Ecological Archives E089-088-D1

Eric S. Menges. 2008. Demography of the endemic mint Dicerandra frutescens in Florida scrub. Ecology 89:1474.


INTRODUCTION

Demographic data, derived from fates and fertilities of individuals, can be used to evaluate life history trade offs, understand drivers of population change, and project the future of populations. These data are often linked to models of population growth and decline in population viability analysis (Morris and Doak 2002). Although the methods of population viability analysis can lead to powerful predictions, the modeling can outpace the quality and quantity of the data, leading to biased conclusions (Coulson et al. 2001, Reed et al. 2002). Most population viability studies in plants are based on fewer than five years of data (Menges 2000). Long-term data sets are necessary to address questions at larger scales (Callahan 1984), and are especially useful when combined with critical experimental studies (Brown et al. 2001). The collection and archival of long-term demographic data sets will likely be very useful for future analysts who will have access to better methods, but not necessarily the long-term data required to best utilize these methods.

Ecological disturbances create marked spatial and temporal variability that affect the demography of natural populations (Menges and Quintana-Ascencio 2003). Fire is a dominant ecological disturbance worldwide (Bond and Keeley 2005). A few population viability analyses have analyzed responses of different species to fire regimes and to combinations of fire with climate, trampling, and herbivory (Lennartsson and Oostermeijer 2001, Kaye and Pyke 2003, Menges and Quintana-Ascencio 2003). The data set described in this paper is drawn from Florida scrub habitats that have been affected by periodic fire ignited by lightning, accident, or prescribed burning.

Florida scrub is a shrub-dominated ecosystem found on well-drained sands, in a climate with hot, rainy summers and dry, moderate winters (Abrahamson et al. 1984). The vegetation structure and species composition of this endangered ecosystem is controlled largely by fire (Menges 1999). Florida scrub supports many highly endemic species (Christman and Judd 1990, Estill and Cruzan 2001) and many of these species are specialists for the first decade post-fire and for gaps among dominant shrubs (Menges and Kohfeldt 1995, Menges and Hawkes 1998, Menges et al. in press).

Dicerandra frutescens is a short lived (<10 years) perennial herb narrowly endemic to Florida scrub on central Florida’s Lake Wales Ridge, with a large population protected and managed at Archbold Biological Station. Our study taxon has recently been described as D. frutescens var. frutescens, distinct from another subspecies found further north (Huck 2001). D. frutescens is a low-growing suffrutescent mint occurring in yellow sand supporting Florida scrub, mainly in gaps, recently-burned scrub, and along old disturbances such as trails and roads (Menges 1992; Menges et al.1999).

Fire is a key ecological disturbance in the life history of D. frutescens. Fire kills all D. frutescens plants (Menges 1992), but post-fire recruitment from a persistent seed bank in the soil is generally quite dramatic (Menges et al. 2006). Pulses of post-fire seedlings have been studied after complete burns and after partial burns that have left some surviving plants. Although populations appear robust after fires, the species also persists in some long-unburned areas. Analysis of data collected from 1990–2000 showed that post-fire populations had positive growth while populations more than six years post-fire were declining (Menges et al. 2006). Based on stochastic simulations, we recommended fires at intervals of 5–12 years (Menges et al. 2006); this optimal fire return interval for Dicerandra frutescens is also recommended for the oak-hickory scrub that is its primary habitat (Menges 2007). The species can recover from either complete or partial fires, so either one is recommended. Pre-treatment mechanical treatments could probably be useful in allowing fire to be more complete while controlling fire intensity. However, because mechanical treatments may promote germination from the seed bank, if the subsequent fire is delayed by more than a few months, then it may wipe out the emerging seedling cohort. Thus, a mis-timed combination of mechanical treatments and fire could deplete the soil seed bank. The effects of mechanical treatment alone on D. frutescens have not been studied. Soil seed banks also become depleted by long periods of fire suppression. In these cases, seed augmentations would be useful, especially after fires.

Hand-pollination experiments have shown that D. frutescens is self compatible, but requires insect visitation for seed production (Evans et al. 2004). Inbreeding depression reduced seed set by 60%. Seedlings come (in part) from seeds germinating in the winter immediately following seed production. In addition, seeds may lie dormant in the soil for at least two years and germinate when conditions become appropriate (Menges et al. 2006). Genetic variation in D. frutescens, is lower than most other endemic plants and lower than its congener, D. christmanii (Menges et al. 2001).

