Ecological Archives E090-094-D1

S. Paula, M. Arianoutsou, D. Kazanis, Ç. Tavsanoglu, F. Lloret, C. Buhk, F. Ojeda, B. Luna, J. M. Moreno, A. Rodrigo, J. M. Espelta, S. Palacio, B. Fernández-Santos, P. M. Fernandes, and J. G. Pausas. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90:1420.


INTRODUCTION

The performance of any species is determined by their life history traits. The combination of current knowledge on life history traits, with recent phylogenetic techniques, allows us to understand plant evolution (Schwilk and Ackerly 2001, Reich et al. 2003, Pausas and Verdú 2005), trade-offs between functional characteristics (Reich et al. 1997, Paula and Pausas 2006), and the different evolutionary pathways between different ecosystems and regions (Vesk and Westoby 2004, Pausas et al. 2004, 2006). Furthermore, with the help of simulation models, life history traits can be used to predict compositional changes due to alternative land uses and land management options, and climatic scenarios (Pausas 1999, 2006, Franklin et al. 2001, Pausas and Lloret 2007, Arianoutsou 2007). This latter point is especially important for fire-related plant traits because, in fire-prone ecosystems, fire regime changes may be more relevant than direct climatic changes (Flannigan et al. 2000, Bond et al. 2005). Additionally, fire regime changes are driven not only by climatic changes but also by land-use changes (Arianoutsou 2001, Pausas 2004). In fact, the lack of plant disturbance responses in the current global vegetation simulation models limits their applicability for predicting future scenarios (Bond and Keeley 2005). For these reasons, great effort is now being made in different regions and ecosystems to compile plant trait information in a systematic way using standard protocols (Weither et al. 1999, Cornelissen et al. 2003, Kleyer et al. 2008). However, such compilations are still lacking in the Mediterranean Basin, one of the world biodiversity hotspots (Cowling et al. 1996, Myers et al. 2000).

The objective of this data paper is to provide the most updated and comprehensive information on fire-related traits for vascular plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. By fire-related traits we refer to traits relevant for plant persistence, regeneration and dynamics in ecosystems subject to recurrent fires. The compilation is based on a large literature review, including grey literature and field and experimental observations. The database is designed to gather as much information as possible, including qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Thus, for any given species and trait, different resolutions and degrees of knowledge may be available. One of the challenges in compiling life history information is that the data may vary regionally or with the environmental conditions. Here we create a general life history data set by compiling for each species the information from all available sources, without aggregating the information by species. This allows the user to detect trait variability with species. Data sources are fully documented, that is, for each single value we include a reference or responsible person. When compiling information, a great effort has been made into standardising traits definitions and attributes, and thus the metadata can also be used as a guide for compiling information from other areas.

The scope of this data set is ambitious (14 traits for plants from the Mediterranean Basin). It, of course, does not include all the plants in the Mediterranean Basin, but it does include the most common species, especially the woody species from the northern rim of the Mediterranean Basin. Furthermore, for many species, some traits are not reported in the data set because they are unknown. However, because of the importance of resprouting ability for persisting in fire-prone environments (Bond and Midgley 2003, Pausas et al. 2004), we have considered it a core trait (Weiher et al. 1999); thus, any species with an unknown resprouting ability was not included in the data set. Similarly, the data set also includes the life form for all plant species, which has proved to be a fundamental criterion towards the hierarchical classification of species into functional groups (Lavorel et al. 1997, Kazanis and Arianoutsou 2004). In addition, the compilation reflects the knowledge gaps on fire traits and thus can be used for addressing further research.


CLASS I. DATA SET DESCRIPTORS

A. Data set identity: Fire-related traits for vascular plant species of the Mediterranean Basin (the BROT database)

B. Data set identification code: BROT_2008.11.txt

C. Data set description:

Principal Investigator: Juli G. Pausas, CIDE, CSIC, Apartado Oficial, 46470 Albal, Valencia, SPAIN (www.uv.es/jgpausas).

Abstract: Plant trait information is essential for understanding plant evolution, vegetation dynamics and vegetation responses to disturbance and management. Furthermore, in Mediterranean ecosystems, changes in fire regime may be more relevant than direct changes in climatic conditions, making the knowledge of fire-related traits specially relevant. Thus the purpose of this data set was to compile the most updated and comprehensive information on fire-related traits for vascular plant species of the Mediterranean Basin, that is, traits related to plant persistence and regeneration after fire. Data were collected from an extensive literature review and from field and experimental observations. The data source is documented for each value. Since life history traits may vary spatially or with environmental conditions, we did not aggregate them by species; i.e., traits and species are repeated in different records if they were observed by different researchers. Life history traits included in the data set are: life form, resprouting ability (after fire, after clipping or after other disturbances that remove all the aboveground biomass), resprouting bud source, heat-stimulated germination, other germination cues, seed bank location and longevity, post-fire seedling emergence and survival, maturity age of resprouts and saplings, and seed mass. Several traits are unknown for many species; consequently, the data set reflects the state of the knowledge on the topic. However, since the ability to resprout is a trait of paramount relevance in fire-prone environments, it was considered a core trait in the data set, and thus species whose resprouting capacity was unknown were not included. Life form is also provided for all taxa. The structure of the database allows different levels of information (and accuracy) for each entry, and thus some traits may include different types of data (quantitative, semiquantitative or categorical) from different sources.

The data set is structured in 8263 records and 11 columns, obtained from 301 published and unpublished sources of information. It includes 952 taxa determined at specific or infraspecific level, that comprise 859 species, 384 genera and 79 families. Although this is the most comprehensive datasets of fire-relevant plant traits for Mediterranean species, there is still a considerable need for observations and experiments, especially in little-studied Mediterranean areas, such as northern Africa.

D. Key words: database; fire ecology; fire-stimulated germination; fire traits; functional traits; Mediterranean Basin; Mediterranean ecosystems; post-fire response; resprouters; resprouting ability; seeders; traitbase.


CLASS II. RESEARCH ORIGIN DESCRIPTORS

A. Overall project description

Identity: Fire-related traits for vascular plant species of the Mediterranean Basin (the BROT database)
Originators: Juli G. Pausas, CIDE, CSIC, Apartado Oficial, 46470 Albal, Valencia, SPAIN
Period of study: 2003–2007
Objectives:
1. to understand plant responses to fire in the Mediterranean Basin
2. to detect knowledge gaps on fire traits and plant responses to fire in the Mediterranean Basin
3. to understand the evolutionary pathways of plant traits in the Mediterranean Basin
Abstract: same as above. This data is not a subset of a large program of study
Sources of funding: EUFIRELAB project (European Commission EVR1- 2001-00054), SINREG project (Spanish Government, REN2003-07198-C02-02/GLO), PERSIST project (Spanish Government, CGL2006-07126/BOS) and CIRCE project (European Commission IP 036961)

B. Specific subproject description

Site description: Data were obtained for species from a variety of habitats, geologies, hydrologies, etc. The spatial extent of this data set is the Mediterranean Basin; it includes data from the following countries: Algeria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Palestine, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey.
Experimental or sampling design: Data were obtained from published sources and from many experiments and observations made by the authors. See Research Methods below.
Research Methods: Data were obtained from published sources and from many experiments and observations carried out by the authors. The source, that is, the full reference (for published information) and the site characteristics and responsible researcher (for unpublished references) is given for each single data value. The source information is coded in the column SourceCode and the full references are given below (Class IV.B.5).
In order to standardise the diverse information into a common format, we have established and defined a number of categories for each trait (see Class IV.B.2). In addition, to minimise the loss of information from the references, we have designed the database to admit qualitative, quantitative, or semi-quantitative data (see Class IV.B.3) on a given trait. This also reflects the state of our knowledge regarding each trait. For instance, the data on resprouting capacity (RespFire) may be quantitative (e.g., proportion of adults resprouting), semi-quantitative (e.g., no, low, high) or categorical (no, yes), depending on the available information.
Each data value has also an associated parameter (Method) that reflects the general methodology of data; this can be considered an indicator of the accuracy of the data. Method has been classified as: measure, experience, compilation, general reference (Class IV.B.4). The first and second are considered the most accurate information, while the others are less accurate. General references are usually local floras.
Taxonomy: species names were homogenised following the European Science Foundation - European Documentation System (ESFEDS 1996), which is largely based on Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1964-1980). When some important taxonomical updates had been carried out or when some species were missing in the ESFEDS database, the following criteria were used: Talavera et al. (1999) for Genisteae; Greuter et al. (1984-1989) for Cistaceae, Dipsaceae, Pinaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Echium, Thymus and Coridothymus; Pankhurst et al. (2007) for Rosaceae; and Grovaert and Frodin (1998) for Fagales (Fagaceae, Betulaceae). Family names follow the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group standards (Bremer et al. 2003).
Project personnel:
Principal investigator: Juli G. Pausas
Main associated investigator: Susana Paula
Contributors: Margarita Arianoutsou, Dimitris Kazanis, Çagatay Tavsanoglu, Francisco Lloret, Constanze Buhk, Fernando Ojeda, Belén Luna, Jose Manuel Moreno, Anselm Rodrigo, Josep M. Espelta, Sara Palacio, Belén Fernández-Santos, Paulo M. Fernandes.

CLASS III. DATA SET STATUS AND ACCESSIBILITY

A. Status

Latest Update: July 2008
Latest Archive data: November 2008
Metadata status: The metadata are complete and up to date.
Data verification: The quality of the data has been carefully reviewed by the authors. Data has undergone substantial checking throughout the initial analysis. All data values present the associated source (a reference or a researcher responsible).

B. Accessibility

Storage location and medium: Ecological Society of America data archives. An original data file exists on the author’s personal computers.
Contact person: Juli G. Pausas, CIDE, CSIC, Apartado Oficial, 46470 Albal, Valencia, SPAIN. Phone: +34 96 122 0540, Fax: +34 96 127 0967, E-mail: juli.g.pausas@uv.es, URL: www.uv.es/jgpausas/
Copyright restrictions: None
Proprietary restrictions: None
Costs: None

CLASS IV. DATA STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Data Set File

Identity: BROT_2008.11.txt
Size: 11 columns and 8263 records (not including header row)
Format and storage mode: ASCII text, records delimited by newlines, columns delimited by tabs. No compression scheme was used.
Header information: Headers describe the content of each column and are: ID, Family, Taxa, Trait, Data, DataType, Method, SourceCode, Region, Redundancy and Comments.
Alphanumeric attributes: mixed
Special characters/fields: The column Taxa includes the authority of each taxon, and in some cases it contains an apostrophe (').
Authentication procedure:
. The sum of column Data for DataType = quantitative is 87225.
. The number of characters in the whole dataset is 792567 (excluding separations between columns and headers).

B. Variable information

1. Column definition

Column name

Brief definition

Storage type

ID Unique identifier Alphanumeric
Family Taxonomic family of species, following the APG II (APG 2003) Character string
Taxa Full name of the species (or subspecies), including authority Character string
Trait Name of the traits considered (traits list and definition described below). Character string
Data The actual data, corresponding to the life history trait. Units and categories for each trait are described below. Mixed. Numeric for DataType = quantitative, Character string otherwise.
DataType Type of data (categorical, semi-quantitative, quantitative, range) as defined below. Character string
Method Measure, experience, compilation, general reference (defined below) Character string
SourceCode Code for the source (published or unpublished references) from which the data have been obtained. See below for the complete list. Character string

Region Region of the Mediterranean Basin where the observation/experiment has been performed. Codes described below. Character string
Redundancy Code indicating possible redundancy (see below) Character string
Comments Additional comments in free format (see below) Character string

Only Redundancy and Comments include empty entries; the other columns have entries for all rows.

