Ecological Archives E090-118-D1

S. K. Morgan Ernest, Thomas J. Valone, and James H. Brown. 2009. Long-term monitoring and experimental manipulation of a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem near Portal, Arizona, USA. Ecology 90:1708.


PORTAL PLANT METADATA

INTRODUCTION

The plant community at the long-term site near Portal, Arizona, has been surveyed since 1977. Surveys provide information on the abundance of both annual and perennial plants occurring on permanently marked quadrats. Because of the bimodal precipitation pattern, there are two – mostly distinct – annual plant communities at the Portal Project study area consisting of a winter and a summer set of species. The long-term data for the plant communities at the long-term site near Portal, Arizona, have been used to address a variety of questions including (1) the effects of the granivore guild on plant community structure, (2) responses of plants to climatic variability, (3) the relationship between the diversity of a quadrat and the stability of community and population dynamics. This metadata file describes the field data collection techniques and data structure for the plant datasets. The plant community dataset consists of eight files, reflecting important differences between the types of data they contain. First, all data is separated by season (winter or summer), reflecting important differences between these seasons. In particular, summer and winter annual communities consist of the mostly non-overlapping species compositions, requiring these communities to be considered separately for most questions. Second, before 1989 data collection focused primarily on more common species. Therefore, we have separated pre and post 1989 data to reflect that these are not comparable at the community-level. Finally, data for annual and perennial plants are separated.

METADATA CLASS I. DATA SET DESCRIPTORS

A. Data set identity:

Title: Long-term monitoring and manipulation of summer and winter desert annual and herbaceous perennial plant communities in the Chihuahuan Desert near Portal, Arizona, USA.

B. Data set identification codes:

Portal_plant_summer_annual_19831988.csv
Portal_plant_summer_perennial_19831988.csv
Portal_plant_summer_annual_19892002.csv
Portal_plant_summer_perennial_19892002.csv
Portal_plant_winter_annual_19831988.csv
Portal_plant_winter_perennial_19831988.csv
Portal_plant_winter_annual_19892002.csv
Portal_plant_winter_perennial_19892002.csv

C. Data set description

Principal Investigators:

Thomas J. Valone, Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis MO 63103

S.K. Morgan Ernest, Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan UT 84322

James H. Brown, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM 87131

Abstract: The data set covers a 24 year period (1983–2002) of detailed annual and herbaceous perennial plant sampling of an arid ecosystem in near Portal, Arizona. Each year rooted plants are counted within 16 fixed quadrats on each of 24 experimental plots. The data set should prove useful for studying population dynamics and species interactions. Sampling is ongoing and data will be added over time.

D. Key words: annual plants, arid ecosystem, climate, competition, granivory, perennials.

CLASS II. RESEARCH ORIGIN DESCRIPTORS

A. Overall project description

Identity: Quadrat-based survey data of a desert plant community conducted in winter and summer on the 24 experimental plots at the 20-ha study site in the Chihuahuan Desert near Portal, AZ.

Originators: Drs. James H. Brown, Diane W. Davidson, and James Reichman

Period of Study: 1978–2002

Objectives: To monitor (a) the community- and population-level dynamics of desert plants and (b) the effects of granivore manipulation on these communities.

Source(s) of funding: See main metadata file metadata.htm

B. Specific subproject description

1. Site description: Within the 20 ha study area there are 24 experimental plots. Each plot has an area of 0.25 ha and is fenced to regulate rodent access to the plot. Rodent treatments include controls, kangaroo rat removal, and rodent removal. The ant community, which is also predominately granivorous, is also manipulated. Ant treatments include controls and ant removals.

On each plot there are 16 permanent stations marked by rebar stakes forming a 4 × 4 grid. Rows are numbered 1,3,5,7 going from the most northern row to the most southern. Columns are numbered 1,3,5,7 going from the most western column to the most eastern. Every stake on a plot has a unique identifying number denoting the coordinate of that stake on that plot. For example, stake 11 is the first stake on the first row. (See Portal_metadata_overview.html, Fig 1). The numbering of the plant stakes reflects that each plant stake is 1 m south of the rodent/ant stake of the same number. 

