Appendix D. ANOVA tables showing effects of density treatment on tadpole performance (density (Table D1), tadpole body length (Table D2), hind leg length (Table D3), metamorph body length (Table D4), and time for metamorphosis (Table D5)) in high and low density sections.
Appendix D1. Effect of density treatment on tadpole density index.
Site 
Effect of
treatment

Year

Period

Treatment

Treatment ×
year


df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P


AD17 
0.82

5, 125

2.56

0.03

1, 125

0.064

0.80

1, 125

1.12

0.27

5, 125

3.49

0.005

AD1798 
1.14

4, 109

2.95

0.023

1, 109

0.049

0.83

1, 109

0.45

0.50

4, 125

0.22

0.93

HP25 
2.79

6, 106

7.71

<0.001

1, 106

4.48

0.037

1, 106

20.92

<0.001

6, 100

0.63

0.71

HP27 
1.59

6, 176

11.1

<0.001

1, 176

0.390

0.53

1, 176

15.9

<0.001

6, 176

3.84

0.001

HP2791 
1.74

5, 144

10.5

<0.001

1, 144

0.072

0.79

1, 144

27.5

<0.001

5, 139

22.50

0.034

Notes: The test is based on log_{10} tadpole densities. However, the effect of treatment is recalculated from this value to actually give the average density in the intended high density section divided by that in the low density section. The test is a twoway ANOVA. Data for AD17 and HP27 are analyzed either for all available years or excluding a year (1998 and 1991, respectively) that was identified as an outlier with respect to the effect of the density manipulation. Nonsignificant interactions (in italics) are not included in tests of main effects. P values are shown as given by the noncorrected test, but because three ponds are tested I only consider values <0.05/3 significant.
Appendix D2. Effect of density treatment on tadpole body length.
Site 
Effect of
treatment

Threeway

Twoway



Treatment × period

Year

Treatment

Year × treatment



df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P


AD17 
0.70

1, 1717

14.23

<0.001

5,776

92.4

<0.001

<0.001

44.9

<0.001

5, 776

7.09

<0.001

AD1798 
0.86

1, 1477

50.9

<0.001

4, 668

115.7

<0.001

1, 668

59.6

<0.001

4, 668

6.50

<0.001

HP25 
0.10

1,1150

9.00

0.003

5, 750

61.8

<0.001

1, 750

26.9

<0.001

5, 745

2.86

0.014

HP27 
0.10

1, 593

0.44

0.51

4, 301

11.45

<0.001

1, 301

1.33

0.25

4, 297

0.59

0.67

HP2791 
0.00

1, 380

0.12

0.73

3, 195

14.1

<0.001

1, 195

0.005

0.95

3, 192

0.22

0.88

Notes: The estimated effect of the treatment is computed for the full model, with the interaction and measures the average difference in mm between tadpoles in low and high density sections respectively. The top set of tests is a threeway ANOVA analyzing the effects of year, treatment (high vs. low section density) and period (May, June). Only the effect of the interaction treatment × period is given in the table. The lower part is an account for a twoway ANOVA analyzing the effects of year and treatment. This test is only based on June data. Nonsignificant interactions (in italics) are not included in tests of main effects.
Appendix D3. Effect of density treatment on tadpole relative hind leg length.
Site 
Effect of
treatment

Year

Treatment

Year ×
treatment


df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P


AD17 
0.024

5, 771

172.6

<0.001

1, 771

19.5

<0.001

5, 771

3.60

0.003

AD1798 
0.026

4, 663

190.1

<0.001

1, 663

18.0

<0.001

4, 663

3.96

0.003

HP25 
0.004

5, 748

57.7

<0.001

1, 748

4.26

0.039

5, 743

1.25

0.28

HP27 
0.010

4, 297

4.59

0.001

1, 297

1.16

0.29

4, 297

2.01

0.64

HP2791 
0.014

3, 195

1.68

0.17

1, 195

4.36

0.038

3, 192

0.64

0.59

Notes: The effect of treatment measures the average difference in the development index between low and high density sections. The test results are for a twoway ANOVA analyzing effects of year and treatment (high vs. low section density) on tadpole hind legs. Only June data are included. Nonsignificant interactions (in italics) are not included in tests of main effects.
Appendix D4. Effect of density treatment on metamorph body length.
Site 
Effect of
treatment

Year

Treatment

Year ×
treatment


df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P


AD17 
0.008

4, 548

28.6

<0.001

1, 548

0.007

0.93

4, 548

24.9

<0.001

AD1798 
0.32

3, 351

44.6

<0.001

1, 351

10.0

0.002

3, 351

8.87

<0.001

HP25 
0.62

3, 307

119.0

<0.001

1, 307

10.4

0.001

3, 307

9.66

<0.001

HP27 
0.76

4, 513

201.5

<0.001

1, 513

40.7

<0.001

4, 513

6.83

<0.001

HP2791 
0.58

3, 435

250.9

<0.001

1, 435

49.6

<0.001

3, 435

6.99

<0.001

Notes: Effect of treatment is the difference measured in millimeters between metamorphs from low density and high density sections. The test is a twoway ANOVA.
Appendix D5. Effect of density treatment on time for metamorphosis.
Site 
Effect of
treatment

Year

Treatment

Year ×
treatment


df

F

P

df

F

P

df

F

P


AD17 
1.7

4, 459

60.5

<0.001

1, 459

2.18

0.14

4,455

1.70

0.15

AD1798 
0.67

3, 283

60.8

<0.001

1, 283

0.11

0.74

3, 280

0.65

0.60

HP25 
1.6

3, 291

168.3

<0.001

1, 291

8.00

0.005

3, 288

1.35

0.26

HP27 
2.6

4, 388

19.8

<0.001

1, 388

23.9

<0.001

4,384

1.54

0.19

HP2791 
3.1

3, 329

1.41

0.24

1, 329

24.6

<0.001

3, 326

1.21

0.31

Notes: Effect of treatment is the average number of days by which metamorphosis was accelerated in low density sections. The test is a twoway ANOVA. Nonsignificant interactions (in italics) are not included in tests of main effects.