This data set consists of demographic data of D. frutescens collected annually at the Archbold Biological Station between 1988 and 2004. In this document, we provide the metadata supporting data on the fates of individually marked D. frutescens plants of all stages from quarterly demographic data from 1988–2004. Data from 1988–1989 may not be as accurate with respect to determination of seedlings, as later data. The number of flowering branch tips is included is a proxy for fecundity. This data set does not include data on the numbers of seeds and fruits per flowering branch tips, nor on the demography of the persistent seed bank (see Menges et al. 2006 for further information).

METADATA CLASS I. DATA SET DESCRIPTORS

A. Data set identity:

Title: Demography of the endemic mint Dicerandra frutescens in Florida scrub

B. Data set identification code

To be determined

C. Data set description

Principal Investigator: Eric S. Menges, Archbold Biological Station, PO Box 2057, Lake Placid, FL 33862, emenges@archbold-station.org

Abstract:

Florida scrub supports many endemic species in a pyrogenic shrubland on xeric yellow sands. One genus with multiple endemics is the mint Dicerandra, with its five narrowly endemic species most prevalent in edges and recently burned areas. Study of the demography of Dicerandra frutescens, an endemic and endangered mint restricted to Florida scrub, began in September 1988. Eleven populations have been studied at various locations across Archbold Biological Station and at one privately held site. Some populations, particularly along fire lanes, have been added during the study. Survival and recruitment data were initially collected monthly, but were later collected quarterly in September, December, March, and June. Each annual census in September also recorded the life history stage for that "year" (the year including any censuses after the prior September census) and measures of size (basal diameter, number of branch tips, number of reproductive branch tips). Survival variables representing monthly, quarterly, and annual survival were also assembled. These survival variables contain information on the type of plant recruiting (seedling or new adult) or, for plants already in the data set, whether the plant survived the interval, died during the interval, was already (previously) dead, or whether survival could not be ascertained (no tag, no plant).

Several populations were subjected to prescribed burns during the study. For years with burns, variables summarize whether plants (or quadrats) were burned or not. This data set consists of 5530 records, each an individual plant, from 1988 through 2004. Published analyses based on data from 1990–2000 found that finite rates of increase were greater than 1 for populations less than six years post-fire, but thereafter populations were predicted to decline. Similarly, populations in fire lanes were most successful when the time-since-disking was short. A yard-edge population showed variable demography. Stochastic simulations in Florida scrub sites suggested an optimal fire return interval of 6–12 years (regular fires) or 6–21 years (stochastic fires).

Data collection on this project is continuing, and we anticipate updating data periodically.

D. Key words: fire effects on demography; fire frequency; fire lanes; fire management; long-term data set; population viability analysis; seedling cohorts; stochastic population modeling, survival; transition matrix.

CLASS II. RESEARCH ORIGIN DESCRIPTORS

A. Overall project description

Identity: Demography of the endemic mint Dicerandra frutescens in Florida scrub.

Originator: Eric S. Menges

Period of Study: Data from September 1988 – September 2004. Study from September 1988 – present (ongoing)

Objectives: Quantify the life history of Dicerandra frutescens through detailed data from marked individuals in a variety of habitats across many years. Understand how variation in year-to-year conditions affects population dynamics and persistence. Analyze demography in relation to fire. Provide data to models of population viability in relation to alternative fire management.

Abstract: These data show that D. frutescens is a short-lived plant with moderate survival and highly variable seedling recruitment. Many vital rates are highest during the first decade after fire. Fire return intervals of 6–12 years (regular fire) or 6–21 years (stochastic fire) are optimal for this species, minimizing extinction risk. Management needs to include periodic disturbances (ideally fire) to maintain populations of D. frutescens. Also, see above.

