Ecological Archives E086-019-A1

Christy M. McCain. 2005. Elevational gradients in diversity of small mammals. Ecology 86:366–372.

Appendix A (Table A1). Listing of all elevational transects for diversity of non-volant small mammals used in the review. Each denoted by study site, sampling method, climate, location, elevation of diversity maximum, maximum elevation in region, and null model r2 values. Those data sets with N/A under the null model were deemed to have sampling biases or insufficient data for the quantitative analyses.

Study Site

Method

Climate

Location

Diversity Peak

Mtn Height

Null Model: r2

1. Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo26

Gamma

Tropical

Island

950 m

4101 m

0.000

2. Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo26

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1750 m

4101 m

N/A

3. Caparaó, Brazil2

Alpha

Tropical

Continent

No pattern

2897 m

N/A

4. Colorado Desert, CA19

Alpha

Temperate

Continent

Bimodal

2500 m

N/A

5. La Picada, Chile28

Alpha

Temperate

Continent

No pattern

2652 m

N/A

6. Gucheng, China24

Alpha

Temperate

Continent

2450 m

4500 m

0.008

7. Jingteshang, China24     

Alpha

Temperate

Continent

2250 m

4500 m

0.002

8. Xishui, China24

Alpha

Temperate

Continent

2850 m

4500 m

0.266

9. Mt. Qilian, China24

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2450 m

4500 m

0.002

10. Monteverde, Costa Rica25

Gamma

Tropical

Continent

1050 m

1840 m

0.475

11. Monteverde, Costa Rica25

Alpha

Tropical

Continent

1250 m

1840 m

0.486

12. d’Ambre, Mad.11, 16

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1200 m

1475 m

0.000

13. d’Andohahela, Madagascar12

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1250 m

2000 m

0.159

14. d’Andringitra, Mad.5, 9, 11, 18

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1950 m

2600 m

0.507

15. d’Anjanaharibe-Sud, Mad.6, 7

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1250 m

2064 m

N/A

16.  Marojejy, Madagascar3, 8

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1250 m

2132 m

0.061

17. Madagascar3, 5-12, 18

Gamma

Tropical

Island

1400 m

2876 m

0.720

18. Gunong Benom, Malaya27

Alpha

Tropical

Continent

219 m

2108 m

N/A

19. Kedah, Malaysia23

Alpha

Tropical

Island

750 m

1213 m

0.211

20. Mazateca, Oaxaca13, 34

Alpha

Tropical

Continent

850 m

2800 m

0.106

21. Mixteca, Oaxaca13, 34

Alpha

Tropical

Continent

1300 m

3000 m

0.375

22. Oaxaca13, 34

Gamma

Tropical

Continent

Mid- elev. bimodal

3000 m

0.430

23. Central Nepal1

Gamma

Tropical

Continent

2400 m

4600 m

0.444

24. Deep Creek, Nevada, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

1700 m

3688 m

0.012

25. Oquirrh, Nevada, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2150 m

3239 m

0.200

26. Raft River, Nevada, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2050 m

3017 m

N/A

27. Ruby, Nevada, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

1850 m

3471 m

0.001

28. Snake, Nevada, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2150 m

3982 m

N/A

29. Stansbury, Nevada, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

1850 m

3362 m

N/A

30. Papua New Guinea4       

Gamma

Tropical

Island

1550 m

4500 m

0.261

31. Papua New Guinea21

Alpha

Tropical

Island

Mid-elevation

4500 m

N/A

32. Manu, Peru29

Gamma

Tropical

Continent

Bimodal

3450 m

N/A

33. SW Peru30

Alpha

Temperate

Continent

3950 m

4600 m

0.003

34. Biliran, Philippines31

Alpha

Tropical

Island

800 m

1340 m

N/A

35. Isarog, Philippines14, 16, 33

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1450 m

1966 m

0.399 (neg.)

36. Kitanglad, Philippines14

Alpha

Tropical

Island

2350 m

2900 m

0.078 (neg.)

37. Leyte, Philippines15, 31

Alpha

Tropical

Island

550 m

1150 m

N/A

38. Maripipi, Philippines31

Alpha

Tropical

Island

750 m

924 m

0.069

39. Mindanao, Philippines14

Gamma

Tropical

Island

2200 m

2900 m

0.170

40. Negros, Philippines15, 17

Alpha

Tropical

Island

1000 m

1788 m

0.131

41. Guanshan, Taiwan35

Alpha

Tropical

Island

2650 m

3600 m

0.002

42. Yushan, Taiwan35

Alpha

Tropical

Island

2100 m

4000 m

0.304

43. Central Taiwan35

Gamma

Tropical

Island

2300 m

4000 m

0.312

44. Rwenzori, Uganda20

Gamma

Tropical

Continent

2050 m

5109 m

0.514 (neg.)

