Ecological ArchivesE085-113-A1

Michael J. Crawley. 2004. Timing of disturbance and coexistence in a species-rich ruderal plant community. Ecology 85:3277–3288.

Appendix A. Tables showing (TableA1) the effects of autumn 2002 and spring 2003 cultivation on botanical composition at Pound Hill in July 2003, (Table A2) nested ANOVA for total biomass, and (Table A3) the effects of long-term timing of cultivation (October, March, or May) over the period 1992–2001 on species biomass in July 2003.

Table A1. The effects of autumn 2002 and spring 2003 cultivation on botanical composition at Pound Hill in July 2003. See Notes at end of table for details.

Autumn 2002 cultivation

Spring 2003 cultivation

Species

Biomass
mean

 

SE

Frequency
(%)

Species

Biomass
mean

 

SE

Frequency
(%)

               

Tripleurospermum inodorum

16.36

1.741

90.3

Chenopodium album

12.92

1.207

93.1

Anisantha sterilis

4.58

0.873

56.9

Anisantha sterilis

6.47

1.303

48.6

Papaver dubium

4.26

0.573

88.9

Capsella bursa-pastoris

4.45

0.448

95.8

Vicia hirsuta

3.51

0.602

63.9

Spergula arvensis

3.01

0.962

50.0

Veronica persica

2.53

0.409

79.2

Tripleurospermum inodorum

2.63

0.587

70.8

Capsella bursa-pastoris

2.11

0.381

83.3

Bromus hordeaceus

2.28

0.505

34.7

Veronica arvensis

1.90

0.177

100.0

Anchusa arvensis

1.71

0.901

8.3

Aphanes inexpectata

1.20

0.200

80.6

Holcus mollis

1.59

0.707

20.8

Arabidopsis thaliana

1.13

0.138

91.7

Sonchus asper

1.17

0.533

66.7

Holcus mollis

1.11

0.421

26.4

Veronica persica

1.15

0.152

77.8

Anchusa arvensis

0.83

0.471

12.5

Myosotis arvensis

0.84

0.339

37.5

Myosotis arvensis

0.75

0.203

50.0

Fallopia convolvulus

0.62

0.178

27.8

Arenaria serpyllifolia

0.72

0.141

56.9

Arenaria serpyllifolia

0.62

0.182

31.9

Sonchus asper

0.47

0.094

62.5

Lamium amplexicaule

0.47

0.172

34.7

Matricaria recutita

0.31

0.097

23.6

Erodium cicutarium

0.42

0.244

8.3

Agrostis gigantea

0.28

0.164

38.9

Achillea millefolium

0.39

0.193

50.0

Viola arvensis

0.27

0.065

43.1

Galinsoga parviflora

0.39

0.084

55.6

Anagallis arvensis

0.26

0.100

31.9

Vicia hirsuta

0.31

0.084

50.0

Myosotis discolor

0.19

0.052

48.6

Agrostis gigantea

0.29

0.137

34.7

Cerastium glomeratum

0.17

0.050

50.0

Cirsium arvense

0.28

0.234

22.2

Achillea millefolium

0.16

0.061

37.5

Anagallis arvensis

0.25

0.102

36.1

Polygonum aviculare

0.16

0.061

25.0

Geranium molle

0.22

0.066

33.3

Lamium amplexicaule

0.15

0.046

25.0

Polygonum aviculare

0.21

0.116

20.8

Fallopia convolvulus

0.15

0.086

16.7

Papaver dubium

0.18

0.073

33.3

Crepis capillaris

0.13

0.072

13.9

Elytrigia repens

0.18

0.128

4.2

Cerastium fontanum

0.10

0.034

20.8

Viola arvensis

0.12

0.031

44.4

Medicago lupulina

0.10

0.036

12.5

Matricaria recutita

0.12

0.053

12.5

Bromus hordeaceus

0.08

0.056

4.2

Rumex acetosella

0.11

0.091

13.9

Vulpia bromoides

0.07

0.025

18.1

Vulpia bromoides

0.11

0.053

9.7

Sagina erecta

