Ecological Archives E089-051-D1

C. Barnes, D. M. Bethea, R. D. Brodeur, J. Spitz, V. Ridoux, C. Pusineri, B. C. Chase, M. E. Hunsicker, F. Juanes, A. Kellermann, J. Lancaster, F. Ménard, F.-X. Bard, P. Munk, J. K. Pinnegar, F. S. Scharf, R. A. Rountree, K. I. Stergiou, C. Sassa, A. Sabates, and S. Jennings. 2008. Predator and prey body sizes in marine food webs. Ecology 89:881.


METADATA CLASS I. DATA SET DESCRIPTORS

A. Data set identity: Marine predator and prey sizes with corresponding environmental data.

B. Data set identification code

Suggested Data Set Identity Code: Predator_and_prey_body_sizes_in_marine_food_webs_vsn3.txt

Corrected version as of 5 March 2014:

Predator_and_prey_body_sizes_in_marine_food_webs_vsn4.txt

C. Data set description: 34931 records from 27 marine locations providing global coverage and a wide range of environmental conditions for a range of predator sizes from 0.1 mg to over 415 kg and prey sizes from 75 pg to over 4.5 kg. Types of predators and the study locations are listed in Table 1 and the scope of the data set, with predator and prey size expressed as mass, is shown in Fig. 1.

Version 3 (new version posted on 11 April 2008) – updated to:

a) correct predator mass, corrupted in version2

Version 2 (new version posted on 4 April 2008) – updated to:

a) increase significant figures from 3 to 5 in all floating point fields

b) correct 14 records that had corrupted prey lengths (record numbers: 28041, 28042, 29091, 29101, 29108,29109,28133, 29303, 29724, 29989, 30081, 30082, 30086, 30087)

c) correct 8 records where the "Prey quality of conversion to length" field was set incorrectly (record numbers: 6639, 6746, 6747, 6748, 6750, 6751, 6890, 7240)

d) correct 19 records that had incorrect (duplicate) values in "Individual ID" (record numbers: 18855, 18857, 18858, 18860, 18862, 18865, 18866, 18867, 18869, 18871, 18872, 18873, 18876, 18878, 18879, 18880, 18883, 18884, 18885).

 

TABLE 1. Predator types and location details for predator and prey mass data by data source.

Reference

Location

Ocean

Predators

Latitude

Longitude

n

Bainbridge and McKay (1968)

Greenland

North Atlantic

Atlantic cod and redfish

60º00'N

40º00'W

49

Barraclough (1967)

Strait of Georgia

North East Pacific

19 species of fish

49º00'N

123º00'W

629

Bethea et al (2004)

Apalachicola Bay, Florida

Gulf of Mexico

4 species of shark

29º40'N

85º10'W

173

Bethea et al (2006)

Crooked Island Sound, Florida

Gulf of Mexico

Atlantic sharpnose shark

30º00'N

85º30'W

103

Brodeur (1998)

Gulf of Alaska

North Pacific

Alaska pollack

56º50'N

156º'00'W

45

Chancollon et al (2006)

Off the Bay of Biscay

North East Atlantic

swordfish

44º00'N

16º00'W

827

Chase (2002)

Great Channel South, Gulf of Maine

North West Atlantic

Atlantic bluefin tuna

41º71'N

69º76'W

751

Chase (2002)

Stellwagen Bank, Gulf of Maine

North West Atlantic

Atlantic bluefin tuna

42º40'N

70º15'W

513

Chase (2002)

Gulf of Maine

North West Atlantic

Atlantic bluefin tuna

42º79'N

69º51'W

86

Chase (2002)

Jeffreys Ledge, Gulf of Maine

North West Atlantic

Atlantic bluefin tuna

42º80'N

70º10'W

426

Chase (2002)

South of Marthas Vineyard

North West Atlantic

Atlantic bluefin tuna

41º08'N

71º37'W

45

Chase (2002)

Cape Cod Bay, Gulf of Maine

North West Atlantic

Atlantic bluefin tuna

41º86'N

70º42'W

88

Hunsicker and Essington (2006)

Mid Atlantic

Mid Atlantic

longfin squid

39º50'N

73º00'W

113

Juanes and Conover (1995)

Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

North West Atlantic

bluefish

40º10'N

73º10'W

297

Kellermann (1987)

Antarctic Peninsula

Southern Ocean

Antarctic silverfish

63º00'S

58º00'W

856

Kellermann (1989)

Antarctic Peninsula

Southern Ocean

icefish

62º00'S

55º00'W

105

Kellermann (1990)

Antarctic Peninsula

Southern Ocean

Antarctic fish

63º00'S

58º00'W

1268

Lancaster (1991)

Oxwich Bay, Wales

Irish Sea

European sea bass

51º52'N

04º10'W

1315

Ménard et al. (2006)

French Polynesian EEZ

Mid Pacific

2 species of tuna

12º00'S

144º00'W

4011

Munk (1997)

NE North Sea and Skaggerak

North Sea

Atlantic cod

57º00'N

08º00'E

21

Munk (2002)

W Greenland

North Atlantic

wolfish

66º20'N

56º00'W

163

Ostergaard et al. (2005)

Andaman Sea (West of South Thailand)

North East Indian Ocean

4 species of fish

08º24'N

97º53'E

34

Pinnegar et al. (2003)

Europe, Celtic Sea ecosystem

Celtic Sea

29 species of fish

50º50N

08º00'W

2091

Pusineri et al. (2005)

Off the Bay of Biscay

North East Atlantic

albacore

45º00'N

18º00'W

3581

Quéro et al. (2004)

Off the Bay of Biscay

North East Atlantic

Atlantic torpedo ray

45º00'N

18º00'W

4

Sabates and Saiz (2000)

Catalan Sea

Mediterranean

Myctophidae and Paralepididae fish larvae

40º55'N

02º40'E

439

Sassa et al. (2004)

Western North Pacific

Sea of Japan

Myctophidae fish larvae

37º00'N

143º00'E

447

Scharf et al. (2000)

Atlantic Ocean

North West Atlantic

18 species of fish

40º00'N

71º00'W

16084

Stergiou and Fourtouni (1991)

Eastern Mediterranean

Mediterranean

john dory

38º00'N

23º00'E

367

 

Fig1
 
   FIG. 1. Relationship between the body mass of predators and their prey. 99.4% of points fall below the 1:1 line.

Principal Investigator: Carolyn Barnes, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK. (Carolyn.Barnes@cefas.co.uk).

Abstract:

Knowledge of relationships between predator and prey size are needed to describe interactions of species and size classes in food webs. Most estimates of predator and prey sizes have been based on dietary studies and apply to small numbers of species in a relatively narrow size range. These estimates may or may not be representative of values for other groups of species and body sizes or for other locations. Marine predator and prey size data associated with published literature were identified and collated to produce a single data set. If predator or prey length or mass were not measured in the original study, the length or mass was calculated using length–mass relationships. The data set consists of 34931 records from 27 locations covering a wide range of environmental conditions from the tropics to the poles and for 93 types of predator with sizes ranging from 0.1 mg to over 415 kg and 174 prey types with sizes from 75 pg to over 4.5 kg. Each record includes: predator and prey scientific names, common names, taxa, life stages and sizes (length and mass with conversion details), plus the type of feeding interaction, geographic location (with habitat description, latitude, longitude) and mean annual environmental data (sea surface temperature and primary productivity).