Source(s) of funding: National Science Foundation (LTREB program), 1999–2003 and 2003-2008, Florida Division of Plant Industry (2000–2001), Archbold Biological Station (entire project)

B. Specific subproject description

Site description:

a. Site Type. Florida scrub on yellow sands, including both sand pine scrub and oak-hickory scrub (Menges 1999), the latter also known as southern ridge sandhill – hickory phase (Abrahamson et al. 1984). Also disturbed firelane edges (in the same habitats) and a yard edge on the same soils.

b. Geography. All but one study population are at Archbold Biological Station, in an area defined by the following two Universal Transverse Mercator points: northeast X: 467071.7725; northeast Y: 3009864.1869; southwest X: 463747.7746; southwest Y: 2999836.793. General location of Archbold: latitude: 27o10’50’’N longitude: 81o21’00’’W. Study plots are in the following management units: 10, 11D, 15B, 3B, 48B, 50B, 50D, 51, 52A, and 53A. Specific location of study plots is available from the Plant Lab, Archbold Biological Station. All plots have been GPS’ed.

c. Habitat. Most populations are in Florida scrub, a shrubland with dense stands of Quercus myrtifolia, Q. geminata, Q. chapmanii, Serenoa repens, Lyonia fruticosa, L. ferruginea, Sabal etonia, and other shrubs. Within Florida scrub, D. frutescens is found on areas mapped as sand pine scrub and southern-ridge sandhill, hickory phase (Abrahamson et al. 1984). The latter vegetation type is also known as oak-hickory scrub (Menges 1999) due to its dense shrub cover and prevalence of subcanopy scrub hickory (Carya floridana). Sand pine scrub is characterized by a canopy of sand pine trees (Pinus clausa), although that canopy has thinned considerably in the area supporting D. frutescens (Menges et al. 1993). Within these scrub sites, D. frutescens tends to be found mainly in gaps among shrubs (Menges 1992, Menges et al. 1999) and along old trails. We also studied this species along roadside edges and in natural soil in a native plant garden.

d. Geology, landform. Dicerandra frutescens is a specialist for xeric, excessively drained, yellow sands (Menges et al. 2007). These deep azonal soils are very low in nutrients and water holding capacity. Populations are found on broad ridges. Slopes are minimal. Elevations are about 50-60 m above sea level.

e. Watersheds, hydrology. Sites receive water exclusively from precipitation and fog; flooding is unknown. Depth to water table varies from tens of meters to as little as 1-2 meters, depending on the site and the time of year (water tables are highest during the rainy summer and lowest during dry springs). Soil water levels fluctuate seasonally and across years; they are also generally lowest near the surface (Weekley et al. 2007).

f. Site history. These sites have been protected for decades under management by Archbold Biological Station (for a detailed summary of this site, see Abrahamson et al. 1984). Periodic prescribed fires are the main form of land management on the site.

g. Climate. South-central Florida has hot, wet summers and mild, dry winters (Abrahamson et al. 1984). Mean annual rainfall is about 1300 mm of which ~60 percent falls during the summer (June-September) (Chen & Gerber, 1990). However, El Niño years result in higher than normal winter rainfall; for example, during the extreme El Niño event of 1997-98, total dry season (October 1997 – May 1998) rainfall at Archbold was almost twice the long term average (1015 mm vs. 547 mm). Mean annual temperature at Archbold (1952-2005) is 22.3 oC. January is the coldest month of the year with a mean of 15.9 oC; the mean maximum January temperature is 23.3 oC and the mean minimum is 8.3 oC. August is the hottest month with a mean of 27.4 oC; the mean maximum August temperature is 34.0 oC and the mean minimum is 20.8 oC. Freezing temperatures occur in most years, but their duration is usually only a few hours.

Experimental or sampling design/field methods:

a. Design characteristics. The data set consists of records of 5530 individual plants from eleven populations of Dicerandra frutescens. Data were collected from all plants occurring in permanent quadrats (see below). Populations were defined by occurring within a single vegetation type, on a single soil type, and in a single burn unit.