Description of Winter Communities:  The first winter annuals typically germinate in response to the first autumn rains in October or November but there tends to be considerable variation among winter species in the timing of germination and initial growth.  Maximum flowering occurs in late spring (late March/early April) and all annual species (except biennials) senesce by May. 

Description of Summer Communities: Typically, germination of summer annuals begins within a few days of the first summer rains in late June or early July. Maximum flowering typically occurs in late August or early September and annual plants senesce by October.

Treatments: See metadata.htm, Table 1, for details on treatment assignments for each plot.

Data Collection Period, Frequency: Plant data were collected continuously from 1978–2002. We have decided not to publish the data from 1978–1982 because of a variety of documented issues (Samson et al. 1992, Davidson et al. 1985, Quo et al. 2002). Contact Thomas J. Valone (valone@slu.edu) for access to the 1978–1982 data.

Because there are two annual plant communities – one in the winter and one in the summer - there are two plant surveys per year. The surveys occur towards the end of the growing season; occurring in spring for the winter community and fall for the summer community. Perennials occurring on quadrats were also recorded.

Pre and Post 1988 differences: Before 1988, it is possible that abundances were not necessarily recorded for all species present on a quadrat. Various assessments of the pre-1989 data have suggested that data may not have been collected on the rare species (Samson et al. 1992, Davidson et al. 1985, Quo et al. 2002), but when the transition to complete community sampling occurred is not clear. We are confident that complete community sampling was occurring by 1989. Therefore, we have split the plant data into two files reflecting this possible quality issue: 1983–1988 and 1989–2002. Data for perennial and annual plants are located in separate files. Although population analyses of specific species may be possible using both time periods, community-level analyses (e.g., species richness) involving both pre and post 1989 data should be conducted with extreme caution.

3. Research Methods

Field: Plants rooted within 16 fixed quadrats in each plot are counted each spring (winter annual survey) and fall (summer annual survey). Quadrat dimensions: 0.25 × 0.25 m. Quadrats are placed at locations permanently marked by a rebar stake.

Taxonomy and systematics: Kearney, T. H., and R. H. Peebles. 1960. Arizona Flora. University of California Press. Berkeley, California, USA.

4. Project personnel:  Unfortunately, our records of personnel involved with data collection are scarce. To the best of our knowledge, the following people were principally involved in data collection: Ginger Allington , Kristina Ernest, Keith Geluso, Richard Inouye, Margaret Kurzius, Jennifer Meyer , Qinfeng Guo, Dov Sax, Michele Schutzenhofer, Stephan Sommer, and  Thomas Valone. Some of these people assisted on a volunteer basis and this work would not have been possible without their help.

CLASS III. DATA SET STATUS AND ACCESSIBILITY

A. Status

Latest Update: October 2007

Latest Archive date: October 2007

Metadata status: The metadata are complete and up to date.

Data verification: Plant identifications are verified, in the field, by checking a reference collection of plants from the site. Unknown species are collected for later identification. Data entered into the computer are checked by two people to ensure reliable data entry. Voucher specimens for many species were deposited at Garrett Herbarium at the Utah Museum of Natural History (Davidson et al. 1985).

B. Accessibility

Storage location and medium: (Ecological Society of America data archives [Ecological Archives], URL published in each issue of its journals). Original data files reside with T. J. Valone and a copy with S. K. M. Ernest. Original datasheets reside with T. J. Valone.

Contact person: Thomas J. Valone, Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63103.  E-mail: valone@slu.edu

Copyright restrictions: None.

Proprietary restrictions: None. However, we do request that authors of publications using the plant database cite the database according to Ecological Archives policy and notify Thomas J. Valone (contact information above) of publication of their study. This allows us to make accurate reports to the National Science Foundation and document that the scientific community finds the data from this study to be useful.

Costs: None.

CLASS IV. DATA STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTORS

PRE-1989 SUMMER ANNUAL PLANT SURVEY

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_summer_annual_19831988.csv

Size: 2305 rows (including header), 528 Kilobytes.

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 1. Column information for Portal_plant_summer_annual_19831988.csv
Each row contains information on the number of individuals of each species surveyed on a particular quadrat during a particular year.