2. Traits: units and categories

The traits and the corresponding attributes and units are defined as follows (trait code in brackets):

Life Form (LifeForm): morphology of the whole plant, which is related to its size. The categories considered are:
- Tree: very tall woody plant, frequently with one main primary stem and the canopy rarely reaching the ground.
- Large shrub: large shrub or small tree. Tall woody plant that under optimal conditions may reach arborescence structure.
- Shrub: woody plant (typically less than 1.5 m tall), frequently multi-stemmed and/or the canopy reaching the ground.
- Liana: woody (or slightly ligneous at the base) climber.
- Scrub: dwarf woody plant (typically less than 50 cm in height).
- Perennial forb: perennial broad-leaved herbaceous plant.
- Perennial graminoid: perennial grass-like plant.
- Annual forb: annual broad-leaved herbaceous.
- Annual graminoid: annual grass-like plant.
- Variable forb: annual, biennial or short-perennial forb.
- Variable graminoid: annual, biennial or short-perennial graminoid.
- Geophyte: herb that persists during the unfavourable period as bulb, rhizome or other subterranean storage organ.

Resprouting Ability after Fire (RespFire): resprouting ability one year after being ca. 100% scorched or burned by fire. For quantitative information, it represents the average proportion of adult plants that resprout (%). For qualitative information, the following categories are used:
- No: with no resprouting ability.
- Low: resprouting capacity only after low fire severity; in general, low resprouting vigour and/or high mortality.
- High: resprouting capacity at low and high fire severity; in general, high resprouting vigour and/or nil or low mortality.
- Yes: with some resprouting capacity (non-quantified).
- Variable: high variability observed between populations or sampled areas (at local or regional scale).

Resprouting Ability after Clipping (RespClip): resprouting ability one year after being ca. 100% clipped. For quantitative information, it represents the average proportion of adult plants that resprout (%). For qualitative information, the following categories are used:
- No: with no resprouting ability.
- Low: few and/or weak sprouts.
- High: abundant and/or vigorous sprouts.
- Yes: with some resprouting capacity (non-quantified).
- Variable: high variability observed between populations or sampled areas (at local or regional scale).

Resprouting Ability after Disturbance (RespDist): resprouting ability after an undefined disturbance that remove most of the aboveground biomass. See RespClip for units and categories.

Bud Source (BudSource): location of bud bank for resprouting. Categories considered are:
- Epicormic buds: stem buds (protected by the bark).
- Apex: apex on stems protected from fire by leaf bases.
- Root crown: transition point between main stem and root.
- Lignotuber: ontogenetically programmed (i.e., inherited character) woody swelling at or below ground level. Based on embryological and/or anatomical features.
- Burl: non-ontogenetically programmed (e.g. stem coalescence) woody swelling at or below ground level.
- Lignotuber or burl: woody swelling at or below ground level with unspecified origin (no distinction between lignotuber and burl is reported).
- Rhizomes: non-swollen horizontal stem growing near the soil surface and including below-ground (rhizome sensu stricto) and aboveground (stolons) stems.
- Roots.
- Rhizomes or roots: rhizomes, roots or both (specific bud source is unknown).
- Storage organs: non-woody storage organs, normally modified stems as bulbs, corms or tubers.
- Others: other bud sources, including those not clearly specified (e.g., stump).

Heat-Stimulated Germination (HeatStimGerm): the most intense heat treatment (i.e., seed exposition to dry heat >= 50ºC), of those tested, that significantly increases seed germination versus the control. For studies where differences were not statistically tested, the criteria in Paula and Pausas (2008) is used. Three heat intensities are considered: Low (L: <100ºC for <= 5min), Moderate (M: <100ºC for > 5min or >= 100ºC for <= 5min), High (H: >= 100ºC for >5min) or unknown (unk). The heat intensities tested in each experiment are indicated after the slash (/LMH), with an underscore when the corresponding heat intensity is not tested (e.g., M not tested: /L_H). Note that in many studies, post-treatment seed viability is not considered or not specified in the original reference, and thus it can lead to misinterpretation of treatment effects. Categories and corresponding notation as follows:
- yes/unk: stimulated germination is produced after exposure to heat of unspecified intensity.
- high/###: stimulated germination after exposure to High heat intensity when ### treatments were applied (### refers to L, M and H respectively).
- moderate/###: the highest heat intensity that stimulates germination is Moderate after testing for ### (### refers to L, M and H respectively).
- low/###: the highest heat intensity that stimulates germination is Low after testing for ### (### refers to L, M and H respectively).
- unaffected/###: germination is not stimulated after any heat intensity tested and at least one of the treatments does not affect seed germination (### refers to L, M and H respectively; unk, if unknown).
- inhibition/###: inhibited germination (i.e., lower germination than in the control) in all heat treatments tested (### refers to L, M and H respectively; unk, if unknown).

Other Cues (OtherCues): germinative response after exposure to boiling water (blw), smoke (smk), ash (ash), charcoal (cha) or nitrogenous compounds: KNO3 (NC1), NaNO2 (NC2), NH4Cl (NC3), NH4HOC3 (NC4), NH4NO3 (NC5). The fire cue tested is indicated in the abbreviated form (three characters) after the slash (/#). Thus, the categories and corresponding notation are as follows:
- Stimulation/#: germination of the treated seeds is significantly higher than the control (# refers to the treatment codes indicated above).
- Unaffected/#: germination of treated seeds equals the control (# refers to the treatment codes indicated above).
- Inhibition/#: germination of the treated seeds is lower than the control (# refers to the treatment codes indicated above). For studies where differences were not statistically tested, the criteria in Paula and Pausas (2008) is used.

Average Seed Bank Longevity (SeedBankLong): period during which seeds remain viable in the (soil or canopy) seed bank as inferred from: vegetation and soil seed bank comparison (veg), experimental seed burial (bur), age of serotinous cones (ser), seed dormancy (dor) or unknown methods (unk). The method used is indicated after the slash (/#). When this trait is inferred from the presence of the species in the vegetation and in the soil seed bank (veg), the following key is used (based on Thompson et al. 1997):

Plants in the vegetation Seeds in the soil Maximum depth SeedBankLong
Absent Present Any persistent/veg
Present Present 0-2 transient/veg
Present Present 2-5 persistent/veg
Present Present >5 long-term/veg

The categories and notation are as follows:
- transient/#: seeds germinate in the first favourable season after dispersal. Generally, seed bank longevity is <= 1 yr (no persistent seed bank).
- persistent/#: seeds do not germinate in the first favourable season after dispersal. Generally seed bank longevity is > 1 yr (could be longer but it is unknown).
- short-persistent/#: > 1 and <= 5 yr.
- at least short-persistent/#: longevity at least > 1 and at least <= 5 yr (could be longer but it is unknown).
- mid-persistent/#: at least > 5 yr (could be longer but it is unknown).
- long-persistent/#: at least > 15 yr.
- very long-persistent/#: at least >= 30 yr.

Seed Bank (SeedBank): location of persistent seed bank (longevity > 1 yr). Categories are:
- Soil: soil persistent seed bank.
- Canopy: canopy persistent seed bank (serotiny).

Post-fire Seedling Emergence (SeedlEmerg): average seedling density per pre-fire mature individuals emerging during the first year after fire (seedlings/mature), or alternatively, one of the following categories:
- No: no post-fire seedling emergence.
- Low: number of seedling lower than the number of pre-fire mature individuals.
- High: number of seedlings higher than the number of pre-fire mature individuals.
- Yes: seedling emergence (quantitative data not available).
- Variable: high variability observed between populations or sampled areas (at local or regional scale).

Post-fire Seedling Survival (SeedlSurv): proportion of seedlings surviving first dry season after fire (%), or alternatively, one of the following categories:
- No: no post-fire seedling survival.
- Low: survival < 25%.
- High: survival >= 25%.

Age at Maturity of Resprouts (MatResp): average age of resprouts at first successful reproduction (in years), i.e., when most of the resprouting plants produce the first seed crop, or alternatively, one of the following categories:
- Early: <5 yr.
- Medium: 5-10 yr.
- Late: >10 yr.

Age at Maturity of Saplings (MatSap): average age of saplings at the first successful reproduction (in years), i.e., when most of the saplings produce the first seed crop (excluding saplings from plantations), or alternatively, one of the following categories:
- Early: <5 yr.
- Medium: 5-10 yr.
- Late: >10 yr.

Seed Mass (SeedMass): average dry weight of seeds (including some single-fruited seeds such as achenes or caryopsis) in mg, or alternatively, one of the following categories:
- Very light: < 3 mg.
- Light: >= 3 and < 30 mg.
- Medium: >= 30 and <300 mg.
- Heavy: > 300 mg.

3.Types of data

Because the database includes different types of data, even at the trait level, the 6th column (DataType) defines the type of data as follows:

- Quantitative: a number (integer or floating).
- Semi-quantitative: ordered qualitative variable (e.g., low, medium, high).
- Range: two quantitative values, indicating the range observed .
- Categorical: non-ordered qualitative variable.

The above types may also, in turn, be conditional (quantitative conditional, semi-quantitative conditional, etc.) and indicate that the data entry has the value and a condition. Here are two examples:

. HeatStimGerm = “low/L_H”: germination stimulated by low heat in an experiment where only Low and High heat intensities were tested (as defined in the Data definition, IV.B.2, above). That is, it is unknown whether it would be stimulated by a moderate heat intensity treatment; it was not stimulated by a high heat shock.
. OtherCues = “Stimulation/smk”: germination stimulated by smoke treatments (i.e., germination after smoke treatment was significantly higher than the germination in control conditions).

4. Method

The 7th column describes the general methods of gathering the information, and it is related to the accuracy of the data. It has the four following possible values:

- Measure: published or unpublished data obtained from an experimental design in which the data is, at least, one of the objectives of the study.
- Experience: published or unpublished data from visual (rough) estimation or personal experience.
- Compilation: published data compiled from different sources (including experience, published data, ...)
- General reference: published data obtained from a general publication such as a Flora.

5. Code for the sources

The 8th column provides a code that refers to the data source (SourceCode). Complete references are listed below. Note that the references include published articles, grey literature and personal communications; in the latter, the e-mail of the data provider and a brief description of the study area are also included.

