Ecological Archives E083-057-D1

Stephen S. Hale, Melissa M. Hughes, Charles J. Strobel, Henry W. Buffum, Jane L. Copeland, and John F. Paul. 2002. Coastal ecological data from the Virginian Biogeographical Province, 1990–1993. Ecology 83:2942.


INTRODUCTION

Ecological systems are threatened by such things as climate change, acidic deposition, ozone depletion, nonpoint pollution, and habitat alteration. It has proven difficult to measure the effectiveness of environmental policies and programs designed to limit anthropogenic effects on natural ecosystems, however, because the status of the nation's ecological resources has not been well documented and because the systems often respond to disturbances in complex ways.

In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board (SAB 1988) recommended that a program be established to monitor ecological status and trends and to identify environmental problems before they reached crisis proportions. The Agency's response is the ongoing Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), initiated by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Coincidentally, the National Research Council's Marine Board recommended that a national network of regional monitoring programs for estuarine and coastal environments be created (NRC 1990). The board recognized that identifying the factors that contribute to coastal pollution would require new monitoring programs that built on existing information and expanded landward.

EMAP has become an integrated federal program that provides monitoring data for assessing ecological risks and helping decide how best to manage and protect the environment. ORD coordinated the planning and implementation with other federal agencies, including the Agricultural Research Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

The estuarine component of EMAP quantitatively assesses the regional extent of coastal environmental problems by measuring the status and change of selected ecological indicators. These allow the program to address specific problems such as hypoxia, sediment contamination, coastal eutrophication, and loss of habitat. EMAP-Estuaries conducted a four-year monitoring project (1990–1993) in the estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (defined as the estuaries, bays, and sounds between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Cape Henry, Virginia). It used a probability-based design and collected and analyzed data in a consistent manner (Holland 1990, Weisberg et al. 1993). It focused on the bottom environment (water quality, sediment contamination and toxicity, structure of benthic and fish communities, and gross external pathology of fishes).

METHODS

Two of EMAP's principles of monitoring guided the sampling design for the Virginian Biogeographic Province (hereafter the Virginian Province, or Province). First, unbiased procedures were used to select sampling sites (Fig. D1). That allowed estimation of the total area that was degraded. Second, EMAP focused on indicators of biological response and used measures of exposure from stress or pollution to interpret the biological data. Traditionally, estuarine monitoring has focused instead on measures of stress (e.g., concentration of contaminants in sediment) and attempted to infer biological effects from laboratory bioassays. EMAP's ecological approach can be applied to situations with multiple stressors and complex natural processes that cannot be described easily. A summary of methods is given in section II.B.4 'Research Methods' of the metadata; details can be found in the field manuals, laboratory manuals, and quality assurance plans listed in section V.C.

Fig. D1. EMAP station locations in the Virginian Biogeographic Province, 1990–1993.


Sampling Design

EMAP's statistical approach resembles those in federal surveys by the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and National Agriculture Statistics Service. EMAP's design, created to assess regional ecological resources in the United States (Overton et al. 1991), estimates the condition, distribution, and extent of regional populations of ecological resources and provides statistical confidence for each estimate. The design allows associations to be investigated between condition indicators and stressor indicators. Further details are given in the Monitoring Design and Analysis section of the EMAP Web site (www.epa.gov/emap). The specific study design used for the Virginian Province study is described by Holland (1990) and Paul et al. (1992). The Virginian Province study collected data at 425 base stations, spread over a four-year period so as to dampen any natural interannual variabilities from extremely dry or wet years and from major disturbances such as hurricanes.

Ecological Indicators

Ecological indicators are characteristics of the environment that can quantify some aspect of the condition of ecological resources, the magnitude of stress, the exposure of a biological component to stress, or the change in the resource (Hunsaker and Carpenter 1990). Ecological conditions and responses to perturbation are determined by interactions of all the physical, chemical, and biological components of the system. Because it is impossible to measure all the components, EMAP emphasizes indicators of ecological structure and function. It has selected and developed indicators to: (1) describe the overall condition of ecological resources, (2) detect changes and trends in condition, and (3) diagnose aspects of human or natural stressors that might contribute to unacceptable conditions.