0.06

0.040

22.2

Artemisia vulgaris

0.11

0.051

9.7

Poa annua

0.06

0.017

33.3

Senecio vulgaris

0.10

0.075

6.9

Sisymbrium officinale

0.06

0.054

2.8

Poa annua

0.10

0.036

31.9

Galium aparine

0.05

0.025

11.1

Coronopus didymus

0.07

0.038

13.9

Cirsium arvense

0.04

0.022

13.9

Thlaspi arvense

0.05

0.047

1.4

Chenopodium album

0.04

0.009

48.6

Senecio sylvaticus

0.05

0.020

11.1

Erodium cicutarium

0.03

0.025

5.6

Medicago lupulina

0.04

0.020

15.3

Taraxacum officinale

0.03

0.015

5.6

Veronica arvensis

0.04

0.012

27.8

Veronica serpyllifolia

0.03

0.005

40.3

Sisymbrium officinale

0.04

0.020

6.9

Rumex acetosella

0.02

0.010

6.9

Solanum nigrum

0.04

0.010

29.2

Coronopus didymus

0.01

0.008

9.7

Persicaria maculosa

0.02

0.011

9.7

Acer pseudoplatanus

0.01

0.006

6.9

Cerastium fontanum

0.02

0.021

4.2

Atriplex patula

0.01

0.009

5.6

Myosotis discolor

0.02

0.012

11.1

Holcus lanatus

0.01

0.010

2.8

Arabidopsis thaliana

0.02

0.007

30.6

Geranium molle

0.01

0.005

22.2

Atriplex patula

0.01

0.015

1.4

Quercus robur

0.01

0.006

1.4

Crepis capillaris

0.01

0.010

6.9

Juncus bufonius

tr

 

5.6

Lamium purpureum

0.01

0.009

4.2

Galinsoga parviflora

tr

 

4.2

Holcus lanatus

0.01

0.009

2.8

Conyza canadensis

tr

 

2.8

Trifolium dubium

0.01

0.006

5.6

Plantago major

tr

 

2.8

Galium aparine

0.01

0.005

1.4

Crataegus monogyna

tr

 

1.4

Stellaria graminea

tr

 

2.8

Senecio sylvaticus

tr

 

1.4

Gnaphalium uliginosum

tr

 

1.4

Senecio jacobaea

tr

 

1.4

Cerastium glomeratum

tr

 

1.4

Solanum nigrum

tr

 

5.6

Rumex obtusifolius

tr

 

1.4

Pinus sylvestris

tr

 

1.4

 
 
 
 

Lamium purpureum

tr

 

1.4

 
 
 
 

Cardamine hirsuta

tr

 

1.4

 
 
 
 

Persicaria maculosa

tr

 

1.4

 
 
 
 

Aira praecox

tr

 

1.4

 
 
 
 

Stellaria media

tr

 

1.4

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Total

44.53

1.698

 

Total

44.27

1.831

 

Mean species

16.25

0.389

 

Mean species

13.67

0.373

 

Total species

59

 
 

Total species

53

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Dominance p1

0.37

 
 

Dominance p1

0.29

 
 

   Notes: Mean = mean dry mass per species in n = 72 quadrats 50 × 25 cm (i.e., averaged over the 3 long-term timings of cultivation), SE = standard error of mean species dry mass, frequency (%) is frequency out of a maximum of 72 quadrats expressed as a percentage. Species are ranked according to their mean dry mass. tr = "trace" means an average dry mass less than 0.001 g per plot. Total is mean biomass per 50 × 25 cm quadrat (the average of the sum of all species' dry masses); species is the mean number of species per 50 × 25 cm quadrat, total species is the species richness across all 72 quadrats, dominance, p1, is the proportion of total biomass made up by the most abundant species. Nomenclature follows Stace (1997). Species shown in bold are not represented in the 20 most abundant species in the opposing cultivation timing.