SourceCode Full reference
Abad1996 Abad, N., R. N. Caturla, J. Baeza, C. Bladé, F. Vieira, E. Carbó, A. Valdecantos, A. Bonet, I. Serrasolsas, R. Guàrdia, J. Raventós, J. A. Alloza, A. Escarré, J. Bellot, and V. R. Vallejo. 1996. Regeneración de los montes quemados. Pages 51-148 in R. Vallejo, editor. La restauración de la cubierta vegetal en la Comunidad Valenciana. Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo, Valencia, Spain.
Albarracin Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Albarracín (SE spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)1.
Alberdi2002 Alberdi, L., and Y. Cavero. 2002. Effect of fire on the understorey species of a Quercus ilex L. subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. forest in Navarra, Spain. Pages 25-32 in L. Trabaud and R. Prodon, editors. Fire and biological processes. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Alonso1992 Alonso, I., E. Luis, and R. Tárrega. 1992. First phases of regeneration of Cistus laurifolius and Cistus ladanifer after burning and cutting in experimental plots. International Journal of Wildland Fire 2:7-17.
Alvarez2005 Alvarez, R., L. Valbuena, and L. Calvo. 2005. Influence of tree age on seed germination response to environmental factors and inhibitory substances in Pinus pinaster. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14:277-284.
Alvarez2007 Alvarez, R., L. Valbuena, and L. Calvo. 2007. Effect of high temperatures on seed germination and seedling survival in three pine species (Pinus pinaster, P. sylvestris and P. nigra). International Journal of Wildland Fire 16:63-70.
Andres2002 Andrés, C., and F. Ojeda. 2002. Effects of afforestation with pines on woody plant diversity of mediterranean heathlands in southern Spain. Biodiversity and Conservation 11:1511-1520.
Anorbe1990 Añorbe, M., J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez, M. A. Pérez-Fernández, and B. Fernández-Santos. 1990. Influencia de la temperatura sobre la germinación de semillas de Cytisus multiflorus (L’Hér) Sweet y Cytisus oromediterraneus Riv. Mart. Studia Oecologica 7:86-100.
Arianoutsou1979 Arianoutsou, M. 1979. Biological activity after fire in a phryganic ecosystem. PhD thesis (in Greek with an English summary). University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
Arianoutsou1980 Arianoutsou, M., J. Diamantopoulus, and N. S. Margaris. 1980. Fire behaviour of Ceratonia siliqua. Portugaliae Acta Biologica. Série A XVI:67-74.
Arianoutsou1981a Arianoutsou, M., and N. S. Margaris. 1981. Early stages of regeneration after fire in a phryganic ecosystem (East Mediterranean). I. Regeneration by seed germination. Biologie - Ecologie méditerranéenne 8:119-128.
Arianoutsou1981b Arianoutsou, M., and N. S. Margaris. 1981. Producers and the fire cycle in a phryganic ecosystem. Pages 181-190 in N. S. Margaris, and H. A. Mooney, editors. Components of productivity of Mediterranean climate regions: basic and applied aspects. Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Arianoutsou1982 Arianoutsou-Faraggitaki, M., and N. S. Margaris. 1982. Phryganic (east Mediterranean) ecosystems and fire. Ecologia Mediterranea VIII:473-480.
Arianoutsou2000 Arianoutsou, M., and G. Ne'eman. 2000. Post-fire regeneration of natural Pinus halepensis forest in the east Mediterranean basin. Pages 269-289 in G. Ne'eman and L. Trabaud, editors. Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and P. brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean basin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Arnan2007 Arnan, X., A. Rodrigo, and J. Retana. 2007. Vegetation type and dryness drive the post-fire regeneration of Mediterranean plant communities at regional scale. Journal of Vegetation Science 18:111-122.
Arroyo1990 Arroyo, J., and T. Marañón. 1990. Community ecology and distributional spectra of Mediterranean shrublands and heathlands in Southern Spain. Journal of Biogeography 17:163-176.
Attica Kazanis, D., M. Arianoutsou, and P. Andriopoulos (dkazanis@biol.uoa.gr) - Hilly and mountainous areas in Attica (Greece). Primarily Pinus halepensis Mill. communities and secodary phryganic srublands. Altitude of the study sites varies from 170 to 660m asl. Typical Mediterranean climate with annual precipitation varrying from xerothermic conditions (ca. 300 mm) to 500 mm. Typical fire regime with fire frequency >50 years for P. halepensis forests and >20 for phrygana has changed within the last 15 years. Several cases of fire interval less than 15 years have been encountered (even 3 years in one case!).
Azcarate2002 Azcárate, F. M., A. M. Sánchez, L. Arqueros, and B. Peco. 2002. Abundance and habitat segregation in Mediterranean grassland species: the importance of seed weight. Journal of Vegetation Science 13:159-166.
Baeza2001 Baeza, M. J. 2001. Aspecto ecológicos y técnicas de control del combustible (roza y quema controlada) en matorrales con alto riesgo de incendio dominados por Ulex parviflorus (Pourr.). PhD Thesis. Universidad de Alicante, Spain. http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=5920.
Baeza2002 Baeza, M. J., M. De Luís, J. Raventós, and A. Escarré. 2002. Factors influencing fire behaviour in shrublands of different stand ages and the implications for using prescribed burning to reduce wildfire risk. Journal of Environmental Management 65:199-208.
Baeza2003 Baeza, M. J., J. Raventós, A. Escarré, and V. R. Vallejo. 2003. The effect of shrub clearing on the control of the fire-prone species Ulex parviflorus. Forest Ecology and Management 186:47-59.
Baeza2004 Baeza, J. 2004. Mejora de pastizales y control del combustible con gran acumulación de necromasa en áreas cortafuegos. Ecología de la germinación de Ulex parviflorus y gestión de aulagares. Bases para la gestión del matorral en el ZAU de Biar mediante pastoreo controlado. Pages 81-88 in Programa de I+D sobre restauración de la cubierta vegetal. Reunión de coordinación 2004 (technical report).
Baeza2006a Baeza, M. J., and V. R. Vallejo. 2006. Ecological mechanisms involved in dormancy breakage in Ulex parviflorus seeds. Plant Ecology 183:191-205.
Baeza2008 Baeza, J., and V. R. Vallejo. 2008. Vegetation recovery after fuel management in Mediterranean gorse shrubland. Applied Vegetation Science 1:151-158.
Ballini1992 Ballini, C. 1992. Écophysiologie de la germination des graines d'Ulex parviflorus Pourr. Bulletin d’Ecologie 23:119-130.
Barberis2003 Barberis, A., S. Dettori, and M. R. Filigheddu. 2003. Management problems in Mediterranean cork oak forests: post-fire recovery. Journal of Arid Environments 54:565-569.
Battisti2003 Battisti, A., R. Cantini, G. Rouault, and A. Roques. 2003. Serotinous cones of Cupressus sempervirens provide viable seeds in spite of high seed predation. Annals of Forest Science 60:781-787.
Belhassen1987 Belhassen, E., D. Pomente, L. Trabaud, and P. H. Gouyon. 1987. Recolonisation après incendie chez Thymus vulgaris (L.): résistance des graines aux températures élevées. Acta Oecologica 8:135-141.
Bermeja Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Sierra Bermeja (Spain). Typically Mediterranean phytoclimate; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: IV4.
BLlavors2001 Data from Banc de Llavors - Generalitat Valenciana (germoplasm bank of the regional goverment) for the period 1995-2001 and analised by the compilers (J.G. Pausas and S. Paula).
Bolos1984 Bolòs, O., and J. Vigo. 1984-2001. Flora dels Països Catalans. Ed. Barcino, Barcelona, Spain.
Bonfil2004 Bonfil, C., P. Cortés, J. M. Espelta, and J. Retana. 2004. The role of disturbance in the co-existence of the evergreen Quercus ilex and the deciduous Quercus cerrioides. Journal of Vegetation Science 15:423-430.
Boydak1995 Boydak, M., and S. A. Barrow. 1995. A new locality for Phoenix theophrasti in Turkey: Gölköy-Bödrum. Principes 39:117-122.
Boydak2006 Boydak, M., H. Dirik, and M. Çalikoglu. 2006. Biology and sylviculture of Turkish red pine. Lazer Ofset Matbaa Tesisleri San. Tic. Ltd. Sti., Ankara, Turkey.
Buhk2005a Buhk, C., P. Sánchez-Gómez, and I. Hensen. 2005. Plant regeneration mechanisms during early post-fire succession in south-eastern Spain. Feddes Repertorium 116:392-404.
Buhk2005b Buhk, C., and I. Hensen. 2005. Lack of hard-seeded species in pre-fire and post-fire seed banks in the region of Murcia (south-eastern Spain). Anales de Biología 27:29-37.
Buhk2006a Buhk, C., and I. Hensen. 2006. "Fire seeders" during early post-fire succession and their quantitative importance in south-eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 66:193-209.
Buhk2008 Buhk, C., and I. Hensen. 2008. Seed longevity of eight common plant species during early post- fire regeneration in south-eastern Spain – a three years' burial experiment. Plant Species Biology 23:18-24.
Cabezudo1995 Cabezudo, B., A. Pérez Latorre, and J. M. Nieto. 1995. Regeneración de un alcornocal incendiado en el sur de España (Istán. Málaga). Acta Botanica Malacitana 20:143-151.
Calvo1998a Calvo, L., R. Tárrega, and E. de Luis. 1998. Space-time distribution patterns of Erica australis L. subsp. aragonensis (Willk) after experimental burning, cutting, and ploughing. Plant Ecology 137:1-12.
Calvo1998b Calvo, L., R. Tárrega, and E. de Luis. 1998. Twelve years of vegetation changes after fire in an Erica australis community. Pages 123-136 in L. Trabaud, editor. Fire management and landscape ecology. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Washington, USA.
Calvo1999 Calvo, L., B. Herrero, and F. Bravo. 1999. The influence of fire on the seed bank in the soil of a Quercus faginea forest (NW Spain). Annals of Forest Science 56:249-258.
Canadell1991 Canadell, J., F. Lloret, and L. López-Soria. 1991. Resprouting vigour of two Mediterranean shrub species after experimental fire treatments. Vegetatio 95:119-126.
Canadell1998 Canadell, J., and L. López-Soria. 1998. Lignotuber reserves support regrowth following clipping of two mediterranean shrubs. Functional Ecology 12:31-38.
Carreira1992 Carreira, J. A., and F. X. Niell. 1992. Plant nutrient changes in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland after fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 3:457-466.
Casal1984 Casal, M., M. Basanta, and F. García-Novo. 1984. La regeneración de los montes incendiados en Galicia. Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Casals2005 Casals, P., J. Romanya, and V. R. Vallejo. 2005. Short-term nitrogen fixation by legume seedlings and resprouts after fire in Mediterranean old-fields. Biogeochemistry 76:477-501.
Castro1999 Castro, J., and A. T. Romero-García. 1999. Dormancy and germination in Cistus clusii (Cistaceae): Effect of biotic and abiotic factors. Revue d'Ecologie (La Terre et la Vie) 54:19-28.
Catalonia Rodrigo, A., and J. M. Espelta (josep.espelta@uab.es) - Catalonia (NE Spain). Various sites dominated by Pinus nigra, P. sylvestris and P. halepensis forests. Climate in the different areas inlcuded in this data base corresponds to subhumid Mediterranean (according to the Thornwaite index), with mean annual temperature between 10-13 °C and mean annual precipitation between 595-853 mm. Altidude ranges from 360 to 1513 m a.s.l..
Catry2006 Catry, F. X., F. C. Rego, M. N. Bugalho, T. Lopes, J. S. Silva, and F. Moreira. 2006. Effects of fire on tree survival and regeneration in a Mediterranean Ecosystem. CD-rom in D. X. Viegas, editor. 5th International Conference on Forest Fire Research. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Figueira da Foz, Portugal.
Caturla2000 Caturla, R. N., J. Raventós, R. Guàrdia, and V. R. Vallejo. 2000. Early post-fire regeneration dynamics of Brachypodium retusum Pers. (Beauv.) in old fields of the Valencia region (eastern Spain). Acta Oecologica 21:1-12.
CCatalonia Espelta, J. M., and A. Rodrigo (anselm.rodrigo@uab.es) - Central Catalonia (NE Spain). Climate in this area is subhumid Mediterranean (according on Thornwaite index). Two parts could be differenced according on temperature and precipitation. Inland part varies from dry-subhumid to subhumid Mediterranean, with mean annual temperature between 10-13 ºC and mean annual precipitation between 550-900 mm. The area closest to the coast has temperatures higher, between 13-16 ºC and mean annual preciptiation between 600-750 mm. Four large wildfires occurred recently, three in 1994 and one in 1998 (one of them).
Cengiz1993 Cengiz, Y. 1993. Heat and ash effect on germination ability and subsequent seedling growth of Pinus brutia Ten. Seeds. Pages 90-98 in Proceedings of International Symposium on Pinus brutia Ten., Ministry of Forestry of Turkey, October 18th-23th, Marmaris, Turkey.
Cerabolini2003 Cerabolini, B., R. M. Ceriani, M. Caccianiga, R. D. Andreis, and B. Raimondi. 2003. Seed size, shape and persistence in soil: a test on Italian flora from Alps to Mediterranean coasts. Seed Science Research 13:75-85.
Cerda2002 Cerdà, A., and P. García-Fayos. 2002. The influence of seed size and shape on their removal by water erosion. Catena 48:293-301.
Charco1999 Charco, J. 1999. El bosque mediterráneo en el norte de África. Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional, Madrid, Spain.
Clement1990 Clément, B., and J. Touffet. 1990. Plant strategies and secondary succession on Brittany heathlands after severe fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 1:195-202.
Clemente1996 Clemente, A. S., F. C. Rego, and O. A. Correia. 1996. Demographic patterns and productivity of post-fire regeneration in Portuguese Mediterranean maquis. International Journal of Wildland Fire 6:5-12.
Clemente2004 Clemente, A. S., F. C. Rego, and O. Correia. 2004. Padrões de sobrevivência de sementes em grupos funcionais de resposta ao fogo. Revista de Biologia, Lisboa 22:123-132.
Consensus2008 Pausas, J. G., and S. Paula (juli.g.pausas@uv.es). Consensus reached after the revision of different references, mainly floras.
Corral1990 Corral, R., J. M. Pita, and F. Pérez-García. 1990. Some aspects of seed germination in four species of Cistus L. Seed Science and Technology 18:321-325.