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METADATA CLASS I. DATA SET DESCRIPTORS

A. Data Set Identity: Coastal ecological data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province, 1990–1993

B. Data Set Identification Code:

C. Data Set Descriptors

1. Originators: Stephen S. Hale, Charles J. Strobel, Henry W. Buffum, Melissa M. Hughes, Jane L. Copeland, and John F. Paul, Atlantic Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882 USA, Email: hale.stephen@epa.gov

2. Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) assessed the ecological condition of estuaries, bays, and tidal rivers in the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Cape Henry, Virginia) during July–September 1990–1993. Indicators measured at 425 probability-based stations included water quality (temperature, salinity, clarity, dissolved oxygen), contamination and toxicity of sediment, structure of benthic and fish communities, and gross external pathology of fish. These data were used to quantify the condition of ecological resources in the entire province, as well as in three subgroups (small estuaries, large estuaries, major tidal rivers). Also characterized was the condition of ecological resources for four major estuarine systems within the province (Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, Hudson–Raritan system, Long Island Sound) and three tidal rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Potomac, Rappahannock, James). The data provide an unbiased baseline estimate of estuarine conditions in this province in the early 1990s. They should be useful in assessing long-term and broadscale questions such as global climate change, biodiversity, and environmental impacts.

D. Key words: estuaries; coastal systems; marine monitoring; environmental assessments; water quality;, sediment chemistry; benthic communities; demersal fish communities; estuarine pollution; biological indicators; Virginian Biogeographic Province, 1990–1993.

 

CLASS II. RESEARCH ORIGIN DESCRIPTORS

A. Overall project description: The Environment Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is a nationwide program initiated by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) in 1990. EMAP was developed in response to the demand for information about the degree to which existing pollution control programs and policies protect the nation's ecological resources.

The goal of EMAP is to monitor and assess the condition of the nation's ecological resources and thereby to contribute to decisions on environmental protection and management. EMAP has four objectives: (1) estimate the current status, trends, and changes in selected indicators of the condition of the nation's ecological resources on a regional basis with known confidence; (2) estimate the geographic coverage and extent of the nation's ecological resources with known confidence; (3) seek associations among selected indicators of natural and anthropogenic stress and indicators of ecological condition; and (4) provide annual statistical summaries and periodic assessments of the nation's ecological resources. EMAP can provide objective assessments of the severity and extent of environmental problems and the degree to which impacted resources are responding to efforts to protect or restore them.

B. Specific project description: Estuaries were selected as one of the first resources to be sampled by EMAP. Estuaries are among the most productive of ecological systems, provide feeding, spawning, and nursery habitats, and are part of migratory routes for many commercially and recreationally important fish and wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The public values estuarine ecosystems for recreation and aesthetic appeal. Estuaries are complex transition zones between streams, rivers, and coastal oceans. They have physical features that concentrate and retain pollutants, and they are repositories for the many pollutants released into the atmosphere and the nation's surface waters. The ecological condition of estuaries is influenced strongly by human activities in the watershed, particularly land use patterns and the release of pollutants to the environment. In many coastal regions, water and sediment quality and the abundance of living resources are perceived to have declined despite the implementation of pollution control programs.

EMAP identified boundaries for seven biogeographic provinces defined by NOAA and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service using major climatic zones and prevailing ocean currents (Bailey 1983, Terrell 1979). The Virginian Province (which covers approximately 23,573 km2 from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay at Cape Henry, Virginia, USA), was selected as the testing ground for the EMAP estuarine monitoring effort. Many estuaries in this Province have been investigated intensively and a considerable amount of information was available for designing the monitoring program. In addition, many management decisions were forthcoming, including development of a restoration plan for the New York Harbor complex and evaluating management plans for Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and Long Island Sound. This presented an opportunity to demonstrate how EMAP monitoring data could assist in the formulation of environmental programs and policies.