 

Table A2. Nested ANOVA for total biomass. See Notes at end of table for details.


 
df
Sum of squares
Mean square
F value
Pr (F)

           
Error: Block          
   Residuals
3
0.124317
0.041439
   
           
Error: Month %in% Block          
   Month
2
0.087777
0.0438883
0.1577355
0.8575047
   Residuals
6
1.669439
0.2782398
 
 
           
Error: Cultivation %in% (Block/Month)
1
0.023272
0.0232722
0.098471
0.7608241
   Cultivation
2
0.899069
0.4495345
1.902091
0.2046483
   Cultivation:Month
9
2.127033
0.2363370
 
 
   Residuals          
           
Error: Within          
   Residuals
120
11.96894
0.0997412
   

   Notes: This shows that there was very little variation in total biomass from block to block (variance = 0.041), no significant effect of Month of cultivation 1992–2002 on total biomass (P = 0.86), and no significant interaction between Month of cultivation and timing of cultivation in 2002-2003 (P = 0.20). The main effect of autumn 2002 or spring 2003 cultivation on total biomass was also not significant (P = 0.76). The variance attributable to differences in total biomass between the pseudoreplicated quadrats within half-plots is measured by the residual variance of ln(total + 0.01) = 0.0997 (5 df in each of 24 half plots = 120 df) and is much greater than the variation from block to block (0.041).

 

Table A3. The effects of long-term timing of cultivation (October, March, or May) over the period 1992–2001, on species biomass in July 2003; (a) following cultivation in autumn 2002; (b) following cultivation in spring 2003. See Notes at end of table for details.

A) Cultivated autumn 2002

October cultivation

 

March cultivation

 

May cultivation

 

Frequency

Mean

CV

   

Frequency

Mean

CV

   

Frequency

Mean

CV

Tripleurospermum inodorum

24

14.300

0.84

 

Tripleurospermum inodorum

24

23.762

0.49

 

Tripleurospermum inodorum

16

11.450

1.58

Vicia hirsuta

24

8.706

0.66

 

Veronica persica

24

5.412

0.78

 

Anisantha sterilis

16

8.319

1.25

Anisantha sterilis

19

5.102

1.00

 

Papaver dubium

20

3.385

1.29

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris

24

5.324

0.74

Papaver dubium

24

4.802

0.71

 

Veronica arvensis

24

1.574

0.73

 

Papaver dubium

19

4.379

1.48

Holcus mollis

15

3.262

1.73

 

Vicia hirsuta

14

0.994

1.68

 

Aphanes inexpectata

24

2.476

0.85

Myosotis arvensis

21

1.988

1.29

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris

23

0.748

0.83

 

Anchusa arvensis

6

2.398

2.81

Arenaria serpyllifolia

22

1.802

0.84

 

Anagallis arvensis

12

0.601

2.23

 

Veronica arvensis

24

2.205

0.85

Veronica arvensis

24

1.802

0.75

 

Viola arvensis

11

0.444

1.87

 

Veronica persica

21

1.945

1.09

Arabidopsis thaliana

24

1.317

0.65

 

Fallopia convolvulus

6

0.390

3.17

 

Arabidopsis thaliana

23

1.766

0.83

Aphanes inexpectata

23

0.948

1.29

 

Sonchus asper

20

0.386

1.28

 

Sonchus asper

18

0.913

1.05

Matricaria recutita

7

0.428

2.15

 

Anisantha sterilis

6

0.309

2.51

 

Vicia hirsuta

9

0.825

1.81

Polygonum aviculare

12

0.405

2.04

 

Arabidopsis thaliana

18

0.288

1.34

 

Agrostis gigantea

13

0.666

3.53

Veronica persica

12

0.280

2.00

 

Aphanes inexpectata

12

0.247

1.97

 

Myosotis discolor

20

0.497

1.35

Capsella bursa-pastoris

13

0.267

1.67

 

Achillea millefolium

9

0.193

2.56

 

Matricaria recutita

5

0.323

3.10

Cerastium glomeratum

15

0.263

2.52

 

Matricaria recutita

5

0.173

2.71

 

Arenaria serpyllifolia

11

0.284

1.71

Viola arvensis

12

0.202

1.58

 

Sisymbrium officinale

1

0.162

4.90

 

Lamium amplexicaule

8

0.275

1.96

Medicago lupulina

6

0.188

2.23

 

Lamium amplexicaule

10

0.153

2.31

 

Achillea millefolium

6

0.257

2.88

Sagina erecta

12

0.169

3.45

 

Bromus hordeaceus

1

0.150

4.90

 

Crepis capillaris

3

0.234

4.15

Galium aparine

8

0.150

2.31

 

Holcus mollis

2

0.138

4.85

 

Cerastium glomeratum

14

0.179

1.27

Cerastium fontanum

9

0.140

1.66

 