45. Abajo, Utah, USA32      

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2550 m

3463 m

0.317

46. Aquarius, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2650 m

3432 m

0.791

47. Fishlake, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2250 m

3522 m

N/A

48. Henry, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

Mid- elev. bimodal

3514 m

0.026

49. La Sal, Utah, USA32     

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

1750 m

3877 m

0.313

50. Markagunt, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2450 m

3448 m

N/A

51. Pavant, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2150 m

3116 m

0.451

52. Tushar, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2650 m

3711 m

0.326

53. Uinta, Utah, USA32      

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

1950 m

4117 m

0.017

54. Wasatch Plateau, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

2350 m

3442 m

0.733

55. Wasatch Range, Utah, USA32

Gamma

Temperate

Continent

1800 m

3622 m

0.055

56. Ba Vi, Vietnam22

Gamma

Tropical

Continent

850 m

1296 m

0.727

1. Abe, H. 1982; 2. Bonvicino et al., 1997; 3. Carleton and Goodman, 2000; 4. Flannery, 1995; 5. Goodman and Carleton, 1996; 6. Goodman and Carleton, 1998; 7. Goodman and Jenkins, 1998; 8. Goodman and Jenkins, 2000; 9. Goodman and Rasolonandrasana, 2001; 10. Goodman et al., 1996a; 11. Goodman et al., 1996b; 12. Goodman et al, 1999: a, b; 13. Hall, 1981; 14. Heaney, 2001; 15. Heaney et al., 1989; 16. Heaney et al., 1999; 17. Heideman et al., 1987; 18. Jenkins et al., 1996; 19. Kelt, 1999; 20. Kerbis Peterhans et al., 1996; 21. Kikkawa and Dwyer, 1992; 22. Kuznetsov, 1995; 23. Langham, 1983; 24. Li et al., 2003; 25. McCain, 2004; 26. Md. Nor, 2001; 27. Medway, 1972; 28. Patterson et al., 1989; 29. Patterson et al., 1998; 30. Pearson and Ralph, 1978; 31. Rickart, 1993; 32. Rickart, 2001; 33. Rickart et al., 1999; 34. Sánchez-Cordero, 2001; 35. Yu, 1994.

LITERATURE CITED

Abe, H. 1982. Ecological distribution and faunal structure of small mammals in central Nepal. Mammalia 46:477–503.

Bonvicino, C. R., A. Langguth, S. M. Lindbergh, and A. C. de Paula. 1997. An elevational gradient study of small mammals at Caparao National Park, south eastern Brazil. Mammalia 61:547–560.

Carleton, M. D., and S. M. Goodman. 2000. Rodents of the Parc National de Marojejy, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 97:231–263.

Flannery, T. F. 1995. Mammals of New Guinea. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Goodman, S. M., A. Andrianarimisa, L. E. Olson, and V. Soarimalala. 1996a. Patterns of elevational distribution of birds and small mammals in the humid forests of Montagne d'Ambre, Madasgascar. Ecotropica 2:87–98.

Goodman, S. M., and M. D. Carleton. 1996. The rodents of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andringitra, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 85:257–283.

Goodman, S. M., and M. D. Carleton. 1998. The rodents of the nature reserve Anjanaharibe-Sud, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 90:201–221.

Goodman, S. M., M. D. Carleton, and M. Pidgeon. 1999a. Rodents of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andohahela, Madasgascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 94:217–249.

Goodman, S. M., and P. D. Jenkins. 1998. The insectivores of the Réserve Spéciale d'Anjanaharibe- Sud, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 90:139–161.

Goodman, S. M., and P. D. Jenkins. 2000. Tenrecs (Lipotyphla: Tenrecidae) of the Parc National de Marojejy, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 97:201–229.

Goodman, S. M., P. D. Jenkins, and M. Pidgeon. 1999b. Lipotyphla (Tenrecidae and Soricidae) of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andohahela, Madagascar. Fieldiana:Zoology (New Series) 94:187–216.

Goodman, S. M., C. J. Raxworthy, and P. D. Jenkins. 1996b. Insectivore ecology in the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andringitra, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 85:218– 230.

Goodman, S. M., and B. P. N. Rasolonandrasana. 2001. Elevational zonation of birds, insectivores, rodents and primates on the slopes of the Andringitra Massif, Madasgascar. Journal of Natural History 35:285–305.

