Ecological Archives E085-038-A1

Nico Blüthgen and Konrad Fiedler. 2004. Competition for composition: lessons from nectar-feeding ant communities. Ecology 85:1479–1485.

Appendix A. Sugar and amino acid composition of nectar and honeydew sources.

Extrafloral and floral nectars, wound sap, and honeydew sources from an Australian rainforest (Cape Tribulation, North Queensland). Ant attendance was quantified as the number of plants visited by any ant (total 43 ant species) and by Oecophylla smaragdina in particular. Floral nectar sources from flowers with narrow tubes (inaccessible to most ants) were not included in the analysis. Three common floral nectar sources (A. graveolens, N. normanbyi, S. gustavioides) were not used by ants despite accessible nectar and although ants were present on the plant (Blüthgen et al. in press). HPLC results are shown for (a) sugar concentration and composition and (b) amino acid concentration and composition (for methods, see Blüthgen et al. in press). Total concentration was calculated on the basis of identified sugars or amino acids, respectively, and concentrations of single compounds as per cent of total identified (mean ± SD). A cross (†) marks compounds that did not occur in all samples of a source. Amino acids that were identified in two or more samples, but only occurred in trace amounts (not quantified) were marked by (+), missing compounds by (-). All amino acids with mean concentration values given and those with (+) were coded as being present in the respective nectar source for characterization of amino acid profiles in NMDS analysis (see text). N = Number of samples/plant individuals analyzed for sugars or amino acids, respectively.

a)  Sugar composition

Nectar source

 

Ants

Oecophylla

N

Total (g/L)

Fructose

Glucose

Sucrose

Maltose

Lactose

Melibiose

Melizitose

Raffinose

Extrafloral nectar

Adenia heterophylla (Blume) Koord

Passifloraceae

4

2

2/2

178±68

8±3

7±3

85±7

-

-

-

-

-

Aleurites rockinghamensis (Baill.) P.I.Forster

Euphorbiaceae

1

0

2/1

101±59

44

40

17

-

-

-

-

-

Ardisia pachyrrhachis (F.Muell.) F.M.Bailey

Myrsinaceae

17

0

5/2

47±41

58±26

34±19†

9±12†

-

-

-

-

-

Clerodendrum tracyanum (F.Muell.) Benth.

Lamiaceae

5

0

3/3

274±366

36±10

39±8

25±18

-

-

-

-

-

Dysoxylum pettigrewianum F.M.Bailey

Meliaceae

9

0

5/4

582±320

42±7

46±7

12±13†

-

-

-

-

-

Endospermum myrmecophilum L.S.Sm.

Euphorbiaceae

11

0

6/4

187±143

49±7

50±7

1±3†

-

-

-

-

-

Entada phaseoloides Merr.

Fabaceae s.l.

27

12

7/5

760±238

21±18†

22±19†

57±37†

-

-

-

-

-

Flagellaria indica L.

Flagellariaceae

79

16

8/5

227±98

16±14†

18±18†

65±34

-

-

-

1±3†

-

Homalanthus novoguineensis (Warb.) K.Schum.

Euphorbiaceae

28

0

4/4

80±18

30±10

29±7

41±17

-

-

-

-

-

Ipomoea indica (Burm.) Merr.

Convolvulaceae

19

0

2/2

215±182

73±38

24±33†

3±4†

-

-

-

-

-

Macaranga involucrata subsp. mallotoides

(F.Muell.) L.M.Perry

Euphorbiaceae

45

3

4/4

116±44

36±2

36±2

27±4

-

-

-

-

-

Macaranga tanarius Muell. Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

3

0

2/2

70±1

41±5

40±4

19±8

-

-

-

-

-

Melicope elleryana (F.Muell.) T.G.Hartley

Rutaceae

2

0

1

351

34

24

27

15

-

-

-

-

Merremia peltata Merr.

Convolvulaceae

67

24

11/9

104±50

57±10

41±10

2±2†

-

-

-

-

-

Smilax cf. australis R.Br.

Smilacaceae

6

5

3/2

119±8

15±4

7±2†

75±3

-

-

-

4±5†

-

Syzygium erythrocalyx B.P.M.Hyland

Myrtaceae

14

1

5/4

139±102

33±7

33±6

34±13

-

-

-

-

-

Floral nectar

Acmena graveolens L.S. Smith

Myrtaceae

0

0

2/1

93±1

23±6

14±1

63±7

-

-

-

-

-

Cryptocarya hypospodia F.Muell.