Correia2002 Correia, E., and H. Freitas. 2002. Drosophyllum lusitanicum, an endangered West Mediterranean endemic carnivorous plant: threats and its ability to control available resources. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 140:383-390.
Crosti2006 Crosti, R., P. G. Ladd, K. W. Dixon, and B. Piotto. 2006. Post-fire germination: The effect of smoke on seeds of selected species from the central Mediterranean basin. Forest Ecology and Management 221:306-312.
Cruz2003a Cruz, A., B. Perez, A. Velasco, and J. M. Moreno. 2003. Variability in seed germination at the interpopulation, intrapopulation and intraindividual levels of the shrub Erica australis in response to fire-related cues. Plant Ecology 169:93-103.
Cruz2003b Cruz, A., B. Pérez, and J. M. Moreno. 2003. Resprouting of the mediterranean-type shrub Erica australis with modified lignotuber carbohydrate content. Journal of Ecology 91:348-356.
Cuco1987 Cucó, M. L. 1987. Mecanismes de regeneració. Pages 45-62 in J. Terradas, editor. Ecosistemes terrestres. La resposta als incendis i a d'altres pertorbacions. Diputació de Barcelona - Servei del Medi ambient, Barcelona, Spain.
Cuenca Luna B., and J. M. Moreno (Belen.Luna@uclm.es) - Cuenca (central Spain; 1º20´-1º35´W and 39º45´-39º-54´N). Altitude ranges between 900-1400 m. Climate is tipically Mediterranean, with an annual mean temperature of 11.5-12.5 ºC and the total rainfall 400-600 mm. A naturally ignited large fire took place during July 1994, affecting Pinus pinaster, P. halepensis and P. nigra woodland, shrublands and woody crops. It seems that no important fires have occurred in the area since 1956.
Daskalakou1996 Daskalakou, E. N., and C. A. Thanos. 1996. Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) postfire regeneration: the role of canopy and soil seed banks. International Journal of Wildland Fire 6:59-66.
Daskalakou2004 Daskalakou, E. N., and C. A. Thanos. 2004. Postfire regeneration of Aleppo pine - the temporal pattern of seedling recruitment. Plant Ecology 171:81-89.
Debussche1980 Debussche, M., J. Escarre, and J. Lepart. 1980. Changes in mediterranean shrub communities with Cytisus purgans and Genista scorpius. Vegetatio 43:73-82.
Delgado2001 Delgado, J. A., J. M. Serrano, F. López, and F. J. Acosta. 2001. Heat shock, mass-dependent germination, and seed yield as related components of fitness in Cistus ladanifer. Environmental and Experimental Botany 46:11-20.
Delitti2005 Delitti, W., A. Ferran, L. Trabaud, and V. R. Vallejo. 2005. Effects of fire recurrence in Quercus coccifera L. shrublands of the Valencia Region (Spain): I. plant composition and productivity. Plant Ecology 177:57-70.
DeLuis2001 De Luís, M., M. P. García-Cano, J. Cortina, J. Raventós, J. C. González-Hidalgo, and J. R. Sánchez. 2001. Climatic trends, disturbances and short-term vegetation dynamics in a Mediterranean shrubland. Forest Ecology and Management 147:25-37.
DeLuis2004a De Luís, M., J. Raventós, J. Cortina, J. C. González-Hidalgo, and J. R. Sánchez. 2004. Fire and torrential rainfall: effects on the perennial grass Brachypodium retusum. Plant Ecology 173:225-232.
DeLuis2005 De Luís, M., J. Raventós, and J. C. González-Hidalgo. 2005. Factors controlling seedling germination after fire in Mediterranean gorse shrublands. Implications for fire prescription. Journal of Environmental Management 76:159-166.
DiazVilla2003 Díaz-Villa, M. D., T. Marañón, J. Arroyo, and B. Garrido. 2003. Soil seed bank and floristic diversity in a forest-grassland mosaic in southern Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:701-709.
DiazVizcaino2005 Díaz Vizcaino, E. A., and A. Iglesia Rodriguez. 2005. Efecto del fuego (temperatura y humo) sobre la germianción de ericáceas características de brezales del NW de la Península Ibérica. Page 193 in Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, editor. La ciencia forestal: Respuestas para la sostenibilidad. Interrogante Gráfica, Zaragoza, Spain.
DiazVizcaino2006 Díaz Vizcaíno, E. A., A. Iglesia Rodríguez, and M. Fernández. 2006. Interannual variability in fire-induced germination responses of the characteristic Ericaceae of the NW Iberian Peninsula. CD-rom in D. X. Viegas, editor. 5th International Conference on Forest Fire Research. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Figueira da Foz, Portugal.
Doussi1994 Doussi, M. A., and C. A. Thanos. 1994. Post-fire regeneration of hardseeded plants: ecophysiology of seed germination. Pages 1035-1044 in D. X. Viegas, editor. 2nd International Conference on Forest Fire Research, Coimbra, Portugal.
Doussi2002 Doussi, M. A., and C. A. Thanos. 2002. Ecophysiology of seed germination in Mediterranean geophytes. 1. Muscari spp. Seed Science Research 12:193-201.
Eler1992 Eler, Ü. 1992. The conditions of the seeds unshed but remained in mature cones during the following years in Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.). Ormancilik Arastirma Enstitüsü Teknik Rapor 38: 147-168.
Escudero1997a Escudero, A., S. Barrero, and J. M. Pita. 1997. Effects of high temperatures and ash on seed germination of two Iberian pines (Pinus nigra ssp. salzmannii, P. sylvestris var. iberica). Annales Des Sciences Forestieres 54:553-561.
Escudero1997b Escudero, A., L. F. Carnes, and F. Pérez-García. 1997. Seed germination of gypsophytes and gypsovags in semi-arid central Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 36:487-497.
Escudero1999 Escudero, A., M. V. Sanz, J. M. Pita, and F. Pérez-García. 1999. Probability of germination after heat treatment of native Spanish pines. Annals of Forest Science 56:511-520.
Escudero2000 Escudero, A., Y. Núñez, and F. Pérez-García. 2000. Is fire a selective force of seed size in pine species? Acta Oecologica 21:245-256.
Eshel2000 Eshel, A., N. Henig-Sever, and G. Ne'eman. 2000. Spatial variation of seedling distribution in an east Mediterranean pine woodland at the beginning of post-fire succession. Plant Ecology 148:175-182.
Espadan Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Serra d'Espadà (E Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)1.
Espelta2005 Espelta, J. M., P. Cortés, M. Mangiron, and J. Retana. 2005. Differences in biomass partitioning, leaf nitrogen content, and water use efficiency (delta C-13) result in similar performance of seedlings of two Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit. Écoscience 12:447-454.
FdezAles1993 Fernández Alés, R., J. M. Laffarga, and F. Ortega. 1993. Strategies in Mediterranean grassland annuals in relation to stress and disturbance. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:313-322.
FdezSantos1986 Fernández-Santos, B., J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez, and M. S. Moreiro-Clemente. 1986. Intensa variabilidad interpoblacional en el piornal serrano (formaciones de Cytisus balansae (Boiss.) Ball). Anales de Edafología y Agrobiología XLV:531-546.
FdezSantos1991 Fernández-Santos, B. 1991. Estudio autoecológico de Cytisus balansae (Boiss.) Ball y Cytisus multiflorus (L´Hér.) Sweet. Regeneración. Degree thesis. Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
FdezSantos1994a Fernández-Santos, B., and J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez. 1994. Changes in Cytisus balansae populations after fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 5:463-472.
FdezSantos1998 Fernández-Santos, B., J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. Martínez-Ruíz, and C. Sánchez. 1998. Utilización del matorral como fuente de energía renovable en zonas representativas de Castilla y León. Biomasa entrante y potencial productivo (regeneración). Consejería de Cultura y Turismo - Junta de Castilla y León, Valladolid, Spain.
FdezSantos1999 Fernández-Santos, B., J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez, and G. Moreno-Marcos. 1999. Effects of disturbance caused by traditional Spanish rural land use on the regeneration of Cytisus multiflorus. Applied Vegetation Science 2:239-250.
FdezSantos2004 Fernández-Santos, B., C. Martínez, J. A. García, and A. Puerto. 2004. Postfire regeneration in Cytisus oromediterraneus: sources of variation and morphology of the below-ground parts. Acta Oecologica 26:149-156.
Fernandes2007 Fernandes, P., and E. Rigolot. 2007. The fire ecology and management of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Forest Ecology and Management 241: 1-13.
Ferran1998 Ferran, A., and R. Vallejo. 1998. Long-term plant regeneration after wildfires in Mediterranean ecosystems of NE Spain. Pages 155-166 in L. Trabaud, editor. Fire management and landscape ecology. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Washington, USA.
Ferrandis1996a Ferrandis, P., J. M. Herranz, and J. J. Martínez-Sánchez. 1996. The role of soil seed bank in the early stages of plant recovery after fire in a Pinus pinaster forest in SE Spain. International Journal of Wildland Fire 6:31-35.
Ferrandis1999a Ferrandis, P., J. M. Herranz, and J. J. Martínez-Sánchez. 1999. Effect of fire on hard-coated Cistaceae seed banks and its influence on techniques for quantifying seed banks. Plant Ecology 144:103-114.
Ferrandis1999b Ferrandis, P., J. J. Martínez-Sánchez, A. Agudo, A. L. Cano, J. J. Gallar, and J. M. Herranz. 1999. Presencia de especies del género Cistus L. (Cistaceae) en el banco de semillas del suelo en el pastizal de la Raña del Parque Nacional de Cabañeros. Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 8:361-376.
Ferrandis1999c Ferrandis, P., J. M. Herranz, and J. J. Martínez-Sánchez. 1999. Fire impact on a maquis soil seed bank in Cabañeros National Park (central Spain). Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 47:17-26.
Gallego2004 Gallego-Fernández, J. B., M. R. García-Mora, and F. García-Novo. 2004. Vegetation dynamics of Mediterranean shrublands in former cultural landscape at Grazalema Mountains, South Spain. Plant Ecology 172:83-94.
Gallegos2003 Gallegos-Pérula, V., R. M. Navarro-Cerrillo, P. Fernández-Rebollo, and G. Del Valle-Murillo. 2003. Postfire regeneration in Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster Aiton in Andalucia (Spain). Environmental Management 31:86-99.
Gasque2003 Gasque, M., and P. García-Fayos. 2003. Seed dormancy and longevity in Stipa tenacissima L. (Poaceae). Plant Ecology 168:279-290.
Gata Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Sierra de Gata-Hurdes (Spain). Typically Mediterranean phytoclimate; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: IV4
GciaFayos1997 García-Fayos, P., and A. Cerdà. 1997. Seed losses by surface wash in degraded Mediterranean environments. Catena 29:73-83.
GciaFayos1998 García-Fayos, P., and M. Verdú. 1998. Soil seed bank, factors controlling germination and establishment of a Mediterranean shrub: Pistacia lentiscus L. Acta Oecologica 19:357-366.
GciaFayos2001 García-Fayos, P. C. 2001. Bases ecológicas para la recolección, almacenamiento y germinación de semillas de especies de uso forestal de la Comunidad Valenciana. Banc de Llavors Forestals (Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Generalitat Valenciana), Valencia, Spain.
Gibraltar Ojeda, F. (fernando.ojeda@uca.es) - North side of the Strait of Gibraltar (S Spain). Ca. 3000 Km² area, mainly on Oligo-Miocene sandstone mountains dominated by evergreen Quercus suber woodlands, open heathlands become abundant on summits and exposed ridges and semideciduous Quercus canariensis forests occupy valley bottoms. Mild Mediterranean climate (oceanica influence and frequent humid easterly winds; Ibarra 1993). Mean annual rainfall 600-1700 mm (locally, up to 2200 mm). Mean fire return interval is 20-25 years (locally up to 5 years). Most data on heathland species come from specific experimental studies carried out in Sierra del Niño and Monte Murta.
GlezRabanal1994 González-Rabanal, F., M. Casal, and L. Trabaud. 1994. Effects of high temperatures, ash and seed position in the inflorescence on the germination of three Spanish grasses. Journal of Vegetation Science 5:289-294.
GlezRabanal1995 González-Rabanal, F., and M. Casal. 1995. Effect of high temperatures and ash on germination of ten species from gorse shrubland. Vegetatio 116:123-131.
GomezGrez1988 Gómez-Gutiérrez, J. M., R. González-Bartolomé, B. Fernández-Santos, and P. Galindo-Villardon. 1988. Regeneración post-fuego del piornal serrano. Formaciones de Cytisus balansae (Boiss.) Ball. Anuario. Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada XIII:261-277.
Gotzenberger2003 Götzenberger, L., C. Ohl, I. Hensen, P. Sánchez Gómez, and K. Wesche. 2003. Postfire regeneration of a thermomediterranean shrubland area in south-eastern Spain. Anales de Biología 25:21-28.
Gratani1991 Gratani, L., and M. Amadori. 1991. Postfire resprouting of shrubby species in Mediterranean maquis. Vegetatio 96:137-143.
Gredos Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Sierra de Gredos (central Spain). Typically Mediterranean phytoclimate; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: IV4.
Guadarrama Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Sierra Guadarrama (central Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)2.
GuerreroCampo1998 Guerrero-Campo, J. 1998. Respuestas de la vegetación y de la morfología de las plantas a la erosión del suelo. Consejo de la Protección de la Naturaleza de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain.
GuerreroCampo2006 Guerrero-Campo, J., S. Palacio, C. Pérez-Rontomé, and G. Montserrat-Martí. 2006. Effect of root system morphology on root-sprouting and shoot-rooting abilities in 123 plant species from eroded lands in north-east Spain. Annals of Botany 98:439-447.
Habrouk1999 Habrouk, A., J. Retana, and J. M. Espelta. 1999. Role of heat tolerance and cone protection of seeds in the response of three pine species to wildfires. Plant Ecology 145:91-99.