1. Objectives of research:

2. Site description: Random estuarine and coastal stations in the Virginian Biogeographic Province, northeast USA, from Cape Cod, Massachusetts south to Cape Henry, Virginia at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.

a. Site type: Estuarine and coastal waters.

b. Geography: The Virginian Biogeographic Province. It is composed of 23,574 km2 of estuaries, including 11,469 km2 in Chesapeake Bay and 3,344 km2 in Long Island Sound. Bounded by latitude 36 degrees, 49 minutes to 42 degrees, 09 minutes; longitude -77 degrees, 24 minutes to -69 degrees, 56 minutes.

c. Habitat: Subtidal marine bottom and water column.

d. Geology: Not applicable.

e. Watersheds, hydrology: Not applicable.

f. Site history: Not applicable.

g. Climate: Coastal northeastern USA.

3. Experimental or sampling design

a. Design characteristics: Estuaries were classified into three classes (or strata): large estuarine systems, small estuarine systems, and large tidal rivers (Holland 1990). Large estuarine systems are defined as systems having surface areas greater than 260 km2 and aspect ratios (length/average width) less than 18. Twelve large estuarine systems with a total surface area of 16,097 km2 or 68% of the Province's estuarine area met these criteria. Large tidal rivers, defined as systems having surface areas greater than 260 km2 and aspect ratios greater than 18, included the Hudson, Potomac, James, Delaware, and Rappahannock Rivers. These five tidal rivers have a total surface area of 2,601 km2 or 11% of the total Province area. Small estuarine systems are defined as systems having surface areas less than 260 km2 but greater than or equal to 2.6 km2 . There were 144 small estuarine systems with a total surface area of 4,875 km2 or 21% of the Province.

Sampling sites in the large estuarine class were selected using a randomly placed systematic grid (Holland 1990, Paul et al. 1992). The distance between the systematically spaced sampling points on the grid was approximately 18 km. The grid is an extension of the systematic EMAP grid (Overton et al. 1991). The center points of the grids are the sample sites. A linear analog of the systematic grid was used for site selection in the large tidal rivers (Holland 1990, Paul et al. 1992). The grid was used to define the spine of the five large tidal rivers, with a starting point at the river mouth. The first transect was randomly located between river kilometer 0 and 25. Additional transects were then placed every 25 km up the river to the head of tide. The 144 small estuarine systems were randomly selected from the entire list of small systems in the Province (Holland 1990, Paul et al. 1992). They were ordered from north to south by combining adjacent estuaries into groups of four. One estuary was selected randomly from each group without replacement for each of the four years of sampling. The location of the sample within each selected small system was randomly placed. Application of the sampling design to the three estuarine resource classes resulted in 446 potential sampling sites; however, 21 were unsampleable due to inadequate water depth or inaccessibility, so 425 sites were sampled over the four-year period (Fig. D1).

b. Permanent plots: Not applicable.

c. Data collection frequency: An index period (July–September) was chosen for estuarine sampling to represent that portion of the year when the measured ecological parameters are expected to show the maximum response to pollutant stress (Connell and Miller 1984, Sprague 1985); dissolved oxygen concentrations are lowest (Officer et al. 1984, USEPA 1984); fauna and flora are most abundant; and within-season variability is expected to be minimized. The Virginian Province survey was conducted annually, during the index period from 1990 through 1993. Generally, each station was visited once. Base Sampling Sites (BSS) are the probability-based sites that form the core of the monitoring design and are the basis of this data paper. Crews sampled 425 base stations during the index period over four years.