Agrostis gigantea

9

0.134

3.17

 

Myosotis arvensis

8

0.169

2.10

Cirsium arvense

4

0.097

3.25

 

Arenaria serpyllifolia

8

0.107

2.13

 

Poa annua

17

0.161

1.31

Vulpia bromoides

9

0.087

2.05

 

Medicago lupulina

3

0.100

3.19

 

Cerastium fontanum

3

0.121

3.55

Crepis capillaris

2

0.077

4.74

 

Anchusa arvensis

2

0.086

4.24

 

Anagallis arvensis

6

0.116

3.82

Bromus hordeaceus

1

0.076

4.90

 

Polygonum aviculare

5

0.085

2.35

 

Viola arvensis

7

0.114

2.21

Anagallis arvensis

5

0.065

2.39

 

Myosotis arvensis

7

0.085

2.60

 

Vulpia bromoides

3

0.109

2.82

Myosotis discolor

11

0.037

1.44

 

Crepis capillaris

5

0.081

3.27

 

Erodium cicutarium

4

0.083

4.40

Achillea millefolium

11

0.036

1.54

 

Cerastium glomeratum

6

0.058

3.17

 

Taraxacum officinale

4

0.081

2.67

Fallopia convolvulus

4

0.036

2.96

 

Chenopodium album

18

0.043

1.32

 

Chenopodium album

13

0.068

1.73

Veronica serpyllifolia

13

0.029

1.68

 

Myosotis discolor

4

0.038

2.59

 

Holcus mollis

2

0.067

4.30

Agrostis gigantea

5

0.028

2.29

 

Veronica serpyllifolia

7

0.031

1.79

 

Rumex acetosella

2

0.035

3.87

Sonchus asper

6

0.019

3.10

 

Cerastium fontanum

3

0.030

2.71

 

Geranium molle

14

0.035

1.77

Poa annua

4

0.018

3.81

 

Coronopus didymus

1

0.023

4.90

 

Holcus lanatus

1

0.028

4.90

Anchusa arvensis

1

0.015

4.90

 

Sagina erecta

2

0.016

4.77

 

Atriplex patula

1

0.024

4.90

Acer pseudoplatanus

2

0.010

3.47

 

Acer pseudoplatanus

1

0.014

4.90

 

Cirsium arvense

3

0.020

3.15

Holcus lanatus

1

0.009

4.90

 

Rumex acetosella

2

0.014

3.69

 

Coronopus didymus

5

0.019

2.95

Atriplex patula

1

0.006

4.90

 

Vulpia bromoides

1

0.013

4.90

 

Quercus robur

1

0.018

4.90

Chenopodium album

5

0.005

3.08

 

Cirsium arvense

2

0.012

4.55

 

Acer pseudoplatanus

2

0.017

3.40

Conyza canadensis

1

0.004

4.90

 

Atriplex patula

2

0.009

4.25

 

Veronica serpyllifolia

8

0.017

1.98

Juncus bufonius

2

0.003

4.23

 

Senecio sylvaticus

1

0.003

4.90

 

Fallopia convolvulus

2

0.009

4.25

Coronopus didymus

1

0.001

4.90

 

Conyza canadensis

1

0.003

4.90

 

Galinsoga parviflora

3

0.008

2.90

Rumex acetosella

1

0.001

4.90

 

Senecio jacobaea

1

0.003

4.90

 

Plantago major

2

0.006

4.27

Solanum nigrum

1

0.001

4.90

 

Geranium molle

2

0.002

3.39

 

Crataegus monogyna

1

0.006

4.90

Stellaria media

1

trace

4.90

 

Poa annua

2

0.001

3.59

 

Juncus bufonius

2

0.005

3.44

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Sisymbrium officinale

1

0.005

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Bromus hordeaceus

1

0.003

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Pinus sylvestris

1

0.002

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Polygonum aviculare

1

0.002

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Solanum nigrum

3

0.002

2.89

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Lamium purpureum

1

0.001

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Cardamine hirsuta

1

0.001

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Persicaria maculosa

1

0.001

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Aira praecox

1

trace

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 

Sagina erecta

1

trace

4.90

 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 

Total biomass

 

47.180

0.23

 

Total biomass

 

40.500

0.30

 

Total biomass

 