Lauraceae

1

1

2/1

853±40

2±0.2

-

95±2

-

-

-

-

3±2

Cryptocarya murrayi F.Muell.

Lauraceae

4

1

2/2

547±232

3±1

1±1†

97±2

-

-

-

-

-

Dysoxylum papuanum Mabb.

Meliaceae

2

2

2/1

409±345

23±6

16±3

61±9

-

-

-

-

-

Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume

Elaeocarpaceae

3

1

2/2

169±177

53±0.2

46±1

1±1†

-

-

-

-

-

Entada phaseoloides (see above)

Fabaceae s.l.

6

4

7/4

361±203

48±7

49±5

4±6†

-

-

-

-

-

Licuala ramsayi (F.Muell) Domin

Arecaceae

6

4

3/3

487±639

-

-

100±0

-

-

-

-

-

N. normanbyi (nectar on sterile pistill)

Arecaceae

0

0

5/5

49±17

14±23

10±20†

76±42†

-

-

-

-

-

Opilia amentacea Roxb.

Olacaceae

1

1

1

592

28

20

52

-

-

-

-

-

Syzygium gustavioides (Bailey) B.P.M.Hyland

Myrtaceae

0

0

4/2

167±55

22±5

19±1

59±6

-

-

-

-

-

Wound sap

Cardwellia sublimis F. Muell. (bitemarks)

Proteaceae

4

2

2/2

986±205

-

-

100±0

-

-

-

-

-

Normanbya normanbyi (W.Hill) L.H.Bailey (flower base and wounds)

Arecaceae

12

5

3/3

109±106

16±16

1±2†

82±15

-

-

-

-

-

Honeydew

Sextius "kurandae" (Membracidae) on Caesalpinia traceyi L. Pedley

Fabaceae s.l.

6

6

9/3

291±312

11±5†

8±14†

35±28†

3±6†

0.2±0.4†

0.2±0.3†

42±11

-

S. "kurandae" on E. phaseoloides

Fabaceae s.l.

16

16

11/3

379±527

7±5†

1±2†

65±20

-

-

1±2†

26±12†

-

Milviscutulus sp. (Coccidae) on Melodinus australis Pierre

Asclepiadaceae

1

1

1

783

14

-

31

-

-

-

55

-

Idiocerinae (Cicadellidae) on S. erythrocalyx

Myrtaceae

6

0

5/2

141±135

39±27

5±9†

10±13†

0.4±1†

1±2†

22±24†

-

23±21†


b)  Amino acid composition

Nectar source

N

Total (g/L)