D. Key words: body size; consumer resource; energy transfer; food web; marine; transfer efficiency.

CLASS II. RESEARCH ORIGIN DESCRIPTORS

A. Overall project description

Identity: Relationship between predator and prey sizes in the marine environment.

Originators: Simon Jennings, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK.

Period of Study: November 2006 – ongoing

Objectives: To enhance the understanding of predator–prey size relationships and any effect of variable environmental factors.

Source(s) of funding: Defra contract/grant number: MF1001

 

CLASS III. DATA SET STATUS AND ACCESSIBILITY

A. Status

Latest Update: Vsn 3 April 2008

Latest Archive date:

Metadata status: The metadata are complete and up to date.

Data verification: Data quality has been carefully checked as described in classV, section B, below.

B.Accessibility

Storage location and medium:Copies of the latest version of the data file are being stored on the principal investigator’s personal computer and the Cefas network in Microsoft Excel and Text format.

Contact person:

Carolyn Barnes, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK.

Phone: +44 1502 562244, Fax: +44 1502 513865

E-mail: Carolyn.Barnes@cefas.co.uk

Copyright restrictions: None.

Proprietary restrictions: None.

Costs: None.

CLASS IV. DATA STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Data Set File

Identity:Predator_and_prey_body_sizes_in_marine_food webs_vsn3.txt

Size: 34931 records, not including header row.

Format and Storage mode: ASCII text, tab delimited. Winzip (Nico Mak Computing, Inc., Mansfield, CT 06268 USA) compression was used.

Header information: Headers describe the content of each column. See section B below for detailed descriptions of the column contents .

Alphanumeric attributes: Mixed.

Special characters/fields: If no information is available for a given record, this is indicated by 0.00E+00 in numeric fields and "n/a" in character fields.

Authentication procedures: The sums of the numeric columns are:

Record number: 610,104,846, Individual ID: 257,871,362, Predator length: 14,381,399, Predator standard length: 9,623,154, Predator fork length: 8,653,798, Predator total length: 14,279,735, Standardised predator length: 2,380,360, Predator quality of length-mass conversion: 39,463, Predator mass: 128,950,109, Predator mass check: 1,998,658,943, Predator mass check diff: 1,869,707,163, Predator ratio mass/mass: 480,471, SI predator mass: 128,950,109, Prey length: 2,536,593, Prey quality of conversion to length: 11,963, SI prey length: 283,924, Prey width: 256,585, Prey mass: 992,386, Prey mass check: 9,245,038, Prey mass check diff: 8,252,729, Prey ratio mass/mass: 300,779, SI prey mass: 992,297, Prey quality of conversion to mass: 113,730, Depth: 54,555,460, Mean annual temp: 529,768, SD annual temp: 152,519; Mean PP: 25,400,155, SD PP: 2,418,130

B. Variable information

Variable name

Variable definition

Units

Storage type

Range numeric values

Missing value codes

Record Number

Record number

N/A

Integer

1–34931

N/A

In-ref ID

Predator ID in original work

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Individual ID

Individual predator ID

N/A

Integer

1–17668

"n/a"

Predator

Scientific species name of predator (Genus species)

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator common name

Common name of predator

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator  taxon

Ectotherm vertebrate or cephalopod

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator lifestage

Larva, postlarva, juvenile or adult

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Type of feeding interaction

Insectivorous, piscivorous, planktivorous, or predacious

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator length

Predator length (as in original work if available, else regressed from mass)

Defined in next column "Predator length unit"

Floating point

3–17490

N/A

Predator length unit

μm, mm or cm

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator dimension measured

Predator dimension/s measured

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator standard length

Standard length of predator (if applicable)

Defined in "Predator length unit"

Floating point

0–17490

0.00E+00

Predator fork length

Fork length of predator (if applicable)

Defined in "Predator length unit"

Floating point

0–19104

0.00E+00

Predator total length

Total length of predator (if applicable)

Defined in "Predator length unit"

Floating point

0–22423

0.00E+00

Predator TL/FL/SL conversion reference

Reference for conversion between length dimensions

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Standardised predator length

TL where available else SL or FL

cm

Floating point

0.3–309.69

N/A

Predator measurement type

Individual, mean or mid-class

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator length-mass conversion method

Regression equation for length–mass conversion

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Predator length-mass conversion reference

Reference for regression equation for length–mass conversion

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Predator quality of length-mass conversion

0 = mass measured, 1 = species regression, 2 = genus regression, 3 = family regression, 4 = general shape, 5 = unsatisfactory

N/A

Integer

0–4

N/A

Predator mass

Mass of predator

Defined in next column "Predator mass unit"

Floating point

0.000171–380050

N/A

Predator mass unit

g

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Predator mass check

Calculated mass of sphere with diameter = "Standardised predator length". Assumes 1 mL = 1 g

g

Floating point

0.00141–1554400

N/A

Predator mass check diff

Calculated mass of sphere with diameter = "Standardised predator length" – SI predator mass

g

Floating point

0.0012–1289400

N/A

Predator ratio mass/mass

Calculated mass of sphere with diameter = "Standardised predator length" / SI predator mass

g

Floating point

3.8–16.8

N/A

SI predator mass

Predator mass (measured or calculated from length–mass regression)

g

Floating point

0.000171–380050

N/A

Diet coverage

Types of prey items included in original work ("all" or the type of prey if the study was selective).

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey

Scientific species name of prey (Genus species) where specified in original work

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey common name

Common name of prey

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey taxon

Ectotherm invertebrate, ectotherm vertebrate, egg, microzooplankton or mixed

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey length

Prey length (as in original work if available, else regressed from mass)

Defined in next column "Prey length unit"

Floating point

0.08–17976

N/A

Prey length unit

μm, mm, or cm

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey conversion to length method

Regression equation for mass–length conversion

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Prey quality of conversion to length

0 = length measured, 1 = species regression, 2 = genus regression, 3 = family regression, 4 = general shape, 5 = unsatisfactory

N/A

Integer

0–4

N/A

Prey conversion to length reference

Reference for regression equation for length–mass conversion

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

SI prey length

Prey length (measured or calculated from mass–length regression)

cm

Floating point

0.000416–122.66

N/A

Prey dimension measured

Prey dimension/s measured

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey width

Prey width if measured

Defined in next column "Prey width unit"

Floating point

0.4534–1950

"n/a"

Prey width unit

μm or mm

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Prey measurement type

Individual, mean mid-range or preferred

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey mass

Mass of prey

Defined in next column "Prey mass unit"

Floating point

7.53 × 10-11–4587

N/A

Prey mass unit

mg or g

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Prey mass check

Calculated mass of sphere with diameter = "SI prey length". Assumes 1 mL = 1 g

g

Floating point

3.77 × 10-12–96571

N/A

Prey mass check diff

Calculated mass of sphere with diameter = "SI prey length" – SI prey mass (g)

g

Floating point

-115.1–96135

N/A

Prey ratio mass/mass

Calculated mass of sphere with diameter = "SI prey length" / SI prey mass (g)

g

Floating point

0.019–846.7

N/A

SI prey mass

Prey mass (measured or calculated from length–mass regression)

g

Floating point

7.53 × 10-11–4587

N/A

Prey conversion to mass method

Regression equation for length–mass conversion or "weighed"

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Prey conversion to mass reference

Reference for regression equation for length–mass conversion

N/A

Character

N/A

"n/a"

Prey quality of conversion to mass

0 = mass measured, 1 = species regression, 2 = genus regression, 3 = family regression, 4 = general shape, 5 = unsatisfactory

N/A

Integer

0–5

N/A

Geographic location

Location of study in original work

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Latitude

Latitude of study in original work (taken directly from the relevant publication or determined from charts and descriptions)

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Longitude

Longitude of study in original work (taken directly from the relevant publication or determined from charts and descriptions)

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Depth

Estimated depth using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) digital atlas (maintained and published by the British Oceanography Data Centre, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Bidson Observatory, Birkenhead, Merseyside, L43 7RA).

m

Integer

5–4785

N/A

Mean annual temp

Estimates of mean annual sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the NASA terra-satellites.