Hanley1997 Hanley, M. E., and M. Fenner. 1997. Seedling growth of four fire-following Mediterranean plant species deprived of single mineral nutrients. Functional Ecology 11:398-405.
Hanley2001 Hanley, M. E., M. Fenner, and G. Ne'eman. 2001. Pregermination heat shock and seedling growth of fire-following Fabaceae from four Mediterranean-climate regions. Acta Oecologica 22:315-320.
Henkin1999 Henkin, Z., N. G. Seligman, I. Noy-Meir, and U. Kafkafi. 1999. Secondary succession after fire in a Mediterranean dwarf-shrub community. Journal of Vegetation Science 10:503-514.
Herranz1998 Herranz, J. M., P. Ferrandis, and J. J. Martínez-Sánchez. 1998. Influence of heat on seed germination of seven Mediterranean Leguminosae species. Plant Ecology 136:95-103.
Herranz1999 Herranz, J. M., P. Ferrandis, and J. J. Martínez-Sánchez. 1999. Influence of heat on seed germination of nine woody Cistaceae species. International Journal of Wildland Fire 9:173-182.
Herrera1987a Herrera, J. 1987. Flower and fruit biology in Southern Spanish Mediterranean shrublands. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 74:69-78.
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Herrero2005 Herrero, C., F. Bravo, and R. San Martin. 2005. Efecto del fuego en la germinación de Cistus laurifolius. Pages 338 in Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, editor. La ciencia forestal: Respuestas para la sostenibilidad. Interrogante Gráfica, Zaragoza, Spain.
Hossaert1980a Hossaert-Palauqui, M. 1980. Régénération d’une Lande après incendies. II. Reproduction sexuée et capacité de germination d’Ulex minor (Roth). Bulletin d’Ecologie 11:387-392.
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Kazanis2004a Kazanis, D., and M. Arianoutsou. 2004. Long-term post-fire vegetation dynamics in Pinus halepensis forests of Central Greece: A functional group approach. Plant Ecology 171:101-121.
Kazanis2004b Kazanis, D., and M. Arianoutsou. 2004. Factors determining low Mediterranean ecosystems resiliencem to fire: the case of Pinus halepensis forests. In M. Arianoutsou, and V. P. Papanastasis, editors. Proceedings 10th MEDECOS Conference. Millpress, Rhodes, Grece.
Kazanis2005 Kazanis, D. 2005. Post-fire succession of Pinus halepensis Mill. forest: patterns of vegetation dynamics. PhD thesis (in Greek with summary in English). University of Athens, Greece.
Keeley1999 Keeley, J. E., and M. Baer-Keeley. 1999. Role of charred wood, heat-shock, and light in germination of postfire phrygana species from the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 47:11-16.
Konstantinidis2002 Konstantinidis, P., and G. Tsiourlis. 2002. Preliminary results of the post–fire resprouting growth of typical Mediterranean maquis species (Sithonia Peninsula, N. Greece). Pages 7 (CD rom) in D. X. Viegas, editor. Conference on Forest Fire Research and Wildland Fire Safety. Millpress, Rotterdam, Luso, Portugal.
Konstantinidis2005 Konstantinidis, P., G. Tsiourlis, and S. Galatsidas. 2005. Effects of wildfire season on the resprouting of kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.). Forest Ecology and Management 208:15-27.
Konstantinidis2006 Konstantinidis, P., G. Tsiourlis, and P. Xofis. 2006. Effect of fire season, aspect and pre-fire plant size on the growth of Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree) resprouts. Forest Ecology and Management 225:359-367.
Ladd2005 Ladd, P. G., R. Crosti, and S. Pignatti. 2005. Vegetative and seedling regeneration after fire in planted Sardinian pinewood compared with that in other areas of Mediterranean-type climate. Journal of Biogeography 32:85-98.
Lamey1893 Lamey A. 1893. Le chêne-liège, sa culture et son exploitation. Berger-Levrault et Cie éditeurs, Nancy, Paris, France.
Legrand1993 Legrand, C. 1993. Regeneration of two Cistus species after prescribed burning. Pages 183-192 in L. Trabaud, and R. Prodon, editors. Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems. European Comission, Brussels.
LevYadun1995 Lev-Yadun, S. 1995. Living serotinous cones in Cupressus sempervirens. International Journal of Plant Sciences 156:50-54.
Lloret1993 Lloret, F., and L. López-Soria. 1993. Resprouting of Erica multiflora after experimental fire treatments. Journal of Vegetation Science 4:367-374.
Lloret1998 Lloret, F. 1998. Fire, canopy cover and seedling dynamics in Mediterranean shrubland of northeastern Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:417-430.
Lloret2003 Lloret, F., and M. Vilà. 2003. Diversity patterns of plant functional types in relation to fire regime and previous land use in Mediterranean woodlands. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:387-398.
Lopez2004 López, B. C., C. A. Gracia, and S. Sabaté. 2004. Consecuencias del resalveo repetido para la mejora del encinar. Análisis de los efectos estructurales y funcionales. Pages 121-125 in Programa de I+D sobre restauración de la cubierta vegetal. Reunión de coordinación 2004 (technical report).
LopezSoria1992 López-Soria, L., and C. Castell. 1992. Comparative genet survival after fire in woody mediterranean species. Oecologia 91:493-499.
LuisCalabuig1996 Luis-Calabuig, E., R. Tárrega, and I. Alonso. 1996. Seedling regeneration of two Cistus species after experimental disturbances. International Journal of Wildland Fire 6:13-19.
LuisCalabuig2000 Luis-Calabuig, E., R. Tárrega, L. Calvo, E. Marcos, and L. Valbuena. 2000. History of landscape changes in northwest Spain according to land use and management. Pages 43-86 in L. Trabaud, editor. Life and enviroment in Mediterranean ecosystems. Wit Press, Southampton, UK.
LuisCalabuig2002 Luis-Calabuig, E., O. Torres, L. Valbuena, L. Calvo, and E. Marcos. 2002. Impact of large fires on a community of Pinus pinaster. Pages 1-12 in L. Trabaud and R. Prodon, editors. Fire and biological proccesses. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Luna2004 Luna, B., B. Pérez, F. Fernández-González, and J. M. Moreno. 2004. Sensivitity to green, safe light of 12 Mediterranean species. Seed Science and Technology 32:113-117.
Luna2007a Luna, B., J. M. Moreno, A. Cruz, and F. Fernández-González. 2007. Heat-shock and seed germination in a group of Mediterranean plant species growing in a burned area: an approach based on plant functional types. Environmental and Experimental Botany 60: 324-333.
Luna2007b Luna, B., J. M. Moreno, A. Cruz, and F. Fernández-González. 2007. Effects of a long-term fire retardant chemical (Fire Trol 934) on seed viability and germination in a Mediterranean plant community. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16:349-359.
Luna2008 Luna, B., B. Pérez, B. Cespedes, and J. M. Moreno. 2008. The effect of cold-exposure on seed germination of a group of plants comprising several functional groups from a cold Mediterranean area. Ecoscience 15:478–484.
Madrigal2005a Madrigal, J. 2005. Regeneración natural de Pinus pinaster Ait. tras grandes incendios forestales: factores influyentes. PhD thesis. Universidad de Córdoba, Spain.
Madrigal2005b Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, E. Martínez, M. Guijarro, and C. Díez. 2005. Regeneración post-incendio de Pinus pinaster Ait. en la Sierra de Guadarrama (Sistema Central, España): modelos descriptivos de los factores influyentes en la densidad inicial y la supervivencia. Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 14:36-51.
Madrigal2005c Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, J. A. Vega, E. Martínez, M. Guijarro, C. Díez, P. Pérez-Gorostiaga, T. Fonturbel, and P. Cuiñas. 2005. Regeneración natural de Pinus pinaster tras el gran incendio forestal de Tabuyo del Monte en la Sierra de Teleno: factores influyentes. Pages 153-165 in E. Rey Van der Berken, and I. Ruiz Pérez, coordinators. Seminario de restauración de áreas afectadas por grandes incendios. El caso particular de Teleno. Consejería de Medio Ambiente - Junta de Castilla y León, León, Spain.
Maestrazgo Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Maestrazgo (E Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)1.
Malanson1988 Malanson, G. P., and L. Trabaud. 1988. Vigor of post-fire resprouting by Quercus coccifera L. Journal of Ecology 76:351-365.
Manso2004 Manso, F. 2004. O pastoreiro e a protecção dos ecossistemas forestais. PhD thesis. Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.
Marmaris Tavsanoglu, Ç. (ctavsan@hacettepe.edu.tr) - Marmaris region, southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. The study sites are on ophiolithic rocks (serpentine area). Altitude ranges from sea level up to 300 m. Climate is a typical Mediterranean, with wet winters and dry summers. Mean annual temperature is 18.7 ºC, and mean annual precipitation is 1211.7 mm. Mean precipitation during the dry period from May to September is only 56.8 mm. Original dominant vegetation is Pinus brutia Ten. forests. Evergreen shrubs and phyrgana subshrubs are found at the understory of these forests. The area subjected to frequent fires in recent 30 years, constituting a fire mosaic with nearby areas burned in different years.
Martinez2002 Martínez, E., J. Madrigal, C. Hernando, M. Guijarro, J. A. Vega, P. Pérez-Gorostiaga, M. T. Fonturbel, P. Cuiñas, M. Alonso, and M. C. Beloso. 2002. Effect of fire intensity on seed dispersal and early regeneration in a Pinus pinaster forest (Luso, Portugal). CD-rom in D. X. Viegas, editor. IV International Conference on Forest Fire Research and 2002 Wildland Fire Safety. Millpress Science Publishers, Rotherdam, the Netherlands.
Mauge1987 Maugé, J. P. 1987. Le pin maritime premier résineux de France. Centre de Productivité et d'Action Forestiére d'Aquitaine - Institut pour le Développment Forestier, Paris, France.
Mazzoleni1989 Mazzoleni, S. 1989. Fire and Mediterranean plants: germination responses to heat exposure. Annali di Botanica 47:227-233.
Mesleard1991 Mesléard, F., and J. Lepart. 1991. Germination and seedling dynamics of Arbutus unedo and Erica arborea on Corsica. Journal of Vegetation Science 2:155-164.
MnezSanchez1995 Martínez-Sánchez, J. J., A. Marín, J. M. Herranz, P. Ferrandis, and J. De las Heras. 1995. Effects of high temperatures on germination of Pinus halepensis Mill. and P. pinaster Aiton subsp. pinaster seeds in southeast Spain. Vegetatio 116:69-72.
Molina Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Rodenales de Molina (Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)1.
Molinas1993 Molinas, M. L., and D. Verdaguer. 1993. Lignotuber ontogeny in the cork oak (Quercus suber, Fagaceae) .2. Germination and young seedling. American Journal of Botany 80:182-191.
Montserrat1984 Montserrat-Recorder, P., J. M. Montserrat-Martí, and G. Montserrat-Martí. 1984. Estudio de las comunidades de Echinospartum horridum en el Pirineo español. Acta Biologica Montana 4:249-257.
Moravec1990 Moravec, J. 1990. Regeneration of NW African Pinus halepensis forests following fire. Vegetatio 87:29-36.
Moreira2007 Moreira, F., Duarte, F. Catry, and Acácio V. 2007. Cork extraction as a key factor determining post-fire cork oak survival. Forest Ecology and Management 253: 30-37.
Moreno2004 Moreno, J. M., A. Cruz, F. Fernández, B. Luna, B. Pérez, J. R. Quintana, and E. Zuazua. 2004. Ecología del monte mediterráneo en relación con el fuego: el jaral-brezal de Quintos de Mora (Toledo). Pages 17-45 in V. R. Vallejo, and J. A. Alloza, editors. Avances en el estudio de la gestión del monte mediterráneo. Fundación Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo (CEAM), Valencia, Spain.
Murcia Buhk, C. (buhk@uni-trier.de) - Murcia (SE Spain). Coastal area (50-200 m a.s.l.; ca. 300 ha) and mountainous zone not so far from the coast (500-1000 m a.s.l.; ca. 400 ha). In the coast, mean annual temperature of 18°C, minimal temperatures above 0 °C, and a mean annual rainfall of about 300 mm. In the mountainous area mean annual temperature is 14-16 ºC and a mean annual precipitation 350-600 mm. Most of the annual total precipitation occurs in autumn and spring; the summer months are almost without rain. None of the investigated fire sites had been burnt already before as far as fire statistics reach. Estimated fire return intervals to be above 50 years, perhaps even longer (200-500 years). In the mountainous zone, this is certainly the case at south-facing slopes, where vegetation is very patchy but fires might be more frequent in the densely vegetated pine stands facing north. The data was gained from various fire sites and surrounding unburnt vegetation in the area. Traits refer to the whole study area as long as the species occured in several sites.
Nadal2002 Nadal, P., E. Sánchis, F. Pérez-García, and M. Fos. 2002. Effect of dry-heat, soaking in distilled water and gibberellic acid on the germination of Cistus clusii, C. monspeliensis and C. salvifolius seeds. Seed Science and Technology 30:663-669.
Nathan1999a Nathan, R., U. N. Safriel, I. Noy-Meir, and G. Schiller. 1999. Seed release without fire in Pinus halepensis, a mediterranean serotinous wind-dispersed tree. Journal of Ecology 87:659-669.
Nathan2000 Nathan, R., and G. Ne'eman. 2000. Serotiny, seed dispersal and seed predation in Pinus halepensis. Pages 105-118 in G. Ne'eman, and L. Trabaud, editors. Ecology, biogeography and management of Pinus halepensis and P. brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Naveh1975 Naveh, Z. 1975. Evolutionary significance of fire in the Mediterranean region. Israel Journal of Botany 24:51-52.
Neeman1997 Ne'eman, G. 1997. Regeneration of natural pine forest - Review of work done after the 1989 fire in Mount Carmel, Israel. International Journal of Wildland Fire 7:295-306.
Neeman1999a Ne'eman, G., N. Henig-Sever, and A. Eshel. 1999. Regulation of the germination of Rhus coriaria, a post-fire pioneer, by heat, ash, pH, water potential and ethylene. Physiologia Plantarum 106:47-52.
Neeman1999b Ne'eman, G., and I. Izhaki. 1999. The effect of stand age and microhabitat on soil seed banks in Mediterranean Aleppo pine forests after fire. Plant Ecology 144:115-125.