b. Permanent Plots. All plots are permanent 1×1 m square quadrats. We initially attempted to choose these quadrats randomly. In only one population (Dicerandraville) were plant densities sufficient to choose only these quadrats. We then chose quadrats subjectively with the goals of sampling sufficient numbers of plants for demographic analyses, cover a range of site conditions, and be able to relocate quadrats (with the advent of GPS, this is no longer an issue). At some sites (2, 4, 14, 19, 20), quadrats were arranged into belt transects of 1 m or 2 m widths; at other sites (0, 10, 11, 12) quadrats were scattered along a wider belt transect through the population. A small number of subjectively located quadrats were used for populations 1 and 24. Quadrats were generally marked on the lower left side by an angled piece of aluminum hammered into the ground. The other three corners were marked with stake flags (currently, we usually use a double stake flag to signal a corner). The quadrats were set up using a square quadrat frame made of PVC in an attempt to create right angles at the corners.

c. Data collection period, frequency, etc. Data are collected quarterly in September, December, March, and June. September is the annual census, with detailed data collected on sizes. For other censuses, we recorded survival and recruitment only.

 

Research Methods:

a. Field/laboratory Within each quadrat, all plants were located with an X and a Y coordinate. Coordinates were local within isolated quadrats but global among quadrats grouped in belt transects, with the X axis indicating the long axis (up to 44 m). In 1988-1989, a few larger plants were marked with tags wired to stems. Other unmarked plants were given numbers and relocated using coordinates. In the 1990s, no tags were used and coordinates were used to re-locate individuals. From 1999 to the present, we marked all plants as well as recording X and Y coordinates. Plants are generally marked with a wire flag pinning a pre-numbered aluminum tag on the ground adjacent to the plant. When there are many seedlings in a small area, we mark them with plastic swizzle sticks (coded by card suit [spade, heart, diamond, club, arrow] and color). Once most of the seedlings inevitably perish, the remaining plants are marked with a tag and flag. We provide (generally) unique (within population) numbers to each plant in our data sets. At each census, every existing plant is checked for survival status (survived, died, new seedling, new adult). New seedlings and adults are tagged and their coordinates recorded. Seedlings are distinguished from new adults by the presence of cotyledons and by being small and unbranched. Seedling size is more or less predictable depending on germination date and the time of year. For example, seedlings in the winter usually have cotyledons, are often just 1 cm tall and always unbranched. Larger plants are unlikely to be this year's seedlings. New plants represent individuals that were overlooked in one or more censuses. This is most likely to occur in dense litter or vegetation and at plot edges. At the annual census, size data are recorded, currently the number of branch tips 2 cm or longer and the number of flowering branch tips 2 cm or longer. In early years of this study, basal diameter was also measured with a caliper. Plants are given numbers unique to the site when recorded on datasheets or when entered in the computer. For most years of the data set, these plant numbers are matched by tag numbers used in the field. For some years, field tags were not used (the plants were located by X and Y coordinates). Plants that never received field tags may have received computer plant numbers with five digits in order to conserve metal tags, which come pre-stamped with smaller numbers.

b. Instrumentation Most data are counts. In the early years of the study, we recorded basal diameter with a calipers accurate to 0.1 mm. Retractable tapes and meter sticks were used to record locations within quadrats, and longer tapes (often 60 m) were used to set up quadrats and transects.

c. Taxonomy and systematics Dicerandra frutescens was described by Shinners (1962). This mint is easily distinguished from co-occurring species by morphology and its distinct minty smell. Recently, Huck (2001) proposed two intraspecific taxa within D. frutescens; the subspecies for our study is D. frutescens subsp. frutescens. The species is a hexaploid (Huck and Chambers 1997). The genus Dicerandra is endemic to the southeastern United States (Huck 1987) and its extreme endemism is unparalleled for plants of the southeastern United States (Estill and Cruzan 2001). D. frutescens has relatively low genetic variation in comparison to close relatives, co-occurring endemics, and endemics in general (Menges et al. 2001).

d. Permit history We have periodically obtained permits from the Florida Division of Plant Industry when removing leaf tissue (for genetic analyses) or seeds (for experiments). No permits are required for routine demographic data collection.

e. Legal/organizational requirements. Research on listed species at Archbold Biological Station is reviewed by the senior staff scientists.

Project Personnel: PI: Eric Menges. RAs: Carl Weekley, Noreen Gallo, Nancy Kohfeldt, Marcia Rickey, Rebecca Yahr, Margaret Evans, Alaä Wally, Dorothy Mundell, and Rick Lavoy. Land manager: Kevin Main. Interns: see http://www.archbold-station.org/abs/staff/emenges/esmcvasst.htm for a complete list.