ºC

Floating point

-1.3–29

N/A

SD annual temp

1 standard deviation of mean in previous column

ºC

Floating point

0.6–6.6

N/A

Mean PP

Estimated primary production obtained for the years 2001 to 2004 at a 36 × 36 km resolution from the outputs of a model that uses the approach of Longhurst et al. 1995 to predict primary production from the surface concentration of chlorophyll a pigment as measured by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)Mélin, 2003.

mg C·m-2·d-1

Integer

91–1739

N/A

SD PP

1 standard deviation of mean in previous column

mg C·m-2·d-1

Integer

7–214

N/A

Reference

Reference of original work

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Specific habitat

Description of location of study in original work

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

Notes / assumptions

Comments

N/A

Character

N/A

N/A

 

CLASS V. SUPPLEMENTAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Data acquisition

The published literature was searched for relevant research (Barraclough, 1967; Bainbridge and McKay, 1968; Kellermann, 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990; Lancaster, 1991; Stergiou and Fourtouni, 1991; Munk, 1992; Juanes and Conover, 1995; Munk, 1997; Brodeur, 1998; Sabates and Saiz, 2000; Scharf et al., 2000; Chase, 2002; Pinnegar et al., 2003; Bethea et al., 2004; Quero et al., 2004; Sassa and Kawaguchi, 2004; Ostergaard et al., 2005; Pusineri et al., 2005; Bethea et al., 2006; Chancollon et al., 2006; Hunsicker and Essington, 2006; Ménard et al., 2006). The corresponding author was contacted and asked for permission for their data to be included and if given, a request for the raw data was made. In two cases the authors could not be contacted due to the age of the publication and copyright permission was acquired from the relevant body (Barraclough, 1967; Bainbridge and McKay, 1968).

B. Quality assurance/quality control procedures

Where possible the data was electronically copied. In other cases it was manually input. Once reformatted the data was sent back to the original authors for their approval.

The conversion between length and mass for all predators and prey were coded by the specificity of the regression equation used (0 = dimension measured, 1 = species regression, 2 = genus regression, 3 = family regression, 4 = general shape, 5 = unsatisfactory). The results were checked by calculating the mass of a sphere with diameter equal to the length and comparing this to the result of the conversion. For all predators the mass was less than for a sphere. For 1853 of the 34931 prey the mass was greater than for a sphere. Of these, 43 had been actually weighed so it is their length measurements that are suspect, 6 were converted using a family level regression and the other 1804 were converted using a "general shape" regression. The check data is included in the dataset so any user can exclude records or ideally recommend modifications to the conversion equations if more reliable versions are known to be available.

C. Related material: Two tables, one showing predator length–mass conversion and the other showing prey length–mass conversion, displayed below.

Supplementary Table 1: Predator length–mass conversion equations and references. Length values used in regression equations are SL = standard length, TL = total length, FL = fork length, ML = mantle length.

Latin name (as given in data reference)

Common name

Predator length to weight conversion method

Units

Level of mass conversion

Predator length–mass conversion primary reference

Predator length–mass conversion reference cited by

Acanthocepola sp.

surgeon / tang / unicorn

M=0.0201SL^1.9637

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Ammodytes hexapterus

Pacific sandlance

M=0.0021SL^3.1525

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Anarhichas lupus

Atlantic wolf fish

M=0.0033SL^3.2491

cm, g

Species

Coull et al. 1989

 

Anarhichas minor

Spotted wolf fish

M=0.0017SL^3.399

cm, g

Species

Nikolsky 1957

Fishbase (species)

Arnoglossus imperialis

iImperial scaldfish

M=0.0045TL^3.170

cm, g

Species

Pereda and Villamor 1991

Fishbase (species)

Aspitrigla cuculus

red gurnard

M=0.0056SL^3.1688

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Benthosema glaciale

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.105SL^2.8904

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Carangoides sp.

jack / pompano

M=0.0269SL^2.8891

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Carcharhinus brevipinna

spinner shark

M=0.0075TL^2.970

cm, g

Species

Branstetter 1987

Fishbase (species)

Carcharhinus isodon

finetooth shark

M=0.0058SL^3.1151

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Carcharhinus limbatus

blacktip shark

M=0.0061TL^3.0100

cm, g

Species

García-Arteaga et al. 1997

Fishbase (species)

Ceratoscopelus maderensis

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.0105SL^2.8904

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Chionodraco rastrospinosus

icefish

M=0.0006SL^3.6225

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Clupea harengus

Atlantic herring

M=0.0050SL^3.1915

cm, g

Species

Coull et al. 1989

 

Clupea pallasii

Pacific herring

M=0.0045FL^3.1270

cm, g

Species

Bond and Erickson 1993

 

Cynoglossus sp.

tonguefish

M=0.0030SL^3.1188

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Cynoscion regalis

weakfish

M=0.0088TL^3.0

cm, g

Species

Crozier and Hecht 1913

Fishbase (species)

Diaphus garmani

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.0059TL^3.060

cm, g

Species

Madureira and Rossi-Wongtschowski 2005

Fishbase (species)

Dicentrarchus labrax

European sea bass

M=0.0123TL^2.9554

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Eutrigla gurnardus

grey gurnard

M=0.0075SL^3.0287

cm, g

Species

CEFAS Endeavour cruise 07/05

Unpublished

Gadus morhua

Atlantic cod

M=0.0070SL^3.0870

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Galeorhinus galeus

tope

M=0.0061TL^2.9400

cm, g

Species

Annala 1994

Fishbase (species)

Gasterosteus aculeatus

threespine stickleback

M=0.0113SL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Pauly et al. 1998

Fishbase (species)

Gilbertidia sigalutes

soft sculpin

M=0.0231FL^3.0000

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus

red Irish lord

M=0.0282TL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Crawford 1993

Fishbase (species)

Hemilepidotus spinosus

brown Irish lord

M=0.0771SL^2.6036

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Hemitripterus americanus

sea raven

M=0.0183FL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (species)

Hexagrammos decagrammus

kelp greenling

M=0.0156TL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Crawford 1993

Fishbase (species)

Hygophum benoiti

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.105SL^2.8904

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Hypomesus pretiosus

surf smelt

M=0.0110SL^2.8799

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Lampanyctus crocodilus

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.0051TL^2.9800

cm, g

Species

Merella et al. 1997

Fishbase (species)

Lepidorhombus boscii

4-spot megrim

M=0.0037TL^3.245

cm, g

Species

Papaconstantinou et al. 1993

Fishbase (species)

Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis

megrim

M=0.0033SL^3.2237

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Leucoraja fullonica

shagreen ray

M=0.0047SL^3.1417

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Loligo pealeii

longfin squid

M=0.0004L^2.4124

mm, g

Species

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Lophius americanus

goosefish

M=0.0170SL^3.0010

cm, g

Species

Armstrong et al. 1992

Fishbase (species)

Lophius budegassa

black-bellied angler

M=0.0130SL^3.0010

cm, g

Species

Tsimenides and Ondrias 1980

Fishbase (species)