4. Research methods: An important aspect of the EMAP Virginian Province project was that the data were collected and processed with consistent methods. Field methods are documented in the Field Operations and Safety Manual (Reifsteck et al. 1993). Laboratory methods are given in the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual (USEPA 1995). A performance-based approach was used for chemical analyses, consistent with the approach used by the NOAA National Status & Trends Program (Valette-Silver 1992). All sampling was conducted from small (24-ft) vessels, except for fish sampling at deep-water stations (> 25m), which were collected from larger vessels.

a. Field/laboratory: Water column profiles for water quality parameters were collected using a SeaBird SBE-25 Sea Logger CTD. The unit was equipped with probes to measure salinity, temperature, depth, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), light transmission, fluorescence, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Water quality measurements were collected upon arrival at a sampling station; no effort was made to standardize for the time of day or stage of tide. The CTD was equilibrated at the sea surface, then lowered through the water column until reaching a depth of one meter above the bottom where the CTD was allowed to equilibrate again. The unit was then returned to the surface, where data were downloaded to an on-board computer for review and storage. If the CTD cast appeared unusual or failed quality control criteria, the cast was repeated. Beginning in 1991, a bottom water sample was collected, and the dissolved oxygen concentration determined with a YSI Model 58 DO meter. This measurement served as a check on the CTD probe as well as a back-up in case the CTD failed.

Three benthic samples, if possible, were collected using a stainless steel, Young-modified van Veen grab that sampled a surface area of 440 cm2. A small core (2-cm diameter) was collected from each grab for sediment grain size. The remaining sample was sieved through a 0.5-mm screen using a backwash technique that minimized damage to soft-bodied animals. Samples were preserved in 10% formalin-rose bengal solution and stored for at least 30 days prior to processing to assure proper fixation. In the laboratory, macrobenthic community samples were transferred from formalin to an ethanol solution and sorted. Biomass was measured for key taxa and all other taxa were grouped according to taxonomic type.

Fish were collected by trawling with a 15-m, high-rise otter trawl with a 2.5-cm mesh cod end. The net was towed for 10 minutes against the tide between 0.5 and 1.5 m/s (1–3 knots). All fish caught in the trawl were identified to species and counted; up to 30 individuals of a species from each collection were measured to the nearest millimeter. Individuals collected in standard trawls were inspected for gross external pathological disorders at all stations where fish were collected. This included checking body surface and fins for lumps, growths, ulcers, and fin erosion. Specimens with observed gross pathologies were preserved in Dietrich's solution for subsequent laboratory verification and histological examination.

An additional 6–10 sediment grabs at each station were taken for sediment chemistry and toxicity analyses. The top 2 cm of sediment was removed from each grab using a stainless steel spoon and thoroughly homogenized in a stainless steel pot. Sediment for chemistry analyses was placed in clean glass jars with Teflon liners or polypropylene containers (for organic and metals analyses, respectively), shipped on ice, and stored frozen in the laboratory prior to analysis for contaminants. Sediments were analyzed for 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, DDTs, 11 chlorinated pesticides, butyl tins, and 15 metals. The chemical analyte list is the same as used in the NOAA NS&T Program (NOAA 1992). An additional aliquot was placed in a small polyethylene bag and refrigerated for grain size analysis. The remainder of the composite sample (> 3,000 mL) was placed in a clean plastic jar for sediment toxicity testing.

Toxicity tests were performed on the composite sediment samples from each station using the standard 10-day acute test method (USEPA 1994, USEPA 1995) and the tube-dwelling amphipod Ampelisca abdita. Amphipods were exposed to sediment from the site for 10 d under static conditions in 1-L glass test chambers. Five replicates per station were tested with 20 amphipods per replicate. A performance control was run with each test, as was a water-only test using a reference toxicant (Cu or sodium dodecyl sulfate) to evaluate the condition of the test organisms. Eighty-five percent survival in the sediment control was required for a test to be valid. To normalize for test conditions and amphipod health, survival among treatments is expressed as percent of control survival.

