Ecological Archives E090-043-A3

Jake M. Alexander, Peter J. Edwards, Myriam Poll, Catherine G. Parks, and Hansjörg Dietz. 2009. Establishment of parallel altitudinal clines in traits of native and introduced forbs. Ecology 90:612–622.

Appendix C. A table showing mixed-effects model summaries for traits measured in the eight Asteraceae forbs, including effects of site type, population size, and ontogeny.

TABLE C1. Mixed-effects model (residual maximum-likelihood method) summaries for traits measured in eight Asteraceae forbs in their native and introduced ranges. These are the same data as in Table 3, but without the three-way interaction of A × R × S and with the inclusion of additional variables as covariables (see text). Degrees of freedom (df) are given as the numerator followed by denominator df.


 

Stem height

(Log) capitulum number

Seed size

Capitulum seed mass

 



Source

df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P


Site type

1,129

13.77

0.003

1,129

16.81

<0.001

1,119

0.11

0.743

1,107

0.49

0.487

Population size

2,129

2.25

0.109

2,129

4.21

0.017

2,119

4.23

0.017

2,107

4.07

0.020

Ontogeny

1,1287

0.71

0.400

1,1292

0.58

0.445

1,958

26.33

<0.001

1,752

44.25

<0.001

Region (R)

1,5

4.07

0.100

1,5

9.17

0.029

1,5

0.21

0.664

1,5

0.80

0.413

Status (S)

1,5

0.58

0.482

1,5

0.40

0.557

1,5

0.40

0.553

1,5

3.47

0.121

Altitude (A)

1,129

29.13

<0.001

1,129

35.67

<0.001

1,119

33.34

<0.001

1,107

5.41

0.022

A × S

1,129

<0.001

0.976

1,129

0.15

0.699

1,119

0.07

0.793

1,107

3.16

0.078

A × R

1,129

31.77

<0.001

1,129

4.36

0.039

1,119

1.26

0.264

1,107

0.04

0.851



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