Lophius piscatorius

monkfish

M=0.0255SL^2.8458

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Lumpenella longirostris

longsnout prickleback

M=0.0016FL^3.0000

cm, g

General shape

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (eel-like)

Lumpenus sagitta

snake prickleback

M=0.0016FL^3.0000

cm, g

General shape

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (eel-like)

Melanogrammus aeglefinus

haddock

M=0.0062SL^3.1150

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Merlangius merlangus

whiting

M=0.0062SL^3.1029

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Merluccius bilinearis

silver hake

M=0.0039SL^3.16

cm, g

Species

Schaefer 1960

Fishbase (species)

Merluccius merluccius

hake

M=0.0097SL^2.9130

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Merluccius productus

Pacific hake

M=0.0204FL^2.695

cm, g

Species

Dark 1975

Fishbase (species)

Micromesistius poutassou

blue whiting

M=0.0038SL^3.0820

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Molva molva

ling

M=0.0041SL^3.0700

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Mustelus canis

smooth dogfish

M=0.0023TL^3.1

cm, g

Species

van der Elst 1981

Fishbase (species)

Myctophum asperum

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.0206SL^2.6286

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Myctophum punctatum

Myctophidae fish larva

M=0.015SL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Pauly et al. 1998

Fishbase (species)

Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

longhorn sculpin

M=0.0116SL^3.1122

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Notolepis rissoi

Paralepididae fish larva

M=0.0019SL^2.946

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Nototheniops larseni

Antarctic fish

M=0.0159SL^3.0000

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

pink salmon

M=0.0034SL^3.3000

cm, g

Species

Erokhin 1990

Fishbase (species)

Oncorhynchus keta

chum salmon

M=0.023FL^3.2

cm, g

Species

Ricker 1964

Fishbase (species)

Oncorhynchus nerka

sockeye salmon

M=0.0192TL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Crawford 1993

Fishbase (species)

Ophiodon elongatus

lingcod

M=0.0133TL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Crawford 1993

Fishbase (species)

Paralichthys dentatus

summer flounder

M=0.0054SL^3.117

cm, g

Species

Henderson 1979

Fishbase (species)

Paralichthys oblongus

fourspot flounder

M=0.0075TL^3.1272

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Pleuragramma antarcticum

Antarctic Silverfish

M=0.0045SL^3.25

cm, g

Species

Kunzmann 1986

Fishbase (species)

Pollachius pollachius

pollack

M=0.0061TL^3.1153

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Pollachius virens

saithe

M=0.0103SL^2.9630

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Pomatomus saltatrix

bluefish

M=0.0136TL^2.899

cm, g

Species

Haimovici and Velasco 2000

Fishbase (species)

Psychrolutes paradoxus

tadpole sculpin

M=0.0231FL^3.0000

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Raja clavata

thornback ray

M=0.0032SL^3.1938

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Raja erinacea

little skate

M=0.0027SL^3.184

cm, g

Species

Waring 1984

Fishbase (species)

Raja montagui

spotted ray

M=0.0099TL^3.2051

cm, g

Species

Coull et al. 1989

 

Raja naevus

cuckoo ray

M=0.0387TL^2.9591

cm, g

Species

Coull et al. 1989

 

Raja ocellata

winter skate

M=0.0022TLl^3.295

cm, g

Species

Sulikowski et al. 2003

Fishbase (species)

Raja undulata

painted ray

M=0.0042TL^3.1243

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Rhamphocottus richardsoni

grunt sculpin

M=0.02FL^3.0000

cm, g

General shape

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (short & deep)

Rhizoprionodon terraenovae

Atlantic sharpnose shark

M=0.0056SL^2.897

cm, g

Species

Bonfil et al. 1990

Fishbase (species)

Scomber scombrus

Atlantic mackerel

M=0.0034SL^3.2414

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Scophthalmus aquosus

windowpane

M=0.0132TL^3.0315

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Scorpaenodes sp.

scorpion / rockfish

M=0.0262SL^2.9628

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Scyliorhinus canicula

lesser spotted dogfish

M=0.0031SL^3.0293

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Sebastes sp.

redfish

M=0.0115TL^3.1369

cm, g

Species

Coull et al. 1989

 

Squalus acanthias

spurdog / spiny dogfish

M=0.0008TL^3.3710

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Thaleichthys pacificus

eulachon

M=0.0110FL^2.8799

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Theragra chalcogramma

Alaska pollack

M=0.0104SL^2.9120

cm, g

Species

Barbeaux et al. 2005

Fishbase (species)

Thunnus alalunga

albacore

M=0.0258L^2.86

cm, g

Species

Pusineri et al. 2005

 

Thunnus albacares

yellowfin tuna

M=0.0214SL^2.974

cm, g

Species

Le Guen and Sagakawa 1973

Fishbase (species)

Thunnus obesus

bigeye tuna

M=0.0178SL^2.902

cm, g

Species

Nakamura and Uchiyama 1966

Fishbase (species)

Thunnus thynnus

Atlantic bluefin tuna / tunny

M=0.0231FL^2.934

cm, g

Species

Hsu et al. 2000

Fishbase (species)

Trachurus trachurus

horse mackerel

M=0.0072SL^3.0327

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Trisopterus luscus

bib

M=0.0075SL^3.1502

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Trisopterus minutus

poor cod

M=0.0092SL^3.0265

cm, g

Species

Coull et al. 1989

 

Urophycis regia

spotted hake

M=0.0052TL^3.1420

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Urophycis tenuis

white hake

M=0.004TL^3.172

cm, g

Species

Clay and Clay 1991

Fishbase (species)

Urophysis chuss

red hake

M=0.0124TL^3.0

cm, g

Species

Crawford 1993

Fishbase (species)

Xiphias gladius

swordfish

M=0.0078L^3.21

cm, g

Species

Chancollon et al. 2006

 

Zeus faber

john dory

M=0.0230SL^2.9114

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

LITERATURE CITED for Supplementary Table 1

Annala, J. H. 1994. Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 1994: stock assessments and yield estimates, Unpublished report held in MAF Fisheries Greta Point library, Wellington: 242 pp.

Armstrong, M. P., Musick, J. A. and Colvocoresses, J. A. 1992. Age, growth, and reproduction of the goosefish Lophius americanus (Pisces: Lophiiformes). Fisheries Bulletin 90:217–230.

Barbeaux, S., Ianelli, J. and Brown, E. 2005. Stock assessment of Aleutian Islands Region Pollock. In:Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for groundfish resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region., North Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Anchorage, AK.:125–179.

Bedford, B. C., Woolner, L. E. and Jones, B. W. 1986. Length-weight relationships for commercial fish species and conversion factors for various presentations., MAFF Directorate of Fisheries Research.:41.

Bond, W. A. and Erickson, R. N. 1993. Fisheries investigations in coastal waters of Liverpool Bay, Northwest Territories. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2204:vi + 51.

Bonfil, R. S., de Anda, D. F. and Mena, R. A. 1990. Shark fisheries in Mexico: the case of Yucatan as an example, NOAA 427–441.

Branstetter, S. 1987. Age and growth validation of newborn sharks held in laboratory aquaria with comments on the life history of the Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. Copeia 1987(2):291–299.

Chancollon, O., Pusineri, C. and Ridoux, V. 2006. Food and feeding ecology of Northeast Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) off the Bay of Biscay. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63:1075–1085.

Clay, D. and Clay, H. 1991. Determnination of age and growth of white hake (Urophycis tenuis Mitchill) from the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada (including techniques for commercial sampling). Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 1828:29.