Further descriptions of the methods used are given in the Near Coastal Program Plan (Holland 1990), the Virginian Province Implementation Plan (Schimmel 1990), the 1993 Virginian Province Field Operations and Safety Manual (Reifsteck et al. 1993), and the EMAP-Estuaries Laboratory Methods Manual (USEPA 1995).

b. Instrumentation: (See Reifsteck et al. 1993, USEPA 1995).

c. Taxonomy and systematics: Hundreds of species of benthic invertebrates and demersal fishes were captured and identified (see Reifsteck et al. 1993 and USEPA 1995 for taxonomic methods).

d. Permit history: (See Reifsteck et al. 1993).

e. Legal requirements: Clean Water Act.

5. Project personnel: (See Strobel et al. 1995).

6. Funding sources: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

 

CLASS III. DATA SET STATUS AND ACCESSIBILITY

A. Status

1. Latest update: The data span the period 1990–1993. Continuing studies were done in the southern portion of the Virginian Province (Chesapeake Bay to Delaware Bay) in 1997 and 1998 and the entire Virginian Province was sampled in 2000 and 2001. The 1997–1998 data are on the EMAP Web site (www.epa.gov/emap); the 2000 and 2001 data will be added.

2. Latest archive date: 2002.

3. Metadata status: The metadata are complete and up-to-date. (See www.epa.gov/emap).

4. Data verification: (See Rosen et al. 1990, Reifsteck et al. 1993, Valente and Strobel 1993).

B. Accessibility

1. Storage location and medium: (Ecological Society of America data archives (Ecological Archives), URL published in each issue of its journals). Also on EMAP Web site (www.epa.gov/emap). Original field data sheets, as well as more detailed data and ancillary data, are stored at the Atlantic Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, Rhode Island (RI), USA.

2. Contact person: Stephen S. Hale, Email: hale.stephen@epa.gov, Tel. 401-782-3048, Atlantic Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI, 02882, USA.

3. Copyright restrictions: None.

4. Proprietary restrictions:

a. Release data: None.

b. Citation: EMAP requests that all individuals who download EMAP data acknowledge the source of these data in any reports, papers, or presentations. Please include a statement similar to "Some or all of the data described in this article were produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)."

c. Disclaimer(s): None.

5. Costs: None.

 

CLASS IV. DATA STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Data set file

1. Identity: (See Data Files).

2. Size: (See Data Files).

3. Format type: ASCII. Also compressed with PKZIP to the files:

vp90_93_stations.zip (includes an ArcInfo export file, vp90-93_stations_coverage_e00.zip)
vp90_93_water_quality.zip
vp90_93_sediment.zip
vp90_93_benthic.zip
vp90_93_fish.zip

All data files are space-delimited (fixed columns). The two species lists are comma-delimited.

Each ASCII data file is accompanied by a specific metadata file in the NASA Directory Interchange Format (NASA 1991). Both ASCII and PDF versions are included.

4. Header information: All headers are at the top of the ASCII files.

5. Alphanumeric attributes: (See Data Files).

6. Special characters: (See Data Files).

7. Authentication procedures: (See Rosen et al. 1990, Reifsteck et al. 1993, Valente and Strobel 1993).

B. Variable information: Included at the beginning of the ASCII files and accompanying PDF metadata files. Indicators measured included:

Benthic Community
Total abundance
Species composition
Species diversity
Abundance by species
Percentage by taxonomic group
Biomass
Biomass by taxonomic group

Demersal Fish Community
Total abundance
Species composition
Species diversity
Abundance by species
Percentage by taxonomic group
Mean length by species

Gross Pathology
Type of disorder

Dissolved Oxygen
Instantaneous at sampling
Continuous for 24 h

Sediment Toxicity
Ampelisca abdita 10-d test

Sediment Contamination
23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
15 metals
15 pesticides
18 PCB congeners
Butyltins

Sediment Characterization
Grain size distribution
Acid volatile sulfides
Total organic carbon

C. Data anomalies: Reported in section 9.3 'Quality Assessment Results' on individual metadata files accompanying each data file. Also see annual statistical summaries listed in section V.C.