Nevada Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Sierra Nevada-Almijara (S Spain). Typically Mediterranean phytoclimate; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: IV4.
Nunez2000 Núñez, M. R., and L. Calvo. 2000. Effect of high temperatures on seed germination of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis. Forest Ecology and Management 131:183-190.
Nunez2003 Núñez, M. R., F. Bravo, and L. Calvo. 2003. Predicting the probability of seed germination in Pinus sylvestris L. and four competitor shrub species after fire. Annals of Forest Science 60:75-81.
NWSpain Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - NW Spain. Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)2.
Obeso1996 Obeso, J. R., and M. L. Vera. 1996. Resprouting after experimental fire application and seed germination in Erica vagans. Orsis 11:155-163.
Ocak2007 Ocak, A., L. Kurt, M. Oz, and G.N. Tug. 2007. Floristical and ecological studies on burned blackpine (Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb) Holmboe) forest area at central Anatolia. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 6: 892-905.
Ojeda1995 Ojeda, F. 1995. Ecología, biogeografía y diversidad de los brezales del Estrecho de Gibraltar (sur de España y norte de Marruecos). PhD thesis. Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
Ojeda1996b Ojeda, F., T. Marañón, and J. Arroyo. 1996. Postfire regeneration of a mediterranean heathland in southern Spain. International Journal of Wildland Fire 6:191-198.
OjedaAnd Ojeda, F. (fernando.ojeda@uca.es; Universidad de Cádiz) - unpublished data from different sites from Western Andalusia (SW Spain).
Olano2002 Olano, J. M., I. Caballero, N. A. Laskurain, J. Loidi, and A. Escudero. 2002. Seed bank spatial pattern in a temperate secondary forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 13:775-784.
Oliveira2000 Oliveira, A. C., J. S. Pereira, and A. V. Correia. 2000. A silvicultura do pinheiro bravo. Centro Pinus, Porto, Portugal.
Onil De Luís, M. (mdla@unizar.es) - Alicante (SE Spain). Alicante (SE Spain). 12-years old Mediterranean gorse community. Experimental fires were applied in autumn. During the following years after fire, vegetation regeneration (germination, survival and growth) was monitored.
Ortiz1995 Ortiz, P. L., M. Arista, and S. Talavera. 1995. Germination ecology of Ceratonia siliqua L. (Caesalpiniaceae), a Mediterranean tree. Flora 190:89-95.
Ozdemir1977 Özdemir, T. 1977. Antalya bölgesinde Kizilçam (Pinus brutia Ten.) ormanlarinin tabii gençlestirme olanaklari üzerinde arastirmalar [Researches on natural regeneration possibilities of Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests in Antalya region]. Istanbul Universitesi Orman Fakultesi Dergisi Seri:A 27: 239-293. (in Turkish)
Palacio2007a Palacio, S., M. Maestro, and G. Montserrat-Marti. 2007. Relationship between shoot-rooting and root-sprouting abilities and the carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves of Mediterranean dwarf shrubs. Annals of Botany 100:865-874.
Papanastasis1977b Papanastasis, V. P., and L. C. Romanas. 1977. Effect of high temperatures on seed germination of certain Mediterranean half-shrubs (in Greek). Thessatoniki Forestry Research Institute Bulletin 86.
Papavassiliou1994 Papavassiliou, S., M. Arianoutsou, and C. A. Thanos. 1994. Aspects of the reproductive biology of fire-following species of Leguminosae in a Pinus halepensis Mill. forest. Page 12 (Appendix D.24) in D. X. Viegas, editor. 2nd International Conference on Forest Fire Research, Coimbra, Portugal.
Papavassiliou2001 Papavassiliou, S. 2001. The role of legumes in the post-fire regeneration of forest ecosystems in Attica, Greece. PhD thesis (in Greek with summary in English). University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Papio1988 Papió, C. 1988. Respuesta al fuego de las principales especies de la vegetación de Garraf (Barcelona). Orsis 3:87-103.
Paula2006 Paula, S., and F. Ojeda. 2006. Resistance of three co-occurring resprouter Erica species to highly frequent disturbance. Plant Ecology 183:329-336.
Pausas1997 Pausas, J. G. 1997. Resprouting of Quercus suber in NE. Spain after fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:703-706.
Pausas1999a Pausas, J. G. 1999. Mediterranean vegetation dynamics: modelling problems and functional types. Plant Ecology 140:27-39.
Pausas1999b Pausas, J. G., E. Carbó, R. N. Caturla, J. M. Gil, and R. Vallejo. 1999. Post-fire regeneration patterns in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Acta Oecologica 20:499-508.
Pausas2003 Pausas, J. G., N. Ouadah, A. Ferrán, T. Gimeno, and R. Vallejo. 2003. Fire severity and seedling establishment in Pinus halepensis woodlands, eastern Iberian Peninsula. Plant Ecology 169:205-213.
Pausas2008 Pausas, J. G., and M. Verdú. 2008. Fire reduces morphospace occupation in plant communities. Ecology 89:2181-2186.
Peco2003 Peco, B., J. Traba, C. Levassor, A. M. Sánchez, and F. M. Azcárate. 2003. Seed size, shape and persistence in dry Mediterranean grass and scrublands. Seed Science Research 13:87-95.
Pereiras1985 Pereiras, J., M. A. Puentes, and M. Casal. 1985. Efecto de las altas temperaturas sobre la germinación de las semillas del tojo (Ulex europaeus L.). Studia Oecologica VI:125-133.
PerezFdez2000 Pérez-Fernández, M. A., and J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez. 2000. Cycles of dormancy and germination in seeds of six leguminous Mediterranean shrubs. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology 1:227-236.
PerezFdez2001 Pérez-Fernández, M. A., J. M. Gómez-Gutiérrez, and A. M. Martín-Berrocoso. 2001. Seed size and shape can not be used to predict persistence in soil in the Iberian Peninsula as they do in the British flora. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology 2:51-59.
PerezFdez2003 Pérez-Fernández, M. A., and S. Rodríguez-Echeverría. 2003. Effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in Central-Western Spain. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29:237-251.
PerezFdez2006 Pérez-Fernández, M. A., E. Calvo-Magro, J. Montanero-Fernández, and J. A. Oyola-Velasco. 2006. Seed germination in response to chemicals: effect of nitrogen and pH in the media. Journal of Environmental Biology 27:13-20.
PerezGcia1997 Pérez-García, F. 1997. Germination of Cistus ladanifer seeds in relation to parent material. Plant Ecology 133:57-62.
Portugal Fernandes, P. (pfern@utad.pt) - Northern and Central Portugal mountains. Above 400 m elevation. Communities dominated by Erica umbellata and Pterospartium tridentatum are quite important in the landscape and occupy poor, acidic, siliceous soils. They are also prevalent in the understorey of pine forests and occur with various degrees of importance in Ulex shrubland and other types of heathland. Data of Quercus suber collected in Q. suber stands (never exploited for cork) with a Cistus ladanifer dominated understorey. Sub-atlantic and Mediterranean-Iberian-Atlantic, annual rainfall >700 mm, mean annual temperature 10-16 ºC. Meso-Mediterranean and supra-Mediterranean zones. Mean fire size in shrub-dominated landscapes is 7 ha, fire density is 0.45/km²/year. Fire return interval typically varies in the range of 5-20 years. Where grazing pressure is higher fire returns every 3-5 years (approximatelly 5% of the landscape), Erica umbellata declines and herbs increase. Prevailing season of the fires: July-October and February-April.
Puentes1985 Puentes, M. A., J. Pereiras, and M. Casal. 1985. Dinámica de la población de plántulas de Ulex europaeus L. tras incendio, y su relación con la microtopografía. Studia Oecologica VI:135-148.
Puentes1988 Puentes, M. A., J. Pereiras, and M. Casal. 1988. Estudio del banco de semillas de Ulex europaeus L. en matorrales de Galicia (NW España). I. Primeros resultados. Revue d'Écologie et de Biologie du Sol 25:215-224.
Quevedo2005 Quevedo, L., A. Rodrigo, and J. M. Espelta. 2005. Recuperació i rebrotada d'espècies poc abundants en boscos mediterranis després d'incendis forestals. In II Conferència Internacional sobre Estratègies de Prevenció d’Incendis al Sud d’Europa: Gestió forestal com a eina per a la prevenció d’incendi, Barcelona, Spain.
Quevedo2007 Quevedo, L., Rodrigo, A., and Espelta, J. M. 2007. Post-fire resprouting ability of 15 non-dominant shrub and tree species in Mediterranean areas of NE Spain. Annals of Forest Science 64:883-890.
Quintana2004 Quintana, J. R., A. Cruz, F. Fernández-González, and J. M. Moreno. 2004. Time of germination and establishment success after fire of three obligate seeders in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain. Journal of Biogeography 31:241-249.
Rego1991 Rego, F. C., S. C. Bunting, and J. M. da Silva. 1991. Changes in understory vegetation following prescribed fire in maritime pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 41:21-31.
Retana1992 Retana, J., M. Riba, C. Castell, and J. M. Espelta. 1992. Regeneration by sprouting of holm oak (Quercus ilex) stands exploited by selection thinning. Vegetatio 100:355-364.
Retana2002 Retana, J., J. M. Espelta, A. Habrouk, J. L. Ordoñez, and F. de Solà-Morales. 2002. Regeneration patterns of three Mediterranean pines and forest changes after a large wildfire in northeastern Spain. Écoscience 9:89-97.
Reyes1995 Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 1995. Germination behavior of three species of the genus Pinus in relation to high temperatures suffered during forest fires. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 52:385-392.
Reyes1997a Reyes, O., M. Casal, and L. Trabaud. 1997. The influence of population, fire and time of dissemination on the germination of Betula pendula seeds. Plant Ecology 133:201-208.
Reyes1997b Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 1997. Efecto de las cenizas sobre el comportamiento germinativo de Pinus pinaster, P. radiata y Eucalyptus globulus. Pages 533-538 in F. Puertas, and M. Rivas, editors. I Congreso Forestal Hispano Luso/ II Congreso Forestal Español, Pamplona, Spain.
Reyes1998 Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 1998. Are the dominant species in N.W. Spain fire-prone? Pages 177-188 in L. Trabaud, editor. Fire management and landscape ecology. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Washington, USA.
Reyes2001a Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 2001. The influence of seed age on germinative response to the effects of fire in Pinus pinaster, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus. Annals of Forest Science 58:439-447.
Reyes2001b Reyes, O., and M. Boedo. 2001. El fuego como controlador de la germinación de Cytisus striatus y de C. multiflorus y su aplicación agronómica. Pages 15-21 in III Congreso Forestal Español. Montes para la sociedad del nuevo milenio, Granada, Spain.
Reyes2002a Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 2002. Quercus rotundifolia germination related to forest fires: the effect of high temperatures, ash, smoke and charcoal. Pages 158-164 in C. A. Thanos, T. L. Bearmore, K. F. Connor, and E. L. Tolentino, editors. Annual Meeting of IUFRO 2.09.00 'Research Group for Seed Physiology and Technology' Tree Seeds 2002, Chania, Crete.
Reyes2004 Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 2004. Effects of forest fire ash on germination and early growth of four Pinus species. Plant Ecology 175:81-89.
Reyes2006a Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 2006. Seed germination of Quercus robur, Q. pyrenaica and Q. ilex and the effects of smoke, heat, ash and charcoal. Annals of Forest Science 63:205-212.
Reyes2006b Reyes, O., and M. Casal. 2006. Can smoke affect the germination of Pinus sylvestris, P. nigra, P. uncinata and P. pinaster?. CD-rom in D. X. Viegas, editor. 5th International Conference on Forest Fire Research. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Figueira da Foz, Portugal.
RguezEcheverria2001 Rodríguez-Echeverría, S., and M. A. Pérez-Fernández. 2001. Light and nutrients availability determine seeds germination in five perennials. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology 2:83-91.
Riba1997 Riba, M. 1997. Effects of cutting and rainfall pattern on resprouting vigour and growth of Erica arborea L. Journal of Vegetation Science 8:401-404.
Riba2002 Riba, M., A. Rodrigo, B. Colas, and J. Retana. 2002. Fire and species range in Mediterranean landscapes: an experimental comparison of seed and seedling performance among Centaurea taxa. Journal of Biogeography 29:135-146.
Riera1997 Riera, J., J. Estruch, R. Cuevas, and A. M. Verdú. 1997. Etude des populations de Genista scorpius (L.) DC. et de leur capacite de resistance au feu dans une zone forestiere et pastorale du Bergueda (Barcelone): caracterisation et germination des graines. Lagascalia 19:685-690.
Rivas2006a Rivas, M., O. Reyes, and M. Casal. 2006. Do high temperatures and smoke modify the germination response of Gramineae species?. CD-rom in D. X. Viegas, editor. 5th International Conference on Forest Fire Research. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Figueira da Foz, Portugal.
Rivas2006b Rivas, M., O. Reyes, and M. Casal. 2006. Influence of heat and smoke treatments on the germination of six leguminous shrubby species. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15:73-80.
Rodrigo2004 Rodrigo, A., J. Retana, and F. X. Picó. 2004. Direct regeneration is not the only response of Mediterranean forests to large fires. Ecology 85:716-729.
Rodrigo2007 Rodrigo, A., V. Quintana, and J. Retana. 2007. Fire reduces Pinus pinea L. distribution in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. Écoscience 14:23-30
Roy1985 Roy, J., and M. Arianoutsou-Faraggitaki. 1985. Light quality as the environmental trigger for the germination of the fire-promoted species Sarcopoterium spinosum L. Flora 177:345-349.
Roy1992 Roy, J., and L. Sonie. 1992. Germination and population dynamics of Cistus species in relation to fire. Journal of Applied Ecology 29:647-655.
