 
 

Blanchard et al. 2003

 
 
 

3.25 × 10+13

 
 
 

Bondarenko et al. 2003

 
 
 

1.27 × 10+13

 

3.80 × 10-01

 

Koslow et al. 1985

 
 
 

2.50 × 10+12

 
 
 

Maxwell et al. 2012

 
 
 
 
 

1.22 × 10-01

 

Mountain et al. 2003

 
 
 
 
 

1.00 × 10-01

 

Saville 1956

 

Merluccius merluccius

 

1.36 × 10+12

 

3.80 × 10-01

 

Murua et al. 2010

 

Theragra chalcogramma

 

6.90 × 10+14

 

4.00 × 10-01

 

Kim and Gunderson 1989

Haemulidae

Haemulon flavolineatum

 
 
 

2.00 × 10-01

2.00 × 10-01

Houde 1987

Labridae

Tautogolabrus adspersus

 
 
 
 

3.00 × 10+00

Williams et al. 1973

Merlucciidae

Macruronus novaezelandiae

6.85 × 10+12

 
 
 
 

Zeldis et al. 1998

Percichthyidae

Morone saxatilis

 
 
 

1.00 × 10-01

2.00 × 10-01

Houde 1987

 
 
 
 
 

2.35 × 10+00

4.71 × 10+00

Polgar 1977 in Dahlberg 1979

 
 
 
 
 

2.90 × 10+00

5.80 × 10+00

Polgar 1977 in Dahlberg 1979

 
 
 
 
 

9.21 × 10-01

2.30 × 10+00

Portner 1975 in Dahlberg 1979

 
 
 
 
 

1.02 × 10+00

2.30 × 10+00

Swartzman et al. 1977 in Dahlberg 1979

Pleuronectidae

Microstomus pacificus

2.98 × 10+09

 
 

6.30 × 10-01

2.16 × 10+00

Lo et al. 1993

 

Pleuronectes platessa

 

1.73 × 10+12

 

1.87 × 10-01

 

Armstrong et al. 2001

 
 
 

4.48 × 10+12

 

7.46 × 10-02

 

Harding et al. 1978

 
 
 

4.05 × 10+12

 

1.28 × 10-01

 

Harding et al. 1978

 
 

3.36 × 10+10

 
 

1.24 × 10-01

3.22 × 10+00

Coombs et al. 1990

 
 
 

3.70 × 10+13

 
 
 

Daan et al. 1985

 
 
 

1.87 × 10+13

 
 

2.10 × 10+00

Heessen and Rijnsdorp 1989

 
 
 

1.71 × 10+12

 
 
 

Maxwell et al. 2012

 
 
 

4.06 × 10+12

 

7.30 × 10-02

1.18 × 10+00

Harding and Talbot 1973

 
 
 

1.40 × 10+13

 

9.60 × 10-02

 

van der Land 1991

 
 
 

3.39 × 10+12

 

7.28 × 10-02

 

Bannister et al. 1974

 

Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

 

2.17 × 10+11

 
 
 

Bondarenko et al. 2003

Scombridae

Scomber japonicus

3.02 × 10+11

 
 
 
 

Watanabe et al. 1999

 
 
 

5.00 × 10+14

 
 
 

Tanaka 1974

 

Scomber scombrus

 

3.03 × 10+14

 
 
 

Berrien et al. 1981

 
 
 

1.98 × 10+15

 
 
 

Lockwood et al. 1981

 
 
 
 
 

1.23 × 10+00

 

Portilla et al. 2007

 
 

2.22 × 10+13

1.50 × 10+15

 
 
 

Priede and Watson 1993

 
 
 

6.40 × 10+13

 

1.34 × 10-01

1.20 × 10+00

Sette 1943

 
 
 
 
 

1.04 × 10-01

 

Thompson 1989

 
 

1.69 × 10+14

 
 
 
 

Solá et al. 1998

 
 
 
 
 

5.28 × 10-01

 

Ware and Lambert 1985

 
 
 

6.00 × 10+14

 
 
 

Lockwood 1988

 
 
 

1.37 × 10+15

 
 
 

Lockwood 1988

 
 
 

3.60 × 10+13

 
 
 

Lockwood 1988

 
 
 
 
 

1.43 × 10+00

1.57 × 10+00

Dekhnik 1964 in Dahlberg 1979

 

Trachurus symmetricus

 

6.66 × 10+14

 

8.45 × 10-01

3.04 × 10+00

Farris 1961

 

Trachurus trachurus

1.75 × 10+14

 
 
 
 

Solá et al. 1998

 
 
 

1.42 × 10+15

 
 
 

Lockwood 1988

Soleidae

Solea solea

 

2.77 × 10+12

 

3.90 × 10-01

 

Armstrong et al. 2001

 
 
 
 
 

5.45 × 10-01

3.13 × 10+00

Riley 1974

 
 
 
 
 

1.05 × 10+00

7.60 × 10+00

Riley 1974

 
 
 

2.84 × 10+13

 

4.95 × 10-01

3.85 × 10+00

van der Land 1991

Sparidae

Pagrus auratus

2.99 × 10+09

 
 

1.86 × 10+00

2.19 × 10+00

Jackson and Cheng 2001

 
 

4.50 × 10+11

 
 

7.10 × 10-01

1.42 × 10+00

Zeldis and Francis 1998

Sternoptychidae

Maurolicus muelleri

1.84 × 10+12

 
 
 
 

Okiyama 1981

Trachichthyidae

Hoplostethus atlanticus

1.07 × 10+10

3.75 × 10+11

 
 
 

Koslow et al. 1995

 

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