46.062

0.40

Tripleurospermum density

 

11.1

1.29

 

Tripleurospermum density

 

27.5

3.30

 

Tripleurospermum density

 

11.2

1.91

Species

 

17.417

0.17

 

Species

 

14.042

0.22

 

Species

 

16.917

0.17

Total species

 

43

 
 

Total species

 

43

 
 

Total species

 

53

 
 
B) Cultivated spring 2003

October

 

March

 

May

Species

Frequency

Mean

CV

 

Species

Frequency

Mean

CV

 

Species

Frequency

Mean

CV

Anisantha sterilis

18

7.121

1.180

 

Chenopodium album

24

16.832

0.599

 

Chenopodium album

24

16.347

0.615

Tripleurospermum inodorum

23

5.956

1.201

 

Anisantha sterilis

10

7.774

1.906

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris

24

7.626

0.580

Chenopodium album

19

5.579

1.081

 

Anchusa arvensis

3

4.524

2.823

 

Anisantha sterilis

7

4.503

2.002

Holcus mollis

9

4.511

2.184

 

Spergula arvensis

13

3.737

2.703

 

Spergula arvensis

18

3.877

2.349

Bromus hordeaceus

15

3.695

1.042

 

Capsella bursa-pastoris

24

2.882

0.502

 

Erodium cicutarium

6

1.272

2.737

Capsella bursa-pastoris

21

2.854

0.937

 

Bromus hordeaceus

7

2.760

2.123

 

Lamium amplexicaule

11

0.932

2.481

Myosotis arvensis

17

2.388

1.952

 

Veronica persica

23

2.237

0.614

 

Galinsoga parviflora

21

0.865

1.181

Arenaria serpyllifolia

19

1.857

1.197

 

Sonchus asper

18

1.865

3.981

 

Veronica persica

19

0.823

0.986

Spergula arvensis

5

1.404

2.920

 

Tripleurospermum inodorum

23

1.835

1.389

 

Agrostis gigantea

10

0.725

2.703

Sonchus asper

16

1.243

2.051

 

Fallopia convolvulus

11

1.158

1.676

 

Geranium molle

20

0.631

1.318

Achillea millefolium

14

0.980

2.809

 

Anagallis arvensis

13

0.663

2.150

 

Sonchus asper

14

0.388

1.522

Vicia hirsute

23

0.768

1.385

 

Elytrigia repens

1

0.344

4.899

 

Bromus hordeaceus

3

0.377

3.210

Cirsium arvense

7

0.743

4.612

 

Senecio vulgaris

3

0.255

4.272

 

Artemisia vulgaris

4

0.270

2.630

Fallopia convolvulus

4

0.604

2.690

 

Vulpia bromoides

3

0.241

2.820

 

Poa annua

14

0.255

1.946

Papaver dubium

16

0.503

1.992

 

Galinsoga parviflora

12

0.238

1.513

 

Holcus mollis

6

0.254

3.541

Anchusa arvensis

1

0.438

4.899

 

Matricaria recutita

5

0.218

2.928

 

Anchusa arvensis

2

0.159

4.322

Polygonum aviculare

4

0.415

3.995

 

Polygonum aviculare

11

0.205

1.956

 

Thlaspi arvense

1

0.142

4.899

Veronica persica

14

0.398

1.989

 

Viola arvensis

16

0.168

1.857

 

Fallopia convolvulus

5

0.110

2.349

Lamium amplexicaule

5

0.353

2.554

 

Achillea millefolium

12

0.138

2.912

 

Tripleurospermum inodorum

5

0.101

2.756

Rumex acetosella

4

0.295

4.543

 

Lamium amplexicaule

9

0.118

1.873

 

Coronopus didymus

2

0.090

4.533

Elytrigia repens

2

0.202

4.193

 

Sisymbrium officinale

5

0.114

2.493

 

Persicaria maculosa

6

0.063

2.343

Viola arvensis

11

0.163

1.921

 

Myosotis arvensis

7

0.110

2.262

 

Vicia hirsuta

3

0.061

4.230

Matricaria recutita

3

0.144

3.065

 

Vicia hirsuta

10

0.086

2.090

 

Achillea millefolium

10

0.048

1.602

Coronopus didymus

4

0.112

3.474

 

