Ecological Archives E093-071-A1

Nicole E. Rafferty and Anthony R. Ives. 2012. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time. Ecology 93:803–814

Appendix A. Fruit set patterns and visitation rates for both plant species in 2009.


   FIG. A1. Mean (± 1 SE) fruit set (total number of fruits/total number of flowers or inflorescences produced by a plant over the 3 days it was exposed to pollinators in the field) in 2009 for plants with different weeks of flowering onset relative to the current date of first bloom (CDFB) for (a) Tradescantia ohiensis and (b) Asclepias incarnata.  For each phenological treatment, N = 5 plants, except N = 3 plants for the CDFB treatment for A. incarnata. Weeks are labeled A2 = advanced by 2 wk, A1 = advanced by 1 wk, D1 = delayed by 1 wk, D2 = delayed by 2 wk, D3 = delayed by 3 wk, D4 = delayed by 4 wk. The number of visits per 10 min to (c) T. ohiensis and (d) A. incarnata in 2009 showed decreases (P < 0.0016, Rafferty and Ives, 2011, Table S1) and increases (P < 0.0001) through time, respectively. The statistical analysis of temporal changes in visitation rates were performed for all of 14 plant species studied by Rafferty and Ives (2011) simultaneously which made it possible to factor out week-to-week variability affecting all plant species and hence likely caused by environmental variation. Note that the pattern in visitation rates through time do not match changes in seed set.



Rafferty, N. E., and A. R. Ives. 2011. Effects of experimental shifts in flowering time on plant- pollinator interactions. Ecology Letters 14:69–74.

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