Ala-

nine

Argi-

nine

Aspara-

gine

Cyst-

eine

Glutamic acid

Gly-

cine

Histi-

dine

Isoleu-

cine

Leu-

cine

Lysine

Methio-

nine

Phenyl-

alanine

Pro-

line

Serine

Threo-

nine

Tyro-

sine

Valine

Extrafloral nectar

A. heterophylla

2/2

4±2

1±1

9±1

-

-

-

0.2±0.3†

31±1

2±1

10±3

2±0

2±1

15±2

8±3

3±0.3

5±1

13±0.4

1±1

A. rockinghamensis

1

3

3

3

-

-

1

-

58

4

3

1

4

4

6

1

2

6

3

A. pachyrrhachis

2/2

0.5±0.3

16±9

-

-

-

-

-

16±23†

4±5†

4±6†

-

-

5±8†

42±50

5±8†

2±3†

5±7†

-

C. tracyanum

2/2

0.3±0.2

25±14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

49±18

-

26±4

-

-

D. pettigrewianum

3/2

1±0.2

24±8

1±2†

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

62±2

-

13±4

-

-

E. myrmecophilum

3/3

2±1

35±20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

57±20

1±2†

3±6†

3±6†

-

E. phaseoloides

5/3

2±0.5

3±4†

9±8†

0.1±0.2†

-

+†

0.2±0.3†

+†

-

-

-

+†

-

78±20

2±2†

8±11†

-

-

F. indica

8/5

11±7

2±2

2±1

0.04±0.1†

4±6†

0.2±0.3†

6±11†

36±16†

4±1

4±1†

1±1†

2±1

10±3

10±8†

8±4

1±1†

7±4

2±1

H. novoguineensis

4/4

0.2±0.1

26±21

1±3†

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

52±20

-

20±6

-

-

I. indica

1

0.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

-

-

-

-

M. involucrata

4/4

1±0.5

8±10

1±2†

-

-

0.2±0.5†

-

22±15†

0.4±0.4†

2±1†

1±2†

1±1†

8±5†

31±16

6±5†

3±2†

16±5

1±1†

M. tanarius

2/2

0.3±0.04

1±0.1

2±3†

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

73±7

4±6†

19±2

-

-

M. elleryana

1

0.4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

-

-

-

-

M. peltata

11/9

1±1

19±13†

-

-

0.4±1†

1±2†

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

63±17

0.1±0.3†

14±8†

3±6†

-

S. australis

3/2

27±19

6±0.1

6±3

1±1

-

2±0.3

1±0.2

47±6

7±7

5±8†

1±2†

1±0.05

3±4†

1±1

7±1

2±1

7±1

3±0.2

S. erythrocalyx

5/4

0.3±0.1

9±10†

5±6†

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

77±16

0.3±1†

10±12†

-

-

Floral nectar

A. graveolens

2/1

0.3±0.1

5±3

17±5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

61±5

-

17±2

-

-

C. hypospodia

2/1

3±1

2±0.4

7±8

-

-

13±4

-

6±1

-

-

3±4†

-

-

49±7

4±0.2

15±1

-

-

C. murrayi

2/2

4±1

8±0.3

8±1

4±3

9±1

18±0.3

0.3±0.4†

11±1

-

-

3±1

-

3±0.4

21±1

8±2

7±1

-

1±0.4

D. papuanum

2/1

1±1

7±8

8±11†

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

77±15

-

8±11†

-

-

E. angustifolius

2/2

1±0.5

30±1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59±0.2

1±1†

10±2

-

-

E. phaseoloides

7/4

2±1

7±5

1±2†

1±1†

1±2†

1±1†

-

3±4†

1±1†

1±1†

0.4±1†

-

-

63±16

10±8†

9±9†

1±1†

1±1†

L. ramsayi

1

1

-

17

-

-

-

-

29

-

-

-

-

-

40

-

14

-

-

N. normanbyi pistill

5/5

0.3±0.2

4±4†

11±6†

-

-

-

-

5±5†

-

1±3†

3±4†

-

6±4†

52±27

3±3†

14±4

-

1±1†

O. amentacea

1

14

24

9

-

-

-

-

6

2

6

-

-

33

6

5

4

4

1

S. gustavioides

4/2

1±0.2

2±1†

5±6†

-

10±17†

5±9†

-

2±4†

-

-

-

-

-

41±12

-

7±4

28±4

-

Wound sap

C. sublimis

2/2

5±3

10±1

18±3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

49±8

-

22±6

-

-

N. normanbyi wound

4/4

0.7±0.8

41±52

21±25†

3±5†

-

6±10†

-

1±3†

-

-

2±3†

-

19±38†

14±16†

1±2†

4±6†

-

-

Honeydew

Sextius/C. traceyi

8/3

7±4

3±2

6±2†

1±1†

0.1±0.1†

2±2†

0.2±0.3†

22±23†

5±1†

6±4†

0.4±1†

0.4±0.4†

8±1†

21±22

6±2†

10±11

5±2†

5±3†

Sextius/E. phaseoloides

12/3

23±45

2±1

6±5

1±1†

10±6†

2±2†

1±2†

19±4†

3±4†

3±3†

3±3†

3±1†

4±1†

17±8

11±5†

10±0.3

4±1†

3±3†

Milv./M. australis

1

2

22

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

78

-

-

-

-

Idioc./S. erythrocalyx

5/2

0.2±0.2

6

24±15

-

-

8±31†

-

+†

-

-

-

-

4±13†

18±22

-

39±53

-

-

 

Literature cited

Blüthgen, N., G. Gottsberger, and K. Fiedler. In press. Sugar and amino acid composition of ant-attended nectar and honeydew sources from an Australian rainforest. Austral Ecology.



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