Senecio sylvaticus

4

0.080

2.974

 

Senecio sylvaticus

3

0.033

2.915

Veronica arvensis

11

0.105

1.496

 

Medicago lupulina

4

0.067

3.020

 

Myosotis discolor

2

0.029

4.109

Anagallis arvensis

10

0.096

2.055

 

Cirsium arvense

4

0.063

3.138

 

Holcus lanatus

1

0.026

4.899

Agrostis gigantea

8

0.088

2.397

 

Agrostis gigantea

7

0.055

2.070

 

Myosotis arvensis

3

0.024

2.903

Vulpia bromoides

3

0.083

4.325

 

Artemisia vulgaris

3

0.048

3.083

 

Senecio vulgaris

1

0.024

4.899

Solanum nigrum

9

0.070

1.787

 

Papaver dubium

5

0.022

2.637

 

Papaver dubium

3

0.023

3.645

Cerastium fontanum

3

0.068

4.472

 

Solanum nigrum

6

0.022

2.038

 

Viola arvensis

5

0.022

2.399

Medicago lupulina

5

0.057

3.921

 

Geranium molle

2

0.019

4.376

 

Cirsium arvense

5

0.020

2.912

Galinsoga parviflora

7

0.054

2.001

 

Rumex acetosella

5

0.019

3.348

 

Trifolium dubium

2

0.020

3.893

Arabidopsis thaliana

16

0.048

1.625

 

Coronopus didymus

4

0.013

2.915

 

Solanum nigrum

6

0.018

2.534

Atriplex patula

1

0.044

4.899

 

Crepis capillaris

3

0.013

3.991

 

Rumex acetosella

1

0.018

4.899

Myosotis discolor

4

0.034

3.718

 

Veronica arvensis

7

0.013

2.348

 

Medicago lupulina

2

0.007

3.417

Senecio sylvaticus

1

0.028

4.899

 

Arabidopsis thaliana

1

0.009

4.899

 

Arabidopsis thaliana

5

0.006

2.397

Lamium purpureum

2

0.028

4.532

 

Persicaria maculosa

1

0.009

4.899

 

Veronica arvensis

2

0.006

4.547

Poa annua

7

0.028

2.038

 

Poa annua

2

0.004

3.587

 

Anagallis arvensis

3

0.005

3.279

Crepis capillaris

1

0.027

4.899

 

Holcus lanatus

1

0.003

4.899

 

Crepis capillaris

1

0.003

4.899

Galium aparine

1

0.016

4.899

 

Arenaria serpyllifolia

2

0.003

3.388

 

Vulpia bromoides

1

0.003

4.899

Senecio vulgaris

1

0.010

4.899

 

Myosotis discolor

2

0.003

3.587

 

Lamium purpureum

1

0.002

4.899

Stellaria graminea

2

0.009

3.624

   
 
 
 
 

Arenaria serpyllifolia

2

0.002

3.822

Trifolium dubium

2

0.009

4.068

   
 
 
 
 

Cerastium glomeratum

1

0.002

4.899

Gnaphalium uliginosum

1

0.003

4.899

   
 
 
 
 

Matricaria recutita

1

0.000

4.899

Geranium molle

2

0.001

3.587

   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 

Rumex obtusifolius

1

0.000

4.899

   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
   
 
 
 

Total mass

 

43.629

0.394

 

Total mass

 

48.977

0.308

 

Total mass

 

40.209

0.335

Chenopodium density

 

24.0

9.76

 

Chenopodium density

 

59.5

7.51

 

Chenopodium density

 

46.3

3.37

Species

 

15.500

0.135

 

Species

 

13.583

0.278

 

Species

 

11.917

0.198

Total species

 

46

 
 

Total species

 

41

 
 

Total species

 

44

 

   Notes: Frequency out of n = 24 quadrats per treatment (6 pseudoreplicates in each of 4 blocks), mean = mean dry mass per species (n = 24), CV = coefficient of variation in species dry mass (standard deviation in dry mass/mean dry mass) is a measure of within-plot heterogeneity (patchiness) in species abundance, total biomass is mean biomass per quadrat; species is the mean number of species within each 50 × 25 cm quadrat, and total species is the number of species found in all 24 quadrats receiving a particular timing of disturbance.



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