Ruiz1979 Ruíz de la Torre, J., and L. Ceballos. 1979. Árboles y arbustos de la España peninsular. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Madrid, Spain.
Salamanca Fernández-Santos, B. (belenfs@usal.es) - Various sites with matorral in the province of Salamanca. (1) Above 1400 m. Cytisus balansae forming dense monospecific stands occuping vast areas. The climate is Mediterranean mountainous, hyperhumid and cold. The soils overlay granitic bedrock and are shallow and acid. Traditionally the matorral is periodically burned (now every 5-8 years) in order to facilitate the growth of grasses. The mainly study area is Sierra de Bejar (W of Central System). (2) Various sites with matorral dominated by Cytisus multiflorus, mainly in the NW of the provice. Climate is subhumid Mediterranean, with mean annual precipitation between 600-750 mm and a pronounced summer drought. Soils are sandy and acid. These areas are extensive open holm-oak woodlands and set-aside agricultural land, where C. multiflorus constitutes monospecific matorral formations. The matorral is periodically burned, every 6-10 yr. Altitude ranges from 680 to 850m a.s.l. (3) Climate is humid Mediterranean, with mean annual precipitation >1000 mm and a pronounced summer drought. Soils are sandy and acid. These areas are extensive open oak woodlands, with matorral species. The matorral is frequently burned. Altitude ranges from 800 to 1200 m a.s.l.
Salvador1995 Salvador, R., and F. Lloret. 1995. Germinación en el laboratorio de varias especies arbustivas mediterráneas: efecto de la temperatura. Orsis 10:25-34.
Santiesteban1993 Santiesteban, E., C. García, and M. Morey. 1993. Dynamics of Cistus monspeliensis seedlings after fire. Pages 193-199 in L. Trabaud, and R. Prodon, editors. Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems. European Comission, Brussels.
Santos2003 Santos, M. F. V., E. Gutiérrez, R. Vallejo, I. J. Meunier, and D. Cillero. 2003. Diversity of post-fire vegetation on abandoned terraces and outcroup slopes in Valencia, Spain. Revista Árbore 27:399-405.
Saracino1998 Saracino, A., H. Dinel, F. Fidanza, G. Ruggiero, and S. Dumontet. 1998. Factors affecting post-fire regeneration under large Pinus halepensis trees. II. Influence of ashes and lipids on seed germination patterns. Pages 213-222 in L. Trabaud, editor. Fire management and landscape ecology. International Association of Wildland Fire, Fairfield, Washington, USA.
SBarcelona Lloret, F. (Francisco.Lloret@uab.es) - Shrublands and Pinus halepensis woodlands in the coastal area between Barcelona and Tarragona cities, with special emphasis in the Garraf Natural Park (Catalonia; NE Spain).
SCuenca Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Serranía de Cuenca (central Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)1.
Seligman2000 Seligman, N. G., and Z. Henkin. 2000. Regeneration of a dominant Mediterranean dwarf-shrub after fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 11:893-902.
Selik1958 Selik, M. 1958. Kizilçam (Pinus brutia Ten.)'in botanik özellikleri üzerinde arastirmalar ve bunlarin Halepçami (Pinus halepensis Mill.) vasiflari ile mukayesesi [Researches on botanical properties of Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) and its companion of those of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.)] Istanbul Universitesi Orman Fakultesi Dergisi Seri:A 8:161-198 (in Turkish).
Silva1996 Silva, J. S. 1996. Seedling establishment of Mediterranean woody species after fire in two different regions of central Portugal. MSc thesis. Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania - Centre International de Hautes Études Agronomiques Méditerranéenees, Creete, Greece.
Silva2006 Silva, J. S., and F. Catry. 2006. Forest fires in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) stands in Portugal. International Journal of Environmental Studies 63:235-257.
Skourou2003 Skourou, P. C. 2003. Population dynamics of Cistus spp. in post-fire succesional stages of Pinus halepensis forests in Attica. PhD thesis (in Greek with summary in English). University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
Soria Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Soria-Burgos Mountains (central Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)2.
Tapias2000 Tapias, R., and L. Gil. 2000. Adaptación reproductiva de las especies forestales ante el fuego. Pages 130-137 in R. Vélez, coordinator. La defensa contra incendios forestales: fundamentos y experiencias. McGraw-Hill, Madrid, Spain.
Tapias2001 Tapias, R., L. Gil, P. Fuentes-Utrilla, and J. A. Pardos. 2001. Canopy seed banks in Mediterranean pines of southeastern Spain: a comparison between Pinus halepensis Mill., P. pinaster Ait., P. nigra Arn. and P. pinea L. Journal of Ecology 89:629-638.
Tapias2004 Tapias, R., J. Climent, J. A. Pardos, and L. Gil. 2004. Life histories of Mediterranean pines. Plant Ecology 171:53-68.
Tarrega1992 Tárrega, R., L. Calvo, and L. Trabaud. 1992. Effect of high temperatures on seed germination of two woody Leguminosae. Vegetatio 102:139-147.
Tarrega1997 Tárrega, R., E. Luis-Calabuig, and I. Alonso. 1997. Space-time heterogeneity in the recovery after experimental burning and cutting in a Cistus laurifolius shrubland. Plant Ecology 129:179-187.
Tavsanoglu2005 Tavsanoglu, Ç., and B. Gürkan. 2005. Post-fire dynamics of Cistus spp. in a Pinus brutia forest. Turkish Journal of Botany 29: 337-343.
Teleno Madrigal, J., C. Hernando, and M. Guijarro (incendio@inia.es) - Sierra de Teleno (Spain). Mediterranean climate with continental influence; phytoclimatic region following Allué 1990: VI(IV)2.
Thanos1988 Thanos, C. A., and K. Georghiou. 1988. Ecophysiology of fire-stimulated seed germination in Cistus incanus ssp. creticus (L.) Heywood and C. salvifolius L. Plant Cell and Environment 11:841-849.
Thanos1989 Thanos, C. A., S. Marcou, D. Christodoulakis, and A. Yannitsaros. 1989. Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus brutia forest ecosystems of Samos Island (Greece). Acta Oecologica 10:79-94.
Thanos1992 Thanos, C. A., K. Georghiou, C. Kadis, and C. Pantazi. 1992. Cistaceae: A plant family with hard seeds. Israel Journal of Botany 41:251-263.
Thanos1993 Thanos, C. A., and E. N. Daskalakou. 1993. Seed characteristics of Pinus brutia from various location of Samos Island. Pages 295-302 in Proceedings of International Symposium on Pinus brutia Ten., Ministry of Forestry of Turkey, October 18th-23th, Marmaris, Turkey.
Thanos1996 Thanos, C. A., E. N. Daskalakou, and S. Nikolaidou. 1996. Early post-fire regeneration of a Pinus halepensis forest on Mount Parnis, Greece. Journal of Vegetation Science 7:273-280.
Torres2006 Torres, O., L. Calvo, and L. Valbuena. 2006. Influence of high temperatures on seed germination of a special Pinus pinaster stand adapted to frequent fires. Plant Ecology 186:129-136.
Trabaud1985a Trabaud, L., C. Michels, and J. Grosman. 1985. Recovery of burnt Pinus halepensis Mill. forests. 2. Pine reconstitution after wildfire. Forest Ecology and Management 13:167-179.
Trabaud1985b Trabaud, L., and B. de Chanterac. 1985. The influence of fire on the phenological behavior of Mediterranean plant species in Bas-Languedoc (southern France). Vegetatio 60:119-130.
Trabaud1989a Trabaud, L., and J. Oustric. 1989. Heat requirements for seed germination of three Cistus species in the garrigue of southern France. Flora 183:321-325.
Trabaud1989b Trabaud, L., and M. Casal. 1989. Réponses des semences de Rosmarinus officinalis à différents traitements simulant une action de feu. Acta oecologica 10:355-363.
Trabaud1990 Trabaud, L. 1990. Fire resistance of Quercus coccifera L. garrigue. In J. M. Goldammer, and M. J. Jenkins, editors. III International Symposium of Fire Ecology. SPB Academic Publishing.
Trabaud1992 Trabaud, L. 1992. Influence du régime des feux sur les modifications à court terme et la stabilité à long terme de la flore d'une garrigue de Quercus coccifera. Revue d'Ecologie-La Terre et La Vie 47:209-230.
Trabaud1997 Trabaud, L., J. J. Martínez-Sánchez, P. Ferrandis, A. I. González-Ochoa, and J. M. Herranz. 1997. Végétation épigée et banque de semences du sol: leur contribution à la stabilité cyclique des pinèdes mixtes de Pinus halepensis et P. pinaster. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:1012-1021.
Trabaud2000 Trabaud, L. 2000. Seeds: their soil seed bank and their role in post-fire recovery of ecosystems of the Mediterranean basin. Pages 229-259 in L. Trabaud, editor. Life and Environment in the Mediterranean. Wit Press, Southhampton, Boston, USA.
Trabaud2002 Trabaud, L., and M. Grandjanny. 2002. Post-fire reconstitution of the flowering phenology in Mediterranean shrubland plants. Pages 99-113 in L. Trabaud, and R. Prodon, editors. Fire and biological proccesses. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Troumbis1986 Troumbis, A., and L. Trabaud. 1986. Comparison of reproductive biological attributes of two Cistus species. Acta Oecologica 7:235-250.
Troumbis1996 Troumbis, A. Y. 1996. Seed persistence versus soil seed bank persistence: The case of the post-fire seeder Cistus incanus L. Ecoscience 3:461-468.
Turkmen2005 Türkmen, N., and A. Düzenli. 2005. Changes in floristic composition of Quercus coccifera macchia after fire in the Çukurova region, Turkey. Annales Botanici Fennici 42:453-460.
Turna2006 Turna, I., and E. Bilgili. 2006. Effect of heat on seed germination of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15:283-286.
Usta2007 Usta, T. 2007. The effects of high heat shock treatments on seeds feature of natural pine (Pinus spp.) species. M.Sc. Thesis, Gazi University, Ankara (in Turkish with English abstract).
Valbuena1992 Valbuena, L., R. Tárrega, and E. Luis. 1992. Influence of heat on seed germination of Cistus laurifolius and Cistus ladanifer. International Journal of Wildland Fire 2:15-20.
Valbuena1995 Valbuena, L., and L. Trabaud. 1995. Comparison between the soil seed banks of a burnt and an unburnt Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forest. Vegetatio 119:81-90.
Valbuena1998 Valbuena, L., and R. Tárrega. 1998. The influence of heat and mechanical scarification on the germination capacity of Quercus pyrenaica seeds. New Forests 16:177-183.
Valbuena2000 Valbuena, L., R. Tárrega, and E. Luís-Calabuig. 2000. Seed banks of Erica australis and Calluna vulgaris in a heathland subjected to experimental fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 11:161-166.
Valbuena2001 Valbuena, L., and L. Trabaud. 2001. Contribution of the soil seed bank to post-fire recovery of a heathland. Plant Ecology 152:175-183.
Valbuena2002a Valbuena, L., and M. L. Vera. 2002. The effects of thermal scarification and seed storage on germination of four heathland species. Plant Ecology 161:137-144.
Valbuena2002b Valbuena, L., E. Luis-Calabuig, and R. Tárrega. 2002. Relationship between thermal shock and germination in five Mediterranean shrubs. Pages 93-98 in L. Trabaud, and R. Prodon, editors. Fire and biological processes. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Valencia Pausas J. G., and S. Paula (juli.g.pausas@uv.es) - Valencia (E Spain). Mainly lowland communities (avoiding top mountains, etc). Mediterranean climate with two main distinctive bioclimatic zones: a thermo-Mediterranean zone right next to the coast (mean annual temperature: 17-19 ºC; vegetative period: 12 months) and a meso-Mediterranean zone a bit inland (mean annual temperature 13-17 ºC; vegetative period: 9 - 11 months). The precipitation regime is mainly dry (annual precipitation from 350 to 600 mm) with precipitation concentrated (>60%) in spring and autumn. About 55% of the forest landscape did not burn during this period 1978 and 2001, ca 30% burned once only, 14% burned twice, and very small areas burnt 3 or more times. About 11% of the forest land has suffered recurrent fires with fire intervals shorter than 15 years (in the last 23 years; Pausas and Abdel Malak 2004).
Vega2005 Vega, J. A., P. Pérez-Gorostiaga, M. T. Fontúrbel, A. Barreiro, C. Fernández, and P. Cuiñas. 2005. Variables influyentes en la respuesta regenerativa a corto plazo de Quercus pyrenaica Willd. tras incendios en Galicia. In Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, editor. Proccedings of the IV Congreso Forestal Español. La ciencia forestal: Respuestas para la sostenibilidad. Interrogante Gráfica, Zaragoza, Spain.
Vera1995 Vera, M. L., M. C. Alonso, and J. R. Obeso. 1995. Rebrote después de incendio e inversión reproductiva en Erica cinerea y E. vagans. Orsis 10:7-15.
Verdaguer2001 Verdaguer, D., E. García-Berthou, G. Pascual, and P. Puigderrajols. 2001. Sprouting of seedlings of three Quercus species in relation to repeated pruning and the cotyledonary node. Australian Journal of Botany 49:67-74.
Verkaik2005 Verkaik, I. 2005. El efecto de las claras y la edad de regeneración post-incendio en las características reproductivas de bosques de Pinus halepensis Mill. In II International conference on prevention strategies of fires in Southern Europe: Forest management as a tool fire prevention, Barcelona, Spain.
Vila1994 Vilà, M., J. Weiner, and J. Terradas. 1994. Effect of local competition on resprouting of Arbutus unedo after clipping. Journal of Vegetation Science 5:145-152.
Vila1995 Vilà, M., and J. Terradas. 1995. Sprout recruitment and self-thinning of Erica multiflora after clipping. Oecologia 102:64-69.
Vila2000 Vilà, M., and F. Lloret. 2000. Seed dynamics of the mast seeding tussock grass Ampelodesmos mauritanica in Mediterranean shrublands. Journal of Ecology 88:479-491.
Vila2001 Vilà, M., F. Lloret, E. Ogheri, and J. Terradas. 2001. Positive fire-grass feedback in Mediterranean Basin woodlands. Forest Ecology and Management 147:3-14.
VillarSalvador2000 Villar Salvador, P. 2000. Estrategias ecológicas y funcionales del xilema en plantas leñosas mediterráneas. PhD thesis. Universidad de Valencia, Spain.