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Summer” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Annual” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1978–1988

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17,31,33,35,37,51,53,55,57,71,73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–63

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

PRE-1989 SUMMER PERENNIAL PLANT SURVEY

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_summer_perennial_19831988.csv

Size: 2305 rows (including header), 554 kilobytes

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 2. Column information for Portal_plant_summer_perennial_19831988.csv
Each row contains information on the number of individuals of each species surveyed on a particular quadrat during a particular year.

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Summer” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Perennial” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1978–1988

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17, 31,33,35,37, 51,53,55,57

71,73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–65

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

PRE-1988 WINTER ANNUAL PLANT SURVEY

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_winter_annual_19831988.csv

Size: 2305 rows (including header), 491 kilobytes.

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 3. Column information for Portal_plant_winter_annual_19831988.csv

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Winter” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Annual” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1978–1988

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17,31,33,35,37,51,53,55,57,71, 73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–65

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

PRE-1988 WINTER HERBACEOUS PERENNIAL PLANT SURVEY

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_winter_perennial_19831988.csv

Size: 2305 rows (including header row), 451 kilobytes.

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 4. Column information for Portal_plant_winter_perennial_19831988.csv

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year  surveyed

Character

“Winter” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Perennial” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1978–1988

Plot

Plot number  surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17, 31,33,35,37, 51,53,55,57

71,73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–53

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

POST-1988 SUMMER ANNUAL PLANTS

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_summer_annual_19892002.csv

Size: 5377 rows (including header), 789 Kilobyte

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 5. Column information for Portal_plant_summer_annual_19892002.csv
Each row contains information on the number of individuals of each species surveyed on a particular quadrat during a particular year.

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Summer” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or perennial

Character

“Annual” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1989–2002

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17,31,33,35,37,51,53,55,57

71,73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–63

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

POST-1988 SUMMER HERBACEOUS PERENNIAL PLANTS

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_summer_perennial_19892002.csv

Size: 5377 rows (including header), 792 kilobytes

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 6. Column information for Portal_plant_summer_perennial_19892002.csv
Each row contains information on the number of individuals of each species surveyed on a particular quadrat during a particular year.

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Summer” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Perennial” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1989–2002

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1-24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17, 31,33,35,37, 51,53,55,57

71,73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–65

names

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

POST-1988 WINTER ANNUAL PLANTS

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_winter_annual_19892002.csv

Size: 5377 rows (including header), 801 kilobytes.

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 7. Column information for Portal_plant_winter_annual_19892002.csv
Each row contains information on the number of individuals of each species surveyed on a particular quadrat during a particular year.

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Winter” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Annual” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1989–2002

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17,31,33,35,37,51,53,55,57,71, 73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–65

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.


 

POST-1988 WINTER HERBACEOUS PERENNIAL PLANTS

A. Data Set File:

Identity: Portal_plant_winter_perennial_19892002.csv

Size: 5377 rows (including header), 664 kilobytes.

Format and storage mode: ASCII text, comma delimited. No compression scheme used.

Header information: The first row of the file contains the variable names below.

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

B. Variable information

Table 8. Column information for Portal_plant_winter_perennial_19892002.csv
Each row contains information on the number of individuals of each species surveyed on a particular quadrat during a particular year.

Variable name

Variable definition

Storage type

Variable codes, definitions, and notes

Season

Time of year surveyed

Character

“Winter” is the only entry in this column for this file.

Life History

Annual or Perennial

Character

“Perennial” is the only entry in this column for this file

Year

Year data collected

Integer

1989–2002

Plot

Plot number surveyed

Integer

1–24

Quadrat

Stake number associated with quadrat

Integer

11,13,15,17,31,33,35,37, 51,53,55,57

71,73,75,77

[species code]

Columns 6–53

Number of stems counted for that species

Integer

See Table 9 below for species codes and scientific names.

0 = no individuals present; -99 = presence/absence not recorded.

 

Table 9. Plant species codes, scientific names, and annual vs. perennial

Species Code

Scientific name

Plant Type

Acac_cons

Acacia constricta

perennial

Acac_greg

Acacia gregii

perennial

Acac_sp

Acacia unknown

perennial

Alli_inca

Allionia incarnata

perennial

Amar_palm

Amaranthus palmer

annual

Ambr_arte

Ambrosia artemisifolia

annual

Ammo_chen

Ammocodon chenopodiodes

perennial

Amsi_tess

Amsinckia tesselata

annual

Andr_occi

Androsace occidentalis

annual

Apon_undu

Apondanthera undulata

perennial

Aris_adsc

Aristida adscensionis

annual

Aris_hamu

Aristida hamulosa

perennial

Aris_long

Aristida longiseta

perennial

Aris_sp

Aristida unknown

perennial

Astr_allo

Astragalus allochrous

annual

Astr_nutt

Astragalus nuttalianus

annual

Astr_spp.