Coull, K. A., Jermyn, A. S., Newton, A. W., Henderson, G. I. and Hall, W. B. 1989. Length/weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North East Atlantic. , Scottish Fisheries Research Report 43, 81 pp.

Crawford, R. 1993. World record game fishes, The International Game Fish Association, Pompano Beach, Florida.

Crozier, W. J. and Hecht, S. 1913. Correlations of weight, length, and other body measurements in the weakfish, Cynoscion regalis. Bulletin, Bureau of Fisheries, Washington XXXIII:139–147.

Dark, T. 1975. Age and growth of Pacific hake, Merluccius productus. Fisheries Bulletin 73(2):336–355.

Dorel, D. 1986. Poissons de l'Atlantique Nord-Est, Relations taille-poids, IFREMER Report DRV.86.001/RH/Nantes:165.

Erokhin, V. G. 1990. Distribution and biological characteristics of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in the ocean. Journal of Ichthyology 30(6):1031–1036.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2007. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
www.fishbase.org, version (04/2007).

García-Arteaga, J. P., Claro, R. and Valle, S. 1997. Length-weight relationships of Cuban marine fishes, Naga.

Haimovici, M. and Velasco, G. 2000. Length-weight relationships of marine fishes from southern Brazil Naga ICLARM Q. 23(1):19–23.

Henderson, E. M. 1979. Summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in the northwest Atlantic.

Hsu, C.-C., Liu, H.-C., Wu, C.-L., Huang, S.-T. and Liao, H.-K. 2000. New information on age composition and length-weight relationshi of bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnu, in the southwestern North Pacific. Fisheries Science 66(3):485–493.

Kunzmann, A. 1986. Kiemenmorphometrie von zwei antarktischen fischarten Pleurogramma antarcticum and Notothenia gibberifrons. PhD Thesis. Kiel University:84.

Le Guen, J. C., and Sagakawa, G. T. 1973. Apparent growth of yellowfin tuna from the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Fisheries Bulletin 71:175–187.

Madureira, L. S. P. and Rossi-Wongtschowski, C. L. D. B. 2005. Prospecção de recursos pesqueiros pelágicos na Zona Econômica Exclusiva da Região Sudeste-Sul do Brasil: hidroacústica e biomassas. Série documentos Revizee: , Score Sul, Instituto Oceanográfico, USP, São Paulo, Brazil.:144.

Merella, P., Quetglas, A., Alemany, F. and Carbonell, A. 1997. Length-weight relationship of fishes and cephalopods from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Naga ICLARM Q. 20(3/4):66–68.

Nakamura, E. L. and Uchiyama, J. H. 1966. Length-weight relations of Pacific tunas. Governor's Conference on Central Pacific Fishery Resources, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Nikolsky, G. W. 1957. Spezielle Fischkunde, VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. Berlin. 632 pp.

Papaconstantinou, C., Caragitsou, E., Vassilopoulou, V., Petrakis, G., Mytilineaou, C., Fourtouni, A., Tursi, A., Politou, C.-Y., Giagnisi, M., D'Onghia, G., Siapatis, A., Matarese, A., Economou, A. and Papageorgiou, E. 1993. Investigation of the abundance and distribution of demersal stocks of primary importance to the Greek fishery in the Northern Aegean Sea (Greece), National Centre for Marine Research, Athens, Hellas.:316.

Pauly, D., Froese, R. and Albert, J. S. 1998. The BRAINS table. p.195–198 In FishBase 98: concepts, design and data sources. R. Froese and D. Pauly (eds). ICLARM, Manila, Philippines:298 pp.

Pereda, P. and Villamor, B. 1991. Relaciones biometricas en peces de la plataforma Cantabrica. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 92:39.

Pusineri, C., Vasseur, Y., Hassani, S., Magnin, V., Meynier, L., Spitz, J. and Ridoux, V. 2005. Food and feeding ecology of juvenile albacore, Thunnus alalunga, off the Bay of Biscay: a case study. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62:116–122.

Ricker, W. E. 1964. Ocean growth and mortality of pink and chum salmon. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 21(5):905–931.

Schaefer, R. H. 1960. Growth and feeding habits of the whiting or silver hake in the New York Bight. N.Y. Fish and Game Journal 7:85–98.

Sulikowski, J. A., Morin, M. D., Suk, S. H. and Howell, W. H. 2003. Age and growth estimates of the winter skate (Leucoraja ocellatal) in the western Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Bulletin 101(2):405–413.

Tsimenides, N. and Ondrias, J. C. 1980. Growth studies on the anglerfishes Lophius piscatorius L., 1758 and Lophius budegassa Spinola, 1807, in Greek waters. Thallassographica 3:63–94.

van der Elst, R. 1981. A guide to the common sea fishes of southern Africa, C. Struik, Cape Town. 367 pp.

Waring, G. T. 1984. Age, growth, and mortality of the little skate off the northeast coast of the United States. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 113(3):314–321.

 

Supplementary Table 2: Prey length–mass conversion equations and references. Lengths used in regression equations: SL = standard length, TL = total length, FL = fork length, ML = mantle length, D = diameter, L = length (unspecified).

Latin name (as given in data reference)

Common name

Prey length to mass conversion method

Units

Level of mass conversion

Prey length–mass conversion primary reference

Prey length–mass conversion reference cited by

Agonus cataphractus

pogge

M=0.0196L^2.6139

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Ammodytes sp

sand lance

M=0.0017L^3.1828

cm, g

Genus

CEFAS Endeavour cruise 16/05

Unpublished

Amphipod

amphipod

M=0.006L^3.015

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Ancistroteuthis lichtensteini

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Appendicularia

appendicularia

M=0.000000184TL^2.455

υm, υg

General shape

Hopcroft et al. 1998

 

Arctozenus risso

ribbon barracudina

M=0.0019L^2.946

cm,g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Argentina sphyraena

argentine

M=0.0053L^3.0534

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Belone belone

garfish

M=0.0006TL^3.178

cm,g

Species

Samsun 1995

Fishbase (species)

Benthosema glaciale

glacier lanternfish

M=0.0105L^2.8904

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Bivalve

bivalve

M=0.018L^2.854

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Brama brama

Atlantic pomfret

M=0.0011TL^3.609

cm,g

Species

Coull et al.1989

Fishbase (species)

Brevoortia sp

menhaden

M=0.0102TL^3.161

cm,g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Buglossidium luteum

solenette

M=0.9814L^0.759

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Calanoid eggs

copepod egg

M=0.00683D-0.4477

υm, υg

General shape

Huntley and Lopez 1992

 

Calanoides acutus

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Calanus pacificus

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Calanus propinquus

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Calanus sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Callionymus lyra

dragonet

M=0.022L^2.5907

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Callionymus maculatus

dragonet

M=0.0162L^2.5781

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Calliopius sp

amphipod

M=0.006L^3.015

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Capros aper

boarfish

M=0.0305L^2.7910

cm, g

Species

Pereda and Villamor 1991

Fishbase (species)

Cepola macrophthalma

red-bandfish

M=0.0162TL^2.049

cm, g

Species

Stergiou et al. 1992

Fishbase (species)

Ceratoscopelus maderensis

dogtooth lampfish

M=0.0105L^2.8904

cm,g

Species

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Chaetognatha

chaetognatha

M=0.197L^3.01

cm, g

General shape

Nagasawa 1984

 

