Appendix D. Unstandardized path coefficients and intercepts of the structural equations, and unexplained (residual) variance of the variables (Error) of the model in Fig. 3. Parameters are given with their respective standard error (SE). R^{2} is part of variation explained (partial coefficient of multiple determination. SI = successional index, Field age = time since field abandonment, Vm1 = vegetative mass, Stm = stem mass at first seed dispersal, Lm = leaf mass at first seed dispersal, Rm = reproductive mass at first seed dispersal, H = maximum height, SLA = specific leaf area, Sn = number of seeds produced per individual per year, Sm = mean individual seed mass, Flowdate = flowering date of ~50% of plants in the population, Smatdate = date of seed maturation of ~50% of plants in the population.
Y 
X 
Coefficient 
SE 
Intercept 
SE 
Error 
SE 
R² 
SI 
Field age 
1.000 
10.647 
2.281 
55.33 
29.45 
0.57 

SLA 
SI 
0.525 
0.143 
27.363 
2.024 
17.75 
12.66 
0.67 
Vm1 
SI 
0.025 
0.008 
0.348 
0.117 
0.19 
0.07 
0.30 
Lifespan 
SI 
0.077 
0.033 
0.086 
0.43 

Lm 
Plant size 
0.739 
0.180 
0.357 
0.079 
0.28 
0.06 
0.37 
H 
Plant size 
3.535 
0.679 
6.952 
0.202 
1.36 
0.73 
0.74 
Stm 
Plant size 
1.000 
0.009 
0.050 
0.004 
0.027 

Rm 
Plant size 
0.954 
0.173 
0.045 
0.130 
0.02 
0.07 
0.94 
Lifespan 
0.311 
0.109 

Plant size 
Vm1 
1.003 
0.140 
0.03 
0.03 
0.89 

Sn 
Sm 
0.708 
0.158 
2.833 
0.167 
0.35 
0.20 
0.67 
Rm 
0.993 
0.359 

Flowdate 
Sm 
15.782 
5.725 
92.895 
17.636 
404 
196 
0.69 
SI 
1.529 
0.678 

H 
6.127 
3.029 

Smatdate 
Flowdate 
1.123 
0.220 
31.843 
32.886 
425 
208 
0.80 
Field age 
72.72 
36.18 

Sm 
0.79 
0.27 