Ecological Archives E096-017-A3

Martine Kos, Tibor Bukovinszky, Patrick P. J. Mulder, and T. Martin Bezemer. 2015. Disentangling above- and belowground neighbor effects on the growth, chemistry, and arthropod community on a focal plant. Ecology 96:164175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0563.1

Appendix C. Tables for PA mass spectrometric settings, abiotic soil characteristics and observed arthropod families.

Table C1. Mass spectrometric settings and PA concentrations found in J. vulgaris plants.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloid

Retention time
(min)

Protonated
parent mass
(m/z)

Fragment
ion 1 ; 2
(m/z)

Collision
energy 1 ; 2 (eV)

Mean concentration ± SE
(µg/g d.w.)

heliotrine (IS)

8.33

314.2

138

25

 

senecionine

9.63

336.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

25.0 ± 2.7

senecionine-N-oxide

6.76

352.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

243.9 ± 13.7

integerrimine

9.45

336.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

6.5 ± 1.0

integerrimine-N-oxide

6.63

352.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

107.1 ± 6.0

senecivernine

9.80

336.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

0.4 ± 0.2

senecivernine-N-oxide

6.86

352.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

n.a.

retrorsine

8.26

350.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

8.9 ± 0.8

retrorsine-N-oxide

5.80

268.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

70.6 ± 5.6

usaramine

8.10

352.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

1.2 ± 0.2

usaramine-N-oxide

5.67

368.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

18.7 ± 1.3

seneciphylline

8.90

334.2

120 ; 138

30 ; 30

32.0 ± 4.4

seneciphylline-N-oxide

6.20

350.2

94 ; 138

40 ; 30

235.0 ± 27.0

spartioidine

8.75

334.2

120 ; 138

30 ; 30

1.0 ± 0.1

spartioidine-N-oxide

6.05

350.2

94 ; 138

40 ; 30

20.4 ± 1.8

riddelliine

7.67

350.2

94 ; 138

40 ; 30

4.4 ± 0.5

riddelliine-N-oxide

5.25

366.2

94 ; 118

40 ; 30

39.3 ± 4.6

acetylseneciphylline

11.52

376.2

120 ; 138

30 ; 30

0.3 ± 0.1

acetylseneciphylline-N-oxide

8.62

392.2

94 ; 118

40 ; 30

4.1 ± 0.5

jacobine

7.57

352.2

120 ; 155

30 ; 30

2843.1 ± 76.2

jacobine-N-oxide

5.30

368.2

120 ; 296

30 ; 25

753.0 ± 56.3

jacoline

5.85

370.2

94 ; 138

40 ; 30

120.8 ± 4.6

jacoline-N-oxide

4.20

386.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

20.8 ± 1.7

jaconine

8.51

388.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

83.4 ± 3.9

jaconine-N-oxide

5.60

404.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 35

3.9 ± 0.4

jacozine

7.00

350.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

60.9 ± 4.2

jacozine-N-oxide

4.98

366.2

94 ; 118

40 ; 30

9.6 ± 1.4

dehydrojacoline

5.42

368.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

4.0 ± 0.3

dehydrojacoline-N-oxide

4.45

384.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

7.0 ± 0.8

dehydrojaconine

7.65

386.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

2.9 ± 0.2

hydroxyjacobine

6.53

368.2

120 ; 296

30 ; 25

52.1 ± 2.7

hydroxyjacoline

4.52

386.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

4.9 ± 0.3

hydroxyjaconine

7.40

404.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 35

3.0 ± 0.2

erucifoline

7.25

350.2

94 ; 138

40 ; 30

41.5 ± 3.6

erucifoline-N-oxide

4.60

366.2

94 ; 118

40 ; 30

58.7 ± 4.4

acetylerucifoline

9.90

392.2

94 ; 118

40 ; 30

31.5 ± 2.4

acetylerucifoline-N-oxide

7.00

408.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

348.0 ± 22.3

senkirkine

7.12

366.2

122 ; 168

30 ; 25

0.1 ± 0.0

otosenine

5.40

382.2

122 ; 168

30 ; 25

2.0 ± 0.7

Onetine

4.25

400.2

122 ; 168

30 ; 30

0.1 ± 0.0

desacetyldoronine

6.04

418.2

122 ; 168

30 ; 30

0.02 ± 0.01

florosenine

8.13

424.2

122 ; 168

35 ; 30

n.a.