Chiroteuthis sp

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Cladocera

cladocera

M=0.000000000003162L^4.323

υm, υg

General shape

Uye 1982

 

Clausocalanus sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Clupea harengus

Atlantic herring

M=0.0050L^3.1915

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Clupea pallasii

Pacific herring

M=0.0050L^3.1915

cm, g

Genus

Coull et al.1989

 

Clupeoid

clupeoid

M=0.0050L^3.1915

cm, g

Family

Coull et al.1989

 

Copepod

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

General shape

Satapoomin 1999

 

Copepod nauplius / copepodites

copepod nauplius

M=0.00000417L^2.03

υm, υg

General shape

Hygum et al. 2000

 

Corycaeus sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Ctenocalanus sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Cubiceps gracilis

driftfish

M=0.0215L^2.8892

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Decapod crustaceans

crustaceans

M=0.015L^3.573

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus

four-spotted goby

M=0.0074TL^3.05

cm, g

Species

Merella et al. 1997

Fishbase (species)

Euphausia superba eggs

krill eggs

M=0.00683D-0.4477

υm, υg

General shape

Huntley and Lopez 1992

 

Euphausia superba nauplius

krill nauplius

M=0.00000417L^2.03

υm, υg

General shape

Hygum et al. 2000

 

Euphausia superba furcilia

euphausid furcilia

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Eggs

eggs

M=0.00683D-0.4477

υm, υg

General shape

Huntley and Lopez 1992

 

Engraulis encrassicolus

anchovy

M=0.00654L^2.98087

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Eucalanus bungii

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Euchaeta sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

General shape

Satapoomin 1999

 

Euphausia superba

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

Species

Morris et al. 1988

 

Euphausia

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Euphausid furcilia

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Fish

unidentified fish

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Fish eggs

eggs

M=0.00683D-0.4477

υm, υg

General shape

Huntley and Lopez 1992

 

Fish larvae

fish larvae

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Fish unidentified

unidentified fish

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Flatfish

flatfish

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Gadiculus argenteus

gadiculus

M=0.0023L^3.499

cm, g

Species

Pereda and Villamor 1991

Fishbase (species)

Gadiculus sp

gadiculus

M=0.0058TL^3.1083

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Gadoid

gadoid

M=0.0082TL^3.027

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Gaidropsarus sp

rockling

M=0.0053TL^3.0262

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Gaidropsarus vulgaris

three-bearded rockling

M=0.0108L^2.959

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Galiteuthis armata

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Gastropod

gastropoda

M=0.021L^3.03

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Gastropod unidentified

gastropod

M=0.0137L^3.714

mm, mg

General shape

Stoffels et al. 2003

 

Gelatinous

gelatinous

M=((4/3)*3.14*((D/2)^3)*100)

m, kg

General shape

Sphere

 

Glyptocephalus cynoglossus

witch flounder

M=0.0017L^3.3898

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Goby

goby

M=0.0061L^3.0424

cm, g

Family

Azevedo and Simas 2000

 

Gonatus steenstrupi

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Gonostomatidae

bristlemouth

M=0.0047L^2.964

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Gurnard spp.

gurnard

M=0.0075TL^3.0287

cm, g

Family

CEFAS Endeavour cruise 07/05

Unpublished

Haliphron atlanticus

octopus

M=0.001L^2.7

cm, g

General shape

Standard octopus

 

Harpacticoid

copepod

M=0.00085L^1.03

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Hatchet fish

hatchet fish

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Heterorhabdus sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

General shape

Satapoomin 1999

 

Hippoglossina oblonga

fourspot flounder

M=0.0075TL^3.1272

cm,g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Hippoglossoides platessoides

American plaice

M=0.0044L^3.2039

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Histioteuthis reversa

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Insects

insects

M=0.0064L^2.788

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Isopod

isopod

M=0.005L^2.948

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis

megrim

M=0.0033L^3.2237

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Lepidotrigla cavillone

large-scaled gurnard

M=0.0078*FL^3.1940

cm, g

Species

Papaconstantinou 1982

Fishbase (species)

Limanda limanda

dab / sand dab

M=0.0050TL^3.14

cm,g

Species

Ortega-Salas 1988

Fishbase (species)

Lobianchia gemellari

Cocco's lanternfish

M=0.0105L^2.8904

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Loligo sp

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Lumpenus sagitta

snake prickleback

M=0.0016FL^3.0000

cm, g

General shape

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (eel-like)

Macroparalepis affinis

barracudina

M=0.0019L^2.946

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Mastigoteuthis sp

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Maurolicus muelleri

pearlside

M=0.0016TL^3.961

cm.g

Species

Haimovici and Velasco 2000

Fishbase (species)

Meganyctiphanes norvegica

northern krill

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Merlangius merlangus

whiting

M=0.0062L^3.1029

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Merluccius merluccius

hake

M=0.0097L^2.9130

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Metridia gerlacei

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Metridia sp

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Microcalanus pygmaeus

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Microchirus variegatus

thick-backed sole

M=0.0089L^3.0790

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Micromesistius potassou

blue whiting

M=0.0038L^3.0820

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Microstomus kitt

lemon sole

M=0.0076L^3.1420

cm, g

Species

Bedford et al. 1986

 

Myctophid

myctophid

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Myctophum punctatum

metallic lanternfish

M=0.0150SL^3.00

cm, g

Species

Hulley 1990

Fishbase (species)

Mysidacea

mysidacea

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Nauplius

nauplius

M=0.00000417L^2.03

υm, υg

General shape

Hygum et al. 2000

 

Notoscopelus kroeyeri

lanternfish

M=0.0135L^3.00

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Notothenia gibberifrons

Antarctic fish

M=0.0177SL^2.9227

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Notothenia neglecta

Antarctic fish

M=0.0177SL^2.9227

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Nototheniops larseni

Antarctic fish

M=0.0159SL^3.0000

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Octopoteuthis sp

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Oithona sp

copepod

M=0.000000947L^2.16

υm, υg

Genus

Kiorboe and Titelman 1998

 

Ommastrephes bartrami

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Ommastrephidae

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Oncaea sp

copepod

M=0.0000000251L^2.9

υm, υg

Genus

Satapoomin 1999

 

Onychoteuthis banksi

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Ophidion elongatus

lingcod

M=0.0133TL^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Crawford 1993

Fishbase (species)

Osteichthyes

osteichthyes

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Paralepididae sp

barracudina

M=0.0019L^2.946

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Paralepis affinis

barracudina

M=0.0019L^2.946

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Parathemisto gaudichaudi

amphipod

M=0.006L^3.015

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Peprilus triacanthus

butterfish

M=0.0056*FL^3.2600

cm,g

Species

Wilk et al. 1978

Fishbase (species)

Pholidoteuthis sp

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Pleuragramma antarcticum

Antarctic silverfish

M=0.0045SL^3.25

cm, g

Species

Kunzmann 1986

Fishbase (species)

Pomatomus saltatrix

bluefish

M=0.0136TL^2.899

cm, g

Species

Haimovici and Velasco 2000

Fishbase (species)

Pseudopleuronectes americanus

winter flounder

M=0.0213TL^3.000

cm,g

Species

Murdy et al. 1997

Fishbase (species)

Raja naevus

cuckoo-ray

M=0.0387L^2.9591

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Raja sp

skate

M=0.0032TL^3.247

cm,g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Rhincalanus gigas

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

Family

Satapoomin 1999

 

Rockling

rockling

M=0.0053TL^3.0262

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Sardina pilchardus

pilchard

M=0.0059L^3.0766

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Scaldfish

scaldfish

M=0.004TL^3.2153

cm, g

Genus

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (genus)