Hall, E. R. 1981. The mammals of North America. Second Edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.

Heaney, L. R. 2001. Small maamal diversity along elevational gradients in the Philippines: an assessment of patterns and hypotheses. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10:15–39.

Heaney, L. R., D. S. Balete, E. A. Rickart, R. C. B. Utzurrum, and P. C. Gonzales. 1999. Mammalian diversity on Mount Isarog, a threatened center of endemism on southern Luzon Island, Philippines. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 95:1–62.

Heaney, L. R., P. D. Heideman, E. A. Rickart, R. C. B. Utzurrum, and J. S. H. Klompen. 1989. Elevational zonation of mammals in the central Philippines. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5:259–280.

Heideman, P. D., L. R. Heaney, R. L. Thomas, and K. R. Erickson. 1987. Patterns of faunal diversity and species abundance of non-volant small mammals on Negros Island, Philippines. Journal of Mammalogy 68:884–888.

Jenkins P. D., S. M. Goodman, and C. J. Raxworthy. 1996. The shrew tenrecs (Microgale) (Insectivora: Tenrecidae) of the Réserve Naturelle Intégrale d'Andringitra, Madagascar. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series) 85:191–217.

Kelt, D. 1999. Assemblage structure and quantitative habitat relations of small mammals along an ecological gradient in the Colorado Desert of southern California. Ecography 22:659–673.

Kerbis Peterhans, J. C., R. M., Kityo, W. T. Stanley, and P. K. Austin. 1996. Small mammals along an elevational gradient in Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Uganda. Pages 149–171 in H. Osmaston, J. Tukahirwa, C. Basalirwa, and J. Nyakaana, editors. The Rwenzori Mountains National Park, Uganda: proceedings, environment and biology; conservation, management and community relations. Department of Geology, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Kikkawa, J., and P. D. Dwyer. 1992. Use of scattered resources in rain forest of humid tropical lowlands. Biotropica 24:293–308.

Kuznetsov, G. V. 1999. Distribution of mammals by elevation in highlands regions of Vietnam. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 78:1228–1236.

Langham, N. 1983. Distribution and ecology of small mammals in three rain forest localities of Peninsula Malaysia with particular references to Kedah Peak. Biotropica 15:199–206.

Li, J. S., Y. L. Song, and Z. G. Zeng. 2003. Elevational gradients of small mammal diversity on the northern slopes of Mt. Qilian, China. Global Ecology and Biogeography 12:449–460.

McCain, C. M. 2004. The mid-domain effect applied to elevational gradients: species richness of small mammals in Costa Rica. Journal of Biogeography 31:19–31.

Md. Nor., S. 2001. Elevational diversity patterns of small mammals on Mount Kinabalu, Malaysia. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10:41–62.

Medway, L. 1972. The distribution and altitudinal zonation of birds and mammals on Gunong Benom. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 23:103–154.

Patterson, B. D., P. L. Meserve, and B. K. Lnag. 1989. Distribution and abundance of small mammals along an elevational transect in temperate rainforests of Chile. Journal of Mammalogy 70:67–78.

Patterson, B. D., D. F. Stotz, S. Solari, J. W. Fitzpatrick, and V. Pacheco. 1998. Contrasting patterns of elevational zonation for birds and mammals in the Andes of southeastern Peru. Journal of Biogeography 25:593–607.

Pearson, O. P., and C. P. Ralph. 1978. The diversity and abundance of vertebrates along an altitudinal gradient in Peru. Memorias del Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado" 18:1–97.

Rickart, E. A. 1993. Diversity patterns of mammals along elevational and disturbance gradients in the Philippines: implications for conservation. Asia Life Sciences 2:251–260.

Rickart, E. A. 2001. Elevational diversity gradients, biogeography and the structure of montane mammal communities in the intermountain region of North America. Global Ecology and Biogepgraphy 10:77–100.

Rickart, E. A., L. R. Heaney, P. D. Heideman, and R. C. B. Utzurrum. 1999. The distribution and ecology of mammals on Leyte, Biliran, Maripipi Islands. Fieldiana: Zoology 72:1– 62.

Sánchez-Cordero, V. 2001. Elevation gradients of diversity for rodents and bats in Oaxaca, Mexico. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10:63–76.

Yu, H. 1994. Distribution and abundance of small mammals along a subtropical elevational gradient in central Taiwan. Journal of Zoology, London 234:577–600.



[Back to E086-019]