Astralagalus sp.

annual

Astragalus

Astralagalus sp.

annual

Atri_acan

Atriplex acanthocarpa

perennial

Atri_eleg

Atriplex elegans

annual

Bahi_absi

Bahia absinthifolia

perennial

Bahi_bite

Bahia biternata

annual

Bail_mult

Baileya multiradiata

annual

Boer_inte

Boerhaavia intermedia

annual

Boer_cocc

Boerhaavia coccinea

perennial

Boer_cout

Boerhaavia coulteri

annual

Boer_sp

Boerhaavia unknown

annual

Boer_spic

Boerhaavia spiculata

annual

Boer_torr

Boerhaavia torreyana

annual

Both_barb

Bothriochloa barbinodis

perennial

Bout_aris

Bouteloua aristidoides

annual

Bout_barb

Bouteloua barbata

Annual

Bout_erio

Bouteloua eriopoda

perennial

Bout_sp

Bouteloua unknown

Annual

Bray_dens

Brayulinea densa

perennial

Brom_rube

Bromus rubens

annual

Caly_wrig

Calycoseris wrightii

annual

Cass_bauh

Cassia bauhinioides

perennial

Cass_lept

Cassia leptadenia

annual

Chae_stev

Chaenactis stevioides

annual

Chen_frem

Chenopodium fremontii

annual

Chlo_virg

Chloris virgata

annual

Chor_tene

Chorispora tenella

annual

Cirs_neom

Cirsium neomexicanum

perennial

Comm_erec

Commelina erecta

perennial

Crot_cory

Croton corymbulosa

perennial

Crot_pumi

Crotalaria pumila

annual

Cryp_cras

Cryptantha crassisepala

annual

Cryp_micr

Cryptantha micrantha

annual

Cryp_sp.3

Cryptantha sp.3

annual

Cryp_sp4

Cryptantha sp.4

annual

Cusc_sp

Cuscuta unknown

annual

D_sp2

Delphinium sp.2

annual

Dale_brac

Dalea brachystachys

annual

Dale_nana

Dalea nana

perennial

Dale_pogo

Dalea pogonathera

perennial

Desc_pinn

Descurainia pinnata

annual

Desc_sp2

Descurainia sp. 2

annual

Delp_sp1

Delphinium sp.1

annual

Dich_pulc

Dichlostema pulchellum

perennial

Dith_wisl

Dithyrea wislizenii

annual

Dyss_pent

Dyssodia pentachaeta

perennial

Enne_desv

Enneapogon desvauxii

perennial

Ephe_trif

Ephedra trifurca

perennial

Erag_arid

Eragrostis arida

annual

Erag_cili

Eragrostis cilianensis

annual

Erag_lehm

Eragrostis lehmanniana

perennial

Eria_diff

Eriastrum diffusum

annual

Erig_dive

Erigeron divergens

annual

Erio_lemm

Eriochloa lemmoni

annual

Erio_aber

Eriogonum abertianum

annual

Erod_cicu

Erodium cicutarium

annual

Erod_texa

Erodium texanum

annual

Esch_mexi

Eschscholtzia mexicana

annual

Eupho_exst

Euphorbia exstipulata

annual

Euph_fend

Euphorbia fendleri

annual

Euph_micr

Euphorbia micromera

annual

Euph_serp

Euphorbia serpyllifolia

annual

Euph_serr

Euphorbia serrula

annual

Euro_lana

Eurotia lanata

perennial

Flou_cern

Flourensia cernua

perennial

Gili_sinu

Gilia sinuata

annual

Guti_saro

Gutierrezia sarothrae

perennial

Hapl_grac

Haplopappus gracilis

annual

Hapl_spin

Haplopappus spinulosus

perennial

Hapl_tenu

Haplopappus tenuisectus

perennial

Hila_muti

Hilaria mutica

perennial

Hoff_dens

Hoffmanseggia densiflora

perennial

Ipom_cost

Ipomoea costellata

annual

Kall_gran

Kallstroemia grandiflora

annual

Lapp_redo

Lappula redowskii

annual

Lepi_lasi

Lepidium lasiocarpum

annual

Lesq_gord

Lesquerella gordoni

annual

Lina_bige

Linanthus bigelouii

annual

Lina_texa

Linaria texana

annual

Lupi_cocc

Lupinus coccinus

annual

Lupi_sp.