Schistomysis spiritus

mysid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Scomber scombrus

Atlantic mackerel

M=0.0034L^3.2414

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Scomberesox saurus

Atlantic saury

M=0.0015TL^3.193

cm, g

Species

Wisner 1990

Fishbase (species)

Scyliorhinus canicula

lesser-spotted dogfish

M=0.0031L^3.0293

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Scyliorhinus caniculata

dogfish

M=0.0031TL^3.029

cm,g

Species

Dorel 1986

Fishbase (species)

Serranus hepatus

brown comber

M=0.025TL^2.84

cm, g

Species

Abdallah 2002

Fishbase (species)

Serranus hepatus

brown comber

M=0.025TL^2.84

cm, g

Species

Abdallah 2002

Fishbase (species)

Silversides, anchovies and 'other fish prey'

unidentified fish

M=0.01L^3

cm, g

General shape

Standard fish

 

Spicara flexuosa

blotched picarel

M=0.0104TL^3.096

cm, g

Species

Moutopoulos and Stergiou 2002

Fishbase (species)

Sprattus sprattus

sprat

M=0.0022L^3.4746

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Squid unidentified

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Stephus longipes

copepod

M=0.000000966L^2.26

υm, υg

General shape

Satapoomin 1999

 

Symbolophorus veranyi

lanternfish

M=0.0156TL^2.912

cm, g

Species

Hulley 1990

Fishbase (species)

Themisto pacifica

amphipod

M=0.006L^3.015

mm, mg

General shape

Benke et al. 1999

 

Theragra chalcogramma

Alaska pollock

M=0.0104SL^2.9120

cm, g

Species

Barbeaux et al. 2005

Fishbase (species)

Thysanoessa inermis

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Thysanoessa macrura

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Thysanoessa raschii

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Thysanoessa spinefera

euphausid

M=0.00000339*L^3.23

mm, g

General shape

Morris et al. 1988

 

Todarodes sagittatus

squid

M=0.0004ML^2.4124

mm, g

General shape

Personal communication (Mary Hunsicker)

 

Trachipteridae

ribbon fish

M=0.0016L^3.0

cm, g

General shape

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (eel-like)

Trachurus sp

mackerel

M=0.0072L^3.0327

cm, g

Genus

Dorel 1986

 

Trachurus trachurus

horse mackerel

M=0.0072L^3.0327

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Trigla lyra

piper gurnard

M=0.0106TL^2.911

cm, g

Species

Papaconstantinou et al. 1993

Fishbase (species)

Trisopterus esmarkii

Norway pout

M=0.0066L^3.0000

cm, g

Species

Raitt 1968

Fishbase (species)

Trisopterus luscus

bib

M=0.0075L^3.1502

cm, g

Species

Dorel 1986

 

Trisopterus minutus

poor cod

M=0.0092L^3.0265

cm, g

Species

Coull et al.1989

 

Trisopterus sp

Norway pout

M=0.0082TL^3.027

cm, g

Family

Froese and Pauly 2007

Fishbase (family)

Unidentified invertebrate

invertebrate

M=0.015L^3.101

mm, mg

Mean Invertebrate

Benke et al. 1999

 

LITERATURE CITED for Supplementary Table 2

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Azevedo, J. M. N. and Simas, A. M. V. 2000. Age and growth, reproduction and diet of a sublittoral population of the rock goby Gobius paganellus (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Hydrobiologia 440:129–135.

Barbeaux, S., Ianelli, J. and Brown, E. 2005. Stock assessment of Aleutian Islands Region Pollock. In Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for groundfish resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region., North Pacific Fisheries Management Council, Anchorage, AK.:125–179.

Bedford, B. C., Woolner, L. E. and Jones, B. W. 1986. Length-weight relationships for commercial fish species and conversion factors for various presentations., MAFF Directorate of Fisheries Research.:41.

Benke, A. C., Huryn, A. D., Smock, L. A. and Wallace, J. B. 1999. Length-mass relationships for freshwater macroinvertebrates in North America with particular reference to the southeastern United States. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 18(3):308–343.

Coull, K. A., Jermyn, A. S., Newton, A. W., Henderson, G. I. and Hall, W. B. 1989. Length/weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North East Atlantic., Scottish Fisheries Research Report 43, 81pp.

Crawford, R. 1993. World record game fishes, The International Game Fish Association, Pompano Beach, Florida.

Dorel, D. 1986. Poissons de l'Atlantique Nord-Est, Relations taille-poids, IFREMER Report DRV.86.001/RH/Nantes:165.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2007. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication.
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Haimovici, M. and Velasco, G. 2000. Length-weight relationships of marine fishes from southern Brazil Naga ICLARM Q. 23(1):19–23.

Hopcroft, R. R., Roff, J. C. and Bouman, H. A. 1998. Zooplankton growth rates: The larvaceans Appendicularia, Fritillaria and Oikopleura in tropical waters. Journal of Plankton Research 20(3):539–555.

Hulley, P. A. 1990. Myctophidae. In Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). J. C. Quero, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. 1:398–467.

Huntley, M. E., and Lopez, M. D. G. 1992. Temperature-dependant production of marine copepods: A global synthesis. The American Naturalist 140(2):199–242.

Hygum, B. H., Rey, C. and Hansen, B. W. 2000. Growth and development rates of Calanus finmarchicus nauplii during a diatom spring bloom. Marine Biology 136(6): 1075–1085.

Kiorboe, T. and Titelman, J. 1998. Feeding, prey selection and prey encounter mechanisms in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans. Journal of Plankton Research 20(8):1615–1636.

Kunzmann, A. 1986. Kiemenmorphometrie von zwei antarktischen fischarten Pleurogramma antarcticum and Notothenia gibberifrons. PhD Thesis. Kiel University:84.

Merella, P., Quetglas, A., Alemany, F. and Carbonell, A. 1997. Length-weight relationship of fishes and cephalopods from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Naga ICLARM Q. 20(3/4):66–68.

Morris, D. J., Watkins, J. L., Ricketts, C., Buchholz, F. and Priddle, J. 1988. An assessment of the merits of length and weight measurements of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 79:27–50.

Moutopoulos, D. K. and Stergiou, K. I. 2002. Length-weight and length-length relationships of fish species of the Aegean Sea (Greece). Journal of Appled Ichthyology 18(3):200–203.

Murdy, E. O., Birdsong, R. S. and Musick, J. A. 1997. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay, Smithsonian Institution Press Washington and London. 324 pp.

Nagasawa, S. 1984. Laboratory feeding and egg production in the chaetognath Sagitta crassa Tokioka. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 76:51–65.

Ortega-Salas, A. A. 1988. Age and growth of the dab, Limanda limanda (Linnaeus) in the Isle of Man waters, U.K. An. Inst. Cienc. Mar. Limnol. Univ. Nac. Auton, Mex. 15(1):1–18.

Papaconstantinou, C. 1982. On the biology of the Lepidotrigla cavillone (Family Triglidae) of the Greek Seas. Thalassographica 5(1):33–59.

Papaconstantinou, C., Caragitsou, E., Vassilopoulou, V., Petrakis, G., Mytilineaou, C., Fourtouni, A., Tursi, A., Politou, C.-Y., Giagnisi, M., D'Onghia, G., Siapatis, A., Matarese, A., Economou, A. and Papageorgiou, E. 1993. Investigation of the abundance and distribution of demersal stocks of primary importance to the Greek fishery in the Northern Aegean Sea (Greece), National Centre for Marine Research, Athens, Hellas.:316.

