Ecological Archives E089-160-A1

Stuart Levenbach. 2008. Community-wide ramifications of an associational refuge on shallow rocky reefs. Ecology 89:2819–2828.

Appendix A. Figures showing an assay of grazing intensity at Carpinteria Reef and Coal Oil Point.

   FIG. A1. Grazing pressure in barren (gray bars) and forested (open bars) areas of Carpinteria Reef and Coal Oil Point during fall 2004. (a) The mean (± 1 SE) density of purple urchins and (b) the mean (± 1 SE) grazing intensity after 24 hours. Grazing intensity was calculated as 1 – the proportion of kelp remaining in exposed vs. protected treatments.

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