Ecological Archives --A2

Ian S. Pearse and Florian Altermatt. 2013. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera–plant food web. Ecology 94:1785–1794.

Appendix B. Figures showing results of additional simulations.


Fig. B1. Number of Lepidoptera species (y-axis, on a sqrt-scale) feeding on each of the 759 host plants relative to the host plants' range size in Baden-Württemberg. Each circle stands for one of the 759 host plants. Gray circles denote host plants that are only used by oligo- or polyphagous Lepidoptera species. Black circles denote host plants that are the sole larval resource for at least one monophagous Lepidoptera species (but these plants can also be used by oligo- and polyphagous). The black line is a nonlinear exponential fit between the number of Lepidopteran herbivore species per plant species and the plant’s range size in Baden-Württemberg. More than 120 different Lepidoptera species (including both polyphagous and monophagous species) feed on each of the three most commonly used host plants (Prunus spinosa, Quercus robur, and Salix caprea).


Fig. B2. Bootstrapped extinctions of plant species and subsequent proportion of Lepidoptera extinctions (mean: black line, 95% and 99% percentile: orange and yellow area respectively) given separately for three major groups of Lepidoptera (A: butterflies, B: geometrid moths, C: noctuid moths). Extinction of plant species was random and Lepidoptera species could not switch host plants. The intersect of the observed number of plant extinctions and proportion of Lepidoptera extinctions in the respective families is indicated by the red cross.



Fig. B3. Number of host plants species used by larval Lepidoptera relative to the Lepidoptera species’ red list status. The y-axis is on a sqrt-scale.

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