Appendix C. Results of mixed-model ANCOVA of finite rates of increase for populations of ramets over the three-year study, using orthogonal individual degree-of-freedom contrasts.
TABLE C1. Result of mixed-model ANCOVA of finite rates of increase (i.e., lambda [], defined as N_{t+}_{1}/N_{t} where N = culm density, t = census 1 and t+1 = census 3) for populations of ramets over the three-year study, using orthogonal individual degree-of-freedom contrasts. Results are adjusted for the significant covariate (Ramet density at census 1). Ndf = numerator degrees of freedom; Ddf = denominator degrees of freedom based on Kenward-Roger approximation.
Source of variation: |
Ndf |
Ddf |
F |
P |
Census 3 fixed effects on |
||||
Stand type |
2 |
23.5 |
22.40 |
<.0001 |
Fire |
1 |
23.7 |
1.89 |
0.1825 |
Stand type × fire |
2 |
23.7 |
3.41 |
0.0500 |
Ramet density at census 1 (covariate) |
1 |
111 |
8.92 |
0.0035 |
Individual degree of freedom contrasts |
||||
Blowdown × canopy |
1 |
24.4 |
39.61 |
<.0001 |
Discrete canopy × continuous canopy |
1 |
22.7 |
5.29 |
0.0310 |
(Blowdown × canopy) × (burned × unburned) |
1 |
24.3 |
6.76 |
0.0156 |
(Discrete canopy × continuous) × (burned × unburned) |
1 |
23.1 |
0.05 |
0.8303 |