 

CLASS V. SUPPLEMENTAL DESCRIPTORS

A. Data acquisition

1. Data forms: Both paper and computer. (See Rosen et al. 1990, Reifsteck et al. 1993).

2. Location of completed field data forms: Atlantic Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI, USA.

3. Data entry/verification procedures: (See Rosen et al. 1990, Reifsteck et al. 1993, Valente and Strobel 1993). Each field crew was supplied with two portable computers and field computer software for electronic recording of the data and station location, data transfer, and sample tracking. All samples, shipments, and equipment were labeled with bar-coded labels for sample tracking to reduce transcription errors. Field computers were equipped with bar code readers to record sample identification numbers. Receiving laboratories were also equipped with bar code readers for receiving and to rapidly convey information concerning lost or damaged shipments.

Copies of all data entered into the field computer were stored on the hard disk and copied to diskettes. Information on the hard disk was transferred daily by modem to the Information Management Center at EPA, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA. Backup diskettes and hard-copy data sheets were shipped weekly to the Center.

All transferred data were examined within 24–48 h of collection. Errors were brought to the attention of the field crews for correction and resampling, if required. All electronic data were checked against paper data forms for verification (Rosen et al. 1990).

B. QA/QC procedures: Quality Assurance Project Plans were used so that the data collected would meet the EMAP data quality objectives (Valente et al. 1990, Valente and Schoenherr 1991, Valente et al. 1992, Valente and Strobel 1993). An accounting of the results of the EMAP Virginian Province QA Program is found in the 1990–1993 Quality Assurance Report (Strobel and Valente 1995). These plans addressed QA objectives, sampling procedures, sample custody, calibration procedures, analytical procedures, data verification and validation, internal quality control checks, performance and system audits, and preventive maintenance. Basic QA procedures were used to: (1) ensure that collection and measurement procedures were standardized among all participants, (2) monitor the performance of the various measurement systems to maintain statistical control and to provide rapid feedback so that corrective measures could be taken, and (3) verify that reported data were sufficiently complete, comparable, representative, unbiased, and precise so as to be suitable for the intended use. Each year prior to sampling, all crew members were required to attend an intensive 4–6 wk training course covering all aspects of sampling. Crews were also required to participate in 1 wk of "dry runs" prior to sampling. (See Strobel and Valente 1995 for further QA/QC information).

C. Related materials: EMAP Virginian Province data collection, processing, quality assurance, data results, and data management have been described by field manuals (Strobel 1990, Strobel and Schimmel 1991, Reifsteck et al. 1992, Reifsteck et al. 1993), quality assurance project plans (Valente et al. 1990, Valente and Schoenherr 1991, Valente et al. 1992, Valente and Strobel 1993), laboratory manuals (USEPA 1994, USEPA 1995), annual statistical summaries and reports (Weisberg et al. 1993, Schimmel et al. 1994, Strobel et al. 1994, Strobel et al. 1995, Paul et al. 1999), and information management plans (Rosen et al. 1990, Hale et al. 1998). Many of these are available on the EMAP Web site (www.epa.gov/emap).

D. Computer programs. Field computer program (Rosen et al. 1990). SAS data validation and analysis programs are held at EPA's Atlantic Ecology Division.

E. Archiving

1. Archival procedures: (See Hale et al. 1999).

2. Redundant archival sites:www.epa.gov/emap

F. Publications and results to 2002

Comeleo, R. L., J. F. Paul, P. V. August, J. Copeland, C. Baker, S. S. Hale, and R. L. Latimer. 1996. Relationships between watershed stressors and sediment contamination in Chesapeake Bay estuaries. Landscape Ecology 11:307–319.