 

CLASS III. DATA SET STATUS AND ACCESSIBILITY

A. Status

Latest Update: 29 January 2007

Latest Archive date: 29 January 2007

Metadata status: 17 September 2007

Data verification:Data are entered onto paper datasheets in the field. The datasheets have past data to aid in consistent entry. Data are entered into the computer as SPSS files. Each entry is checked by two people, comparing the computer file to the original datasheet. Additional data QA/QC involved logical checks (e.g., only living plants can have sizes, plants need to enter the data set as seedlings or new plants, plants can only die once, etc.).

B.Accessibility

Storage location and medium:Digital data are located on the Archbold Biological Station file server (Typhoon), under plantlab\data&projects\dicerandra\df\df-all. There are versions of the data in SPSS and as text documents (several files with the name df8804). We are also posting a copy of the data on the ABS website (archbold-station.org). Metadata files are stored in the same folder (file name is df metadata). The ABS systems administrator also maintains backups of all files. In addition, the data set is backed up on the hard drive of the PI’s computer. Original field data sheets are stored in the Plant Ecology Lab at Archbold in files marked Dicerandra frutescens. Photocopies are kept in notebooks organized by date.

Contact person:Eric S. Menges, Archbold Biological Station, PO Box 2057, Lake Placid, FL 33862, 863-465-2571, fax 863-699-1927, emenges@archbold-station.org

Copyright restrictions:>None, but the author appreciates being cited if data are used by others.

Proprietary restrictions:None, but the author appreciates being cited if data are used by others.

Costs: None.

CLASS IV. DATA STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Data Set File

Identity: Df8804 tab ascii.txt

Size: 5530 records, each record is 8 lines, 1879 KB.

Format and Storage mode: Tab-delimited ASCII, not compressed.

Header information:The header that consists of the variable names (e.g. B90, B96, B98, B04, PLNT, POP, QU etc.) that are listed below under variable information. The variables listed in the header are in the same order as the variables.

Alphanumeric attributes: NA

Special characters/fields: Value labels and missing value codes are listed below.

Authentication procedures: The number of data records should be 5530. Each case includes information on the first six variables; most other variables have missing values. Means of selected variables (nearest 0.01): STM04: 65.04, STM01: 38.31, BD01: 3.43; BD90: 4.22. Frequencies of S03: 0 (n=74), 1 (247), 3 (19), 5 (220), 6 (850), 7 (146), 9 (3851).

B. Variable Information

The variables are organized in logical groups as follows:

Three variables summarizing burn history (whether plants burned in each of 4 fires).

General ID information (plant number, population code, tag number, X, Y, first year in data set).

For each year, demographic information (annual survival, quarterly survival, life history stage, size measurements). The years are ordered from most recent to most distant.

 

Note that the variable names, labels, and missing values are consistent among comparable variables (e.g. all the survival variables have the same value labels). In labels, the last two digits of the year are commonly used (e.g., 94 means 1994, 03 means 2003).

 

The information below is formatted with the following information:

 

Variable Name, Variable Label and Column Position

Measurement Level

Column Width and Alignment

Print Format, Write Format

Value Labels and Their Meanings

 

B90 Was location burned 1990? Column 1

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Value Label

0 unburned

1 burned

 

B96 Was location burned 1996? Column 2

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Value Label

0 unburned

1 lightly burned

2 burned

 

B98 Was location burned 1998? Column 3

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Value Label

0 unburned

1 burned

 

B04 Was plant burned 6-29-04? Column 4

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Value Label

0 unburned

1 lightly burned

2 burned

 

PLNT Plant ID Column 5

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 6; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F8, Write Format: F8

 

POP Population Code Column 6

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F2, Write Format: F2

Value Label

0 Dicerandraville

1 S Slope Rd

2 Scrub Grid

4 Scrub East

10 Cowpen

11 18E EBFL

12 18E W scrub

14 NE Firelane

19 19E

20 RidgeRoad

24 Mundell's

 

QU Quadrat Column 7

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 4; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F2, Write Format: F2

Missing Values: 99

 

TAG Plant Tag Number Column 8

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 4; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F4, Write Format: F4

Missing Values: 9999

 

