Ecological Archives E092-066-metadata

Ryan F. Hechinger, Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu, Jenny C. Shaw, Mark E. Torchin, Kathleen L. Whitney, and Armand M. Kuris. 2011. Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries. Ecology 92:791.

TABLE 3C. Link Type definitions. LinkID and LinkType are column headers 11 and 12 in the links data sets.

LinkID LinkType Link Type Definition
1 Predation† A consumer individual that, within a single lifecycle stage, kills and consumes more than one individual of the resource (prey) species. Examples: snakes, warblers, clams.
2 Social Predation Two or more conspecific individual consumers (predators) cooperate to kill and consume a single individual of the resource (prey) species. Examples: wolves, army ants.
3 Micropredation A consumer individual that, within a single lifecycle stage, feeds on more than one resource individual but does not kill that resource individual (host). Damage to the resource individual is intensity-dependent; the more micropredators feeding on a resource individual the greater the resource's loss of fitness. Examples: mosquitoes, leafhoppers, most butterfly fishes. Micropredators can be important vectors for pathogens.
4 Parasitic Castration A consumer individual blocks the reproduction of the resource individual (host). Thus, while they reduce host fitness to zero, parasitic castrators do not necessarily reduce survivorship of the stolen host body. The effect on the host is intensity-independent in that there is no additive reproductive effect of additional parasitic castrators on the host. Examples: digenean trematode parthenitae, bopyrid isopods, rhizocephalan barnacles, most strepsipterans.
5 Pathogen Infection A consumer individual infects a single resource individual (host) and then multiplies within that host. Death of the host will ensue unless its defensive mechanisms or external forces (Examples: other consumers) limit the infection. The effects are intensity-independent, as the outcome may result from a single infectious agent (or inoculum). These consumers are appropriately modeled using microparasite models (Anderson and May, 1979). Examples: smallpox, diphtheria, malaria, lice, scale insects, Gyrodactylus monogenean flatworms.
6 Macroparasitism A consumer individual infects an individual host, does not necessarily cause the death of its host and does not reduce the fitness of the host to zero. Also it is not trophically transmissible to other hosts. Impact on the host is intensity-dependent, These consumers are appropriately modeled using macroparasite models (May and Anderson, 1979). Examples: adult cestodes, Ichthyopthirius ciliates, corn borers, whip worms, fleas, most parasitic copepods.
7 Pollination An interaction in which a consumer individual facilitates the fertilization of a resource individual. The brevity of this interaction distinguishes it from symbiotic (durable) mutualisms. Examples: bees, hummingbirds.
8 Parasitoid Infection A consumer individual kills only a single resource (host) individual. Its impact on the host is intensity-independent. Examples: parasitoid wasp larvae, bacteriophages, insect iridoviruses, pasteurella viruses, nematomorphs. If the host is an adult, reproduction ceases before host death.
9 Commensalism A (non-trophic) interaction between a symbiont and its individual host, where the symbiont does not negatively impact host fitness. Examples: clausidiid copepods living on exoskeletons of burrowing shrimp, trematode metacercariae encysting on the exoskeleton of a crab.
10 Trophically Transmitted Parasitic Castration An infectious consumer individual blocks a hostís reproduction and requires that its host be consumed by an appropriate predator host for lifecycle completion. Trophically transmitted parasitic castrators often manipulate the host phenotype to increase trophic transmission to the predator host. Examples: Schistocephalus tapeworm pleroceroid larvae, some microphallid trematodes in molluscan hosts.
11 Trophically Transmitted Pathogen Infection An infectious consumer individual multiplies within a resource individual (host) and requires that the host be consumed by an appropriate predator host in order to complete its lifecycle. Trophically transmitted pathogens often modify host behavior to increase trophic transmission to the predator host. Examples: mulitlocular hydatid tapeworm cysts, Toxoplamsa in intermediate hosts.
12 Trophically Transmitted Parasitism An infectious consumer on a resource (host), where the consumer requires its host to be consumed by an appropriate predator host to complete its life cycle. Its effect on the host is intensity-dependent. Trophically transmitted parasites often modify host behavior to increase trophic transmission to the next (predator) host. Examples: most larval tapeworms, most trematode metacercariae, Guinea worms in copepods.
13 Trophically Transmitted Commensalism The non-trophic interaction between a commensal and its host resource individual where, in order to complete its life cycle, the commensal requires that its host resource individual be consumed by an appropriate predator or micropredator.
14 Concurrent Predation on Symbionts A consumer individual preys on a resource individual and thereby consumes the resource individual's symbionts. This interaction describes the fate of the symbionts that are not able to escape or use the attacking consumer as a resource.
15 Trophic Transmission A consumer individual consumes a free-living infectious agent or trophically transmitted infectious agent that is able to infect it, thus furthering the infectious agent's life cycle. This describes the link between the appropriate predator or micropredator host and the parasite. This is opposed to the "trophically transmitted" categories, which describe the interaction between a parasite and its resource host that will be consumed by a predator during trophic transmission. Trophic transmission is similar to Concurrent Predation on Symbionts in that it describes ingestion of a parasite by a consumer, but differs in that this ingestion can lead to transmission of the parasite from the prey to the predator. Likewise, it is similar to Predation on Free-living Non-feeding stages, but differs in that consumption of the free-living stage can lead to transmission of the parasite. It some analyses, it may be well worthwhile to separate out the three types of "trophic transmission" lumped here: (1) the typical trophic transmission to a predator (e.g., a bird becoming infected by trematode metacercaria encysted in fish prey), (2) trophic transmission to a micropredator (e.g., mosquitos becoming infected by malaria gametocytes when feeding on bird blood), and (3) a predator becoming infected when eating a free-living infectious stage (e.g., a fish becoming infected when it ingests a swimming Renicola buchanani trematode cercaria).
16 Predation on free-living non-feeding stages A consumer individual consumes free-living non-feeding stages that are not infectious to the consumer individual.
17 Predation on commensal non-feeding stages A consumer individual attacking a hostís non-feeding commensals without harming the host itself.
18 Detritivory A consumer individual that feeds on or breaks down dead animal and plant matter (Examples: many fungi, dung beetles, vultures).
19 Parasite Intraguild Antagonism An infectious agent attacks and kills (often consuming) another infectious agent within the same symbiont (Examples: trematode parthenitae, parasitoid wasps).
20 Symbiotic Mutualism The positive trophic interaction between a symbiont and its host (Examples: hermatypic corals and zooxanthellae)
21 Facultative Micropredation The outcome of a feeding interaction of a micropredator depends on the relative size of the prey or host individual. On a large host the consumer is a micropredator, but on a small prey the consumer is a predator. The relative sizes determining feeding outcomes are system specific.(Examples: vampire bats, lampreys, fang blennies). Related terms used in system and taxon specific contexts include browser, grazer and sublethal predator.

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