floridanine

6.60

442.2

122 ; 168

30 ; 30

n.a.

doronine

8.75

460.2

122 ; 168

35 ; 30

n.a.

unnamed tertiary amine

7.95

350.2

94 ; 120

40 ; 30

1.0 ± 0.2

unnamed N-oxide

4.69

366.2

94 ; 118

40 ; 30

3.6 ± 0.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total tertiary amines

 

 

 

 

3330.8 ± 89.3

Total N-oxides

 

 

 

 

1943.6 ± 95.6

Total PAs

 

 

 

 

5274.5 ± 135.3

 

Table C2. Mean (± SE) of abiotic characteristics of soil conditioned by five neighboring plant species or of control soil. Different letters within a column denote significant differences between the species (Tukey's post-hoc analysis: P < 0.05).

Plant species

Soil abiotic characteristics

 

NO3 (mg/kg)

NH4 (mg/kg)

% N

% C

C/N ratio

H. radicata

1.3 ± 0.2a

6.2 ± 0.6b

0.11 ± 0.00a

1.9 ± 0.0a

18.4 ± 0.1a

L. vulgare

0.9 ± 0.1a

12.1 ± 1.1cd

0.12 ± 0.01a

2.2 ± 0.1a

18.2 ± 0.3a

P. lanceolata

1.3 ± 0.1a

13.9 ± 1.0d

0.12 ± 0.01a

2.1 ± 0.2a

17.5 ± 0.3a

T. vulgare

2.9 ± 0.3b

14.1 ± 1.7d

0.12 ± 0.01a

2.1 ± 0.1a

17.5 ± 0.2a

J. vulgaris

1.4 ± 0.2a

9.1 ± 1.2bc

0.11 ± 0.01a

2.0 ± 0.1a

18.4 ± 0.4a

Control

3.3 ± 0.3b

3.7 ± 0.3a

0.13 ± 0.00a

2.3 ± 0.1a

17.8 ± 0.1a

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plant species

Olsen-P (mg/kg)

P (mg/kg)

pH

% OM

 

H. radicata

99.3 ± 2.6 ab

4.5 ± 0.3a

6.4 ± 0.1a

4.1 ± 0.1a

 

L. vulgare

91.4 ± 2.0ab

4.9 ± 0.2ab

6.3 ± 0.0a

4.6 ± 0.1ab

 

P. lanceolata

94.7 ± 3.2 ab

5.6 ± 0.3bc

6.1 ± 0.2a

4.9 ± 0.3b

 

T. vulgare

88.1 ± 2.9a

4.7 ± 0.1ab

6.2 ± 0.1a

4.6 ± 0.2 ab

 

J. vulgaris

94.0 ± 2.8 ab

5.0 ± 0.1ab

6.4 ± 0.1a

4.3 ± 0.1 ab

 

Control

102.1 ± 1.3b

6.6 ± 0.1c

6.6 ± 0.3a

4.5 ± 0.1 ab

 

 

Table C3. Total number of arthropods observed on focal J. vulgaris plants and on neighboring plants. Insects were identified until the order or family level.

Taxonomic group

 

Number of individuals on J. vulgaris

Number of individuals on neighboring plants

Order

Family

Common name

Herbivores

 

 

 

 

Hemiptera

Aphididae

Aphids

544

1083

Hemiptera

Miridae

True bugs

95

342

Hemiptera

Cicadellidae

Leafhopper

62

20

Coleoptera

Chrysomelidae

Flea beetles

30

70

Coleoptera

Curculionidae

Weevils

3

16

Diptera

Agromyzidae

Leaf-mining flies (larvae)

1987

1246

Thysanoptera

 

Thrips

505

n.a.

Lepidoptera

 

Caterpillars

18

12

     Total herbivores

 

 

3244

2789

 

 

 

 

 

Carnivores

 

 

 

 

Araneae

 

Spiders

976

1449

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Ladybird beetles

25

104

Coleoptera

Carabidae

Ground beetles

157

304

Hymenoptera

 

Parasitoid wasps

56

84

Trombidiformes (Acari)

Trombidiidae

Trombidiid mites

169

113

Diptera

Syrphidae

Hoverfly eggs

53

16

Neuroptera

Chrysopidae

Lacewing eggs

34

25

     Total carnivores

 

 

1483

2099

 

 

 

 

 

     Total arthropods

 

 

4727

4888

n.a. = thrips were not counted on neighboring plants, because of time constraints.


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