X X-coordinate in Quadrat/Transect Column 9

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F6.2, Write Format: F6.2

Missing Values: 99.99

 

Y Y-coordinate in Quadrat/Transect Column 10

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F6.2, Write Format: F6.2

Missing Values: 99.99

 

FIRSTYR First Year in Data (Oct-Sept. year) Column 11

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 4; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F4, Write Format: F4

 

S04 Annual Survival 03-04 Column 12

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F2, Write Format: F2

Missing Values: 99

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

3 new adult (survived to Sept)

5 seedling (survived to Sept)

6 pop discontinued

7 seedling (died before Sept)

8 new adult (died before Sept)

9 prev yr dead

 

S0904 Quarterly Survival 09-04 Column 13

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F2, Write Format: F2

Missing Values: 99

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

STG04 Stage 09-04 Column 14

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 seedling

2 vegetative

3 small flowering (<12)

4 medium flowering (12<=x<27)

5 large flowering (>=27)

6 flowering seedling

7 seedling-died

8 new adult died

9 prev dead

 

STM04 Number of Branch Tips >2cm 0904 Column 15

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5;Alignment: Right

Print Format: F3, Write Format: F3

Missing Values: 999

 

FLST04 Number of Flowering Branch Tips Column 16

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F3, Write Format: F3

Missing Values: 999

 

S0604 Quarterly Survival 06-04 Column 17

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

S0304 Quarterly Survival 03-04 Column 18

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

S1203 Quarterly Survival 12-03 Column 19

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

S03 Annual Survival 02-03 Column 20

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

3 new adult (survived to Sept)

5 seedling (survived to Sept)

6 pop discontinued

7 seedling (died before Sept)

8 new adult (died before Sept)

9 prev yr dead

 

S0903 Quarterly Survival 09-03 Column 21

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

STG03 Stage 09-03 Column 22

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5 Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1

Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 seedling

2 vegetative

3 small flowering (<12)

4 medium flowering (12<=x<27)

5 large flowering (>=27)

6 flowering seedling

7 seedling-died

8 new adult died

9 prev dead

 

STM03 Number of Branch Tips >2cm 09-03 Column 23

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5 Alignment: Right

Print Format: F3

Write Format: F3

Missing Values: 999

 

FLST03 Number of Flowering Branch Tips Column 24

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F3, Write Format: F3

Missing Values: 999

 

S0603 Quarterly Survival 06-03 Column 25

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

S0303 Quarterly Survival 03-03 Column 26

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

S1202 Quarterly Survival 12-02 Column 27

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

S02 Annual Survival 01-02 Column 28

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 3; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

3 new adult (survived to Sept)

5 seedling (survived to Sept)

6 pop discontinued

7 seedling (died before Sept)

8 new adult (died before Sept)

9 prev yr dead

 

S0902 Quarterly Survival 09-02 Column 29

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

6 pop discontinued

9 prev dead

 

STG02 Stage 09-02 Column 30

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5: Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 seedling

2 vegetative

3 small flowering (<12)

4 medium flowering (12<=x<27)

5 large flowering (>=27)

6 flowering seedling

7 seedling-died

8 new adult died

9 prev dead

 

STM02 Number of Branch Tips >2cm 02 Column 31

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F3, Write Format: F3

Missing Values: 999

 

FLST02 Number of Flowering Branch Tips 02 Column 32

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F3, Write Format: F3

Missing Values: 999

 

BD02 Basal Diameter 02 (discon09-03) Column 33

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 4; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F4.1, Write Format: F4.1

Missing Values: 99.9

 

S0602 Quarterly Survival 06-02 Column 34

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

9 prev dead

 

S0302 Quarterly Survival 03-02 Column 35

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

9 prev dead

 

S1201 Quarterly Survival 12-01 Column 36

Measurement Level: Scale

Column Width: 5; Alignment: Right

Print Format: F1, Write Format: F1

Missing Values: *

Value Label

0 died

1 survived

2 tag not found

3 new adult

5 seedling

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BD01 Basal Diameter 01 Column 42

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STM96 Number of Branch Tips > 2 cm 96 Column 68

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STM95 Number of Branch Tips > 2cm 95 Column 73

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BD95 Basal Diameter 95 Column 75

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S94 Annual Survival 93-94 Column 76

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C. Data anomalies. The identification of seedlings is straightforward with monthly or quarterly monitoring, since emerging seedlings are very small and retain cotlydons for several months. Most seedlings emerge between November and March. Therefore, the initial assessment of seedlings vs. other plants made when the study started in September 1988 is only approximate. In addition, new plants “appearing” during the first two years of the study (1988-1989) are inflated due to issues involved with setting up quadrats and transects. Therefore, we regard these data as more dependable from 1990 onward.