Pereda, P. and Villamor, B. 1991. Relaciones biometricas en peces de la plataforma Cantabrica. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 92:39.

Raitt, D. 1968. The population dynamics of the Norway pout in the North Sea. Marine Research Scotland(5):24.

Samsun, O. 1995. The determination of some parameters about growth characteristics of garfish (Belone belone euxini Günther, 1866) caught in the area of Sinop (Black sea). u Urünleri Dergisi 12(3-4):347–355.

Satapoomin, S. 1999. Carbon content of some common tropical Andaman Sea copepods. Journal of Plankton Research 21(11):2117–2123.

Stergiou, K. I., Economidis, P. and Sinis, A. 1992. Age, growth and mortality of red bandfish, Cepola macrophthalma (L.), in the western Aegean Sea (Greece). Journal of Fish Biology 40(3):395–418.

Stoffels, R. J., Karbe, S. and Paterson, R. A. 2003. Length-mass models for some common New Zealand littoral-benthic macroinvertebrates, with a note on within-taxon variability in parameter values among published models. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37(2):449–460.

Uye, S. 1982. Length-weight relationships of important zooplankton from the inland sea of Japan. Journal of the Oceanographical Society of Japan 38(3):149–158.

Wilk, S. J., Morse, W. W. and Ralph, D. E. 1978. Length-weight relationships of fishes collected in the New York Bight. Bull. New Jersey Acad. Sci 23(2):58–64.

Wisner, R. L. 1990. Scomberesocidae in Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). J. C. Quero, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. 2:599–601pp.

D. Computer programs and data processing algorithms:

E. Archiving:

F. Literature Cited:

Bainbridge, V. and McKay, B. J. 1968. The feeding of cod and redfish larvae. The International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries: Special Publication No.7:187-217. Data used with permission of Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization.

Barraclough, W. E. 1967. Data Record: Number, size and food of larval and juvenile fish caught with a two boat surface trawl in the Strait of Georgia April 25-29, 1966. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Manuscript Report Series. 922:1–54. This series includes unpublished preliminary reports and data records not intended for general distribution. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2007.

Bethea, D. M., Buckel, J. A. and Carlson, J. K. 2004. Foraging ecology of the early life stages of four sympatric shark species Marine Ecology-Progress Series 268:245–264.

Bethea, D. M., Carlson, J. K., Buckel, J. A. and Satterwhite, M. 2006. Ontogenetic and site-related trends in the diet of the Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae from the northeast Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 78(2):287–307.

Brodeur, R. D. 1998. Prey selection by age-0 walleye pollock, Theraga chalcogramma, in nearshore waters of the Gulf of Alaska. Environmental Biology of Fishes 51:175–186.

Chancollon, O., Pusineri, C. and Ridoux, V. 2006. Food and feeding ecology of Northeast Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius) off the Bay of Biscay. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63:1075–1085.

Chase, B. C. 2002. Differences in diet of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf. Fishery Bulletin US 100:168–180.

Hunsicker, M. E. and Essington, T. E. 2006. Size-structured patterns of piscivory of the longfin inshore squid (Loligo pealeii) in the mid-Atlantic continental shelf ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63:754–765.

Juanes, F. and Conover, D. O. 1995. Size-structured piscivory: advection and the linkage between predator and prey recruitment in young-of-the-year bluefish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 128:287–304.

Kellermann, A. 1986. Trophic relationships between early stages of icefish (Notothenioidei; Channichthyidae), and euphausiids and ichthyoplankton during FIBEX 1981. ICES C.M. 1986/L: 6, Biol. Oceanogr. Cttee: 6 pp.

Kellermann, A. 1987. Food and feeding ecology of postlarval and juvenile Pleuragramma antarcticum (Pisces: Notothenioidei) in the seasonal pack ice zone off the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 7:307–315.

Kellermann, A. 1989. Food and feeding of early stage Chionodraco rastrospinosus DeWitt & Hureau 1979 (Pisces; Notothenioidei) off the Antarctic Peninsula. Pesq. antart. bras. 1(1):25–30.

Kellermann, A. 1990. Food and feeding dynamics of the larval Antarctic fish Nototheniops larseni. Marine Biology 106:159–167.

Lancaster, J. 1991. The feeding ecology of juvenile bass Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Marine, Environmental and Evolutionary Research Group. PhD thesis. University College of Swansea: 281 pp.

Longhurst, A., Sathyendranath, S., Platt, T. and Caverhill, C. 1995. An estimate of global primary production in the ocean from satellite radiometer data. Journal of Plankton Research 17(6):1245–1271.

Mélin, F. 2003. Potential of remote sensing for the analysis of the optical properties of the ocean-atmosphere system and application to estimates of phytoplankton photosynthesis. PhD Thesis. Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France: pp 514.

Ménard, F., Labrune, C., Shin, Y.-J., Asine, A.-S. and Bard, F.-X. 2006. Opportunistic predation in tuna: a size-based approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 323:223–231.

Munk, P. 1997. Prey size spectra and prey availability of larval and small juvenile cod. Journal of Fish Biology 51 (Supplement A):340–351.

Munk, P. 2002. Larval sand lance (Ammodytes sp.) in the diet of small juvenile wolffish (Anarhichas spp.): predatory interactions in frontal water masses off western Greenland. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59:17591767.

Ostergaard, P., Munk, P. and Janekarn, V. 2005. Contrasting feeding patterns among species of fish larvae from the tropical Andaman sea. Marine Biology 146:595–606.

Pinnegar, J. K., Trenkel, V. M., Tidd, A. N., Dawson, W. A. and Du Buit, M. H. 2003. Does diet in Celtic Sea fishes reflect prey availability? Journal of Fish Biology 63(Supplement A):197–212.

Pusineri, C., Vasseur, Y., Hassani, S., Magnin, V., Meynier, L., Spitz, J. and Ridoux, V. 2005. Food and feeding ecology of juvenile albacore, Thunnus alalunga, off the Bay of Biscay: a case study. ICES Journal of Marine Science 62:116–122.

Quero, J. C., Bellail, R., Spitz, J., Tardy, J. and Vayne, J. J. 2004. Observations ichthyologiques effectuees en 2003. Ann. Soc. Sci. nat. Charente-Marit. 9(4):367–370.

Sabates, A. and Saiz, E. 2000. Intra- and interspecifc variability in prey size and niche breadth of myctophiform fish larvae. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 201:261–271.

Sassa, C. and Kawaguchi, K. 2004. Larval feeding habits of Diaphus garmani and Myctophum asperum (Pisces: Myctophidae) in the transition region of the western North Pacific. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 278:279–290.

Scharf, F. S., Juanes, F. and Rountree, R. A. 2000. Predator size - prey size relationships of marine fish predators: interspecific variation and effects of ontogeny and body size on trophic-niche breadth. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 208:229–248.

Stergiou, K. I. and Fourtouni, H. 1991. Food habits, ontogenetic diet shift and selectivity in Zeus faber Linnaeus, 1758. Journal of Fish Biology 39(4):589–603.

G. History of data set usage

H. Data set update history:

Review history:

Questions and comments from secondary users:

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was funded by CEFAS (DEFRA project MF1001). We thank Rodney Forster for processing the environmental data and Frédéric Mélin of the Joint Research centre, Ispra who kindly provided the primary production estimates. Two anonymous reviewers provided useful feedback, which helped us improve the data set and the clarity of the metadata..


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