Lupinus sp.

annual

Lupi_sp2

Lupinus sp.2

annual

Lyci_torr

Lycium torreyi

perennial

Lycu_phle

Lycurus phleoides

perennial

Mach_tanr

Machaeranthera tanreafolia

annual

Mala_fend

Malacothrix fendleri

annual

Mesquite

Prosopis unknown

perennial

Micr_lene

Microseris lenearifolia

annual

Moll_cerv

Mollugo cerviana

annual

Moll_vert

Mollugo verticillata

annual

Moll_sp

Mollugo sp.

annual

Muhl_port

Muhlenbergia porteri

perennial

Nama_hisp

Nama hispidum

annual

Oeno_prim

Oenothera primiveris

annual

Oeno_sp

Oenothera sp.

annual

Opunt_sp

Opuntia sp.

perennial

Pani_ariz

Panicum arizonicum

annual

Pani_hirt

Panicum hirticale

annual

Pani_mili

Panicum miliaceum

annual

Pani_sp

Panicum sp.

annual

Papp_vagi

Papp vagi

perennial

Part_inca

Parthenicum incanum

perennial

Pect_papp

Pectis papposa

annual

Pect_sp

Pectocarya sp.

annual

Pere_nana

Perezia nana

perennial

Phac_ariz

Phacelia arizonica

annual

Plag_arix

Plagiobothrys arizonicus

annual

Plan_purs

Plantago purshii

annual

Poly_twee

Polygala tweedyi

perennial

Port_parv

Portulaca parvula

annual

Port_sp

Portulaca sp.

annual

Port_suff

Portulaca suffrutescens

perennial

Rume_augu

Rumex augustifolia

perennial

Sals_kali

Salsola kali

annual

Sanv_aber

Sanvitalia aberti

annual

Schi_barb

Schismus barbatus

annual

Seta_macr

Setaria macrostachya

perennial

Sida_phys

Sida physocalyx

perennial

Sida_proc

Sida procumbens

perennial

Sida_sp

Sida sp.

annual

Sida_spin

Sida spinosa

annual

Sita_hyst

Sitanion hystrix

perennial

Sola_elae

Solanum elaeagnifolium

perennial

Sper_echi

Spermolepis echinata

annual

Spha_laxa

Sphaeralcea laxa

perennial

Spor_cont

Sporobolus contractus

perennial

Step_exig

Stephanomeria exigua

annual

Tali_angu

Talinum angustissimum

perennial

Tali_aura

Talinum aurantiacum

perennial

Tali_sp

Talinum sp.

perennial

Tetr_coul

Tetraclea coulteri

perennial

Tide_lanu

Tidestromia lanuginosa

annual

Trag_bert

Tragus berteronianus

annual

Tria_port

Trianthema portulacastrum

annual

Tric_cali

Trichachne californica

perennial

Trid_pulc

Tridens pulchellum

perennial

Verb_ence

Verbesina encelioides

annual

Vulp_octo

Vulpia octoflora

annual

unk1

Unknown 1

annual

unk2

Unknown 2

annual

unk3

Unknown 3

annual

unk4

Unknown 4

annual

unk5

Unknown 5

annual

Unkn_sp

unknown sp.

annual

Yucc_elat

Yucca elata

perennial

Zinn_gran

Zinnia grandiflora

perennial

Zinn_pumi

Zinnia pumila

perennial

Zinn_sp

Zinnia sp.

perennial

Grass_sp

Unknown grass

perennial

Grass_unk

Unknown grass (summer)

annual

Ukn_grass

Unknown grass (winter)

annual

CLASS V. SUPPLEMENTAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Publications using the data set: See overview metadata.htm


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