 

CLASS V. SUPPLEMENTAL DESCRIPTORS

A.Data acquisition

Data forms and acquisition methods: Previous data, especially data on plant locations, survival, and past size, were used to create forms for current data collection. Discrepancies between current data and past data could often be resolved in the field on the forms.

Location of completed data forms: Originals of forms are stored in files specific to Dicerandra frutescens in the Plant Ecology Lab at Archbold Biological Station. Photocopies are stored chronologically in notebooks containing multiple projects. For a few years, no original forms exist because data were entered into computers in the field. In these cases, printouts of ascii files with data are stored.

B. Quality assurance/quality control procedures

We used SPSS to run a number of procedures to check the data.

Data are checked using frequencies, crosstabs and compare means to look for out-of-range values.

Using survival and stage variables, crosstabs are run for each quarter to ensure plants enter the data set as a seedling or new adult, plants are recorded dead only once (a variable of previously dead is given subsequently), plant stage is consistent with survival, and only living plants have size measurements.

Frequencies on size measurements help identify outliers in the data set. Outliers are checked against field forms to ensure there is not a data entry error.

Reproductive measures (total stems, flowering stems) are checked against survival and stage variables and compared year to year to monitor changes. Correlations between reproductive measures are checked using the Pearson and Spearman coefficients.

Bivariate scatter plots are used to check for out-of-range values and also values that have an unlikely combination of the two variables.

Some problems with variables can be corrected by reference to logical rules. Original datasheets are consulted for unlikely values. If the datasheets don’t provide a definitive answer, the values are usually recoded to be missing values.

C. Related material: NA

D. Computer programs and data processing algorithms: NA

E. Archiving: NA

F. Publication and Results (in chronological order):

Menges, E. S. 1992. Habitat preferences and response to disturbance for Dicerandra frutescens, a Lake Wales Ridge (Florida) endemic plant. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 119:308‑313.

McCormick, K. D., M. A. Deyrup, E. S. Menges, S. R. Wallace, and J. Meinwald. 1993. Relevance of chemistry to conservation of isolated populations – the case of volatile leaf components of Dicerandra mints. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90:7701-7705.

Deyrup, M. A., and E. S. Menges. 1997. Pollination ecology of the rare scrub mint Dicerandra frutescens (Lamiaceae). Florida Scientist 60:143-157.

Menges, E. S. 1999. Ecology and conservation of Florida scrub. Pages 7-22 in R.C. Anderson, J.S. Fralish, and J. Baskin, editors. The savanna, barren, and rock outcrop communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Menges, E. S., P. J. McIntyre, M. S. Finer, E. Goss, and R. Yahr. 1999. Microhabitat of the narrow Florida scrub endemic Dicerandra christmanii, with comparisons to its congener D. frutescens. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 126:24-31.

Menges, E. S., R. W. Dolan, R. Yahr, and D. R. Gordon. 2001. Comparative genetics of seven plants endemic to Florida’s Lake Wales Ridge. Castanea 66:98-114.

Menges, E. S., and P. F. Quintana-Ascencio. 2003. Modeling the effects of disturbance, spatial variation and environmental heterogeneity on population viability of plants.. Pages 289-311 in C. A. Brigham and M. W. Schwartz, editors, Population viability in plants. Ecological Studies Volume 165, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Evans, M. E. K., E. S. Menges, and D. R. Gordon. 2004. Mating systems and limits to seed production in two Dicerandra mints endemic to Florida scrub. Biodiversity and Conservation 13:1819-1832.