6. Region

The 9th column refers to the region of the Mediterranean Basin where the observation or experiment was performed or from where the seeds were collected. Five regions are considered, three in Mediterranean Europe, one in Mediterranean Asia and another in Mediterranean Africa:

W – North West: Iberian Peninsula, south of France and Balearic Islands.
C – North-Central: Italian Peninsula and surrounding islands (Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica).
E – North East: from Trieste to Istanbul, that is, Croatia, Albania, Former Yugoslavic Republic of Macedonia, Greece, and surrounding islands.
M – Mediterranean Middle East (Asia): from Istanbul to the Sinai Peninsula. That is, Anatolian Peninsula, western Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel and Cyprus.
S – Southern rim of the Mediterranean sea (North Africa), that is, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
U – Unknown, or unclear in the original source, or from more than two of the above regions.

7. Redundancy

The 10th column indicates rows that are strongly related (indicated with the same code in this column); these are references for a given species in which there is a high chance that the information in one of the references was obtained from another. These cases are very difficult to identify, but are indicated when suspected, as it may help in understanding and processing the data.

8. Comments

For some data, a brief comment may be included in the 11th column. These comments or clarifications may be provided by the author (f.a.), that is, they are indicated in the reference, or by the data compiler (f.c.).


CLASS V. SUPPLEMENTARY DESCRIPTORS

A. Data acquisition

Data forms: n/a
Location of completed data forms: n/a
Data entry/verification procedures: Data were introduced in a spreadsheet from published references and personal experience. The main compilers (Paula and Pausas) reviewed all individual datasets to homogenise criteria and to detect inconsistencies. Initial analysis was performed to detect further inconsistencies.

B. Quality assurance/quality control procedures: see Authentication procedure (Class IV).

C. Related material: n/a

D. Computer programs and data processing algorithms:

The file can be read using different statistical, database or spreadsheet software. Here is the command line to read it in R version 2.7 (R Development Core Team 2007):
       read.delim("BROT_2008.11.txt")

E. Archiving: n/a

F. Publications using the data set: The full data set has not yet been used in any publication. Several papers used a small subset of the data:

Paula, S. and J. G. Pausas. 2006. Leaf traits and resprouting ability in the Mediterranean basin. Functional Ecology 20:941-947.
Verdú, M., and J. G. Pausas. 2007. Fire drives phylogenetic clustering in Mediterranean Basin woody plant communities. Journal of Ecology 95:1316-323.
Paula, S., and J. G. Pausas. 2008. Burning seeds: Germinative response to heat treatments in relation to resprouting ability. Journal of Ecology 96:543-552.
Pausas, J.G., and M. Verdú. 2008. Fire reduces morphospace occupation in plant communities. Ecology 89: 2181-2186.

G. History of data set usage: n/a (the data has not yet been used by any secondary user)


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We thank J. Madrigal, C. Hernando, M. Guijarro, J. Baeza, M. De Luis, P. Andriopoulos and A. Escudero for providing information and comments on some species. The compilation of this database was supported by the EUFIRELAB project (European Commission EVR1- 2001-00054), SINREG project (Spanish Government, REN2003-07198-C02-02/GLO), PERSIST project (Spanish Government, CGL2006-07126/BOS) and CIRCE project (European Commission IP 036961). CEAM is supported by Generalitat Valenciana, Bancaixa, and the Spanish Government (GRACCIE Consolider-Ingenio 2010).


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