Menges, E. S. 2004. Florida scrub and fire. For web-based encyclopedia compiling the effects of fire on southeastern ecosystems, US Forest Service.

http://fire.forestencyclopedia.net/Encyclopedia/Fire%20Science/Encyclopedia_Page.2003-10-15.5050/Encyclopedia_Page.2004-10-08.5539

Menges, E. S., P. F. Quintana-Ascencio, C. W. Weekley, and O. G. Gaoue.2006. Population viability analysis and fire return intervals for an endemic Florida scrub mint. Biological Conservation 127:115-127.

Morris, W. F., S. Tuljapurkar, C. Haridas, E. S. Menges, C. Horvitz, and C. Pfister. 2006. Sensitivity of the population growth rate to demographic variability within and between phases of the disturbance cycle. Ecology Letters 9:1331-1341.

Menges, E. S., C. W. Weekley, S. I. Hamzé, and R. L. Pickert. 2007. Soil preferences for listed plants on the Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida. Florida Scientist 70:24-39.

Menges, E. S. 2007. Integrating demography and fire management: an example from Florida scrub. Australian Journal of Botany 55:261-272.

Evans, M. E. K., K. Holsinger, and E. S. Menges. 2007. Modeling the effect of fire on Dicerandra frutescens spp. frutescens (Lamiaceae), an endangered plant endemic to Florida scrub. Population Ecology

Morris, W. F., C. A. Pfister, S. Tuljapurkar, C. V. Haridas, C. Boggs3, M. Boyce, E. M. Bruna, D. R. Church, T. Coulson, D. F. Doak, S. Forsyth, J.-M. Gaillard, C. C. Horvitz, S. Kalisz, B. E. Kendall3, T. M. Knight, C. T. Lee, and E.S. Menges. In press. Longevity can buffer plant and animal populations against changing climatic variability. Ecology.

Menges, E. S., R. W. Dolan, R. Pickert, R. Yahr3, and D. R. Gordon. In preparation. Does Current or Past Landscape Structure Predict Genetic Variation: An Analysis Using Six Florida Scrub Endemic Plants?

Menges, E. S., M. E. K. Evans, and S. Maliakal Witt. In preparation. Does precipitation drive vital rates in Florida scrub plants? Plant Ecology

G. History of data set usage

Data request history: Data set users have included Bill Morris (Duke University) and his NCEAS working group on stochastic demography, and Margaret Evans (Yale University).

Data set update history: We update the data set with each census. Some QA/QC id performed with each census or annually.

Review history: NA

Questions and comments from secondary users: NA

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This data set (through 2004) was gathered with the help of many Archbold Biological Station interns http://www.archbold-station.org/abs/staff/emenges/esmcvasst.htm and Carl Weekley, Marcia Rickey, Alaa Wally, Darien McElwain, Becky Yahr, Margaret Evans, Dorothy Mundell, Rick Lavoy, Nancy Kohfeldt, and Noreen Gallo. Kevin Main facilitated several prescribed burns that affected our study populations. We thank Dorothy and Bill Mundell for permission to work on their property. Carl Weekley, Alaa Wally, Stacy Smith, and Kate Prengaman helped with the data sets or this document. The data was collected with the financial support of the National Science Foundation (DEB98-15370, DEB-0233899), the Florida Division of Forestry, the Florida Division of Plant Industry, and Archbold Biological Station.

Literature cited:

Abrahamson, W. G., A. F. Johnson, J. N. Layne, and P. A. Peroni. 1984. Vegetation of the Archbold Biological Station, Florida: An example of the southern Lake Wales Ridge. Florida Scientist 47: 209–251.

Bond, W. J. and J. E. Keeley. 2005. Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 387–394.

Brown, J. H., T. G. Whitham, S. K. Morgan Ernest, and C. A. Gehring. 2001. Complex species interactions and the dynamics of ecological systems: long-term experiments. Scinece 293:643–650.

Callahan, J. T. 1984. Long-term ecological research. BioScience 34:363–367.

Chen, E., and J. F. Gerber. 1990. Climate. Pages 11–34 in R. L. Myers and J. J. Ewel, editors. Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Christman, S. P., and W. S. Judd. 1990. Notes on plants endemic to Florida scrub. Florida Scientist 53:52–73.

Coulson, T., G. M. Mace, E. Hudson, and H. Possingham. 2001. The use and abuse of population viability analysis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16:219–221.

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