Copeland, J., C. Smith, S. Hale, P. August, and R. Latimer. 1994. EPA program monitors U. S. coastal environments. GIS World 7:44–47.

Davis, W. R., A. F. J. Draxler, J. F. Paul, and J. J. Vitaliano. 1998. Benthic biological processes and Eh as a basis for a benthic index. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 51:259–268.

Fournie, J. W., J. K. Summers, and S. B. Weisberg. 1996. Prevalence of gross pathological abnormalities in estuarine fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125:581–590.

Frithsen, J. B., M. C. Fabrizio, J. Gerritsen, A. F. Holland, G. Saul, and S. B. Weisberg. 1991. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - example interpretive assessment report for estuaries. EPA/600/4-91/026. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Gentile, J. H., K. J. Scott, J. F. Paul, and R. A. Linthurst. 1994. An ecological risk assessment case study: The role of monitoring in ecological risk assessment: an EMAP example. Pages 5-1 to 5-40 in A review of ecological assessment case studies from a risk assessment perspective. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, USA.

Holland, A. F. 1990. Near Coastal Program Plan for 1990: Estuaries. EPA/600/4-90-033. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Holland, A. F., J. K. Summers, K. J. Scott, and J. F. Paul. 1991. Preliminary results of EMAP 1990 field sampling in estuaries. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 72:143.

Latimer, R. W., J. F. Paul, and J. S. Rosen. 1994. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: Availability of broadscale environmental data and opportunities for use in environmental modeling applications. Pages 1–12 in Estuarine and Coastal Modeling III. Proceedings of the ASCOE Symposium on State of the Art in Modeling, 3rd International Conference, Oak Brook, Illinois, USA.

Monaco, M. E., S. B. Weisberg, and T. A. Lowery. 1998. Summer habitat affinities of estuarine fish in US mid-Atlantic coastal systems. Fisheries Management and Ecology 5:161–172.

NOAA. 1991. A desktop information and mapping system for near coastal areas of the mid-Atlantic United States: Supporting EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Rockville, Maryland, USA.

O'Connor, T. P., K. D. Daskalakis, J. L. Hyland, J. F. Paul, and J. K. Summers. 1998. Comparisons of sediment toxicity with predictions based on chemical guidelines. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:468–471.

Paul, J. F., J. H. Gentile, K. J. Scott, S. C. Schimmel, D. E. Campbell, and R. W. Latimer. 1999. EMAP-Virginian Province four-year assessment (1990–1993). EPA/620/R-99/004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Paul, J. F., A. F. Holland, S. C. Schimmel, J. K. Summers, and K. J. Scott. 1990. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: An ecological status and trends program. Pages 71–78 in S. J. Diraly, F. A. Cross, and J. D. Buffington, editors. EPA/600/J-90/548. Volume 90, Federal Coastal Wetland Mapping Programs. Biological Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA.

Paul, J. F., A. F. Holland, K. J. Scott, D. A. Flemer, and E. P. Meier. 1989. Ecological status and trends program: EPA's approach to monitoring condition of the Nation's ecosystems. Pages 579–582 in Oceans '89 Proceedings: Ocean Pollution. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, New York, USA.

Paul, J. F., A. F. Holland, J. K. Summers, S. C. Schimmel, and K. J. Scott. 1991. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: an ecological status and trends program. EPA/600/D-91/250. Pages 80–98 in Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 1774.

Paul, J. F., A. F. Holland, K. J. Scott, D. A. Flemer, and E. P. Meier. 1989. EPA's approach to monitoring the condition of the nation's ecosystems. Pages 36–40 in Proceedings of the Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf of Mexico Research Coordination Information Transfer Workshop, MASGP 89-031. Department of Information Services, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi, USA.

Paul, J. F., A. F. Holland, R. M. Valente, K. J. Scott, S. C. Schimmel, and J. E. Pollard. 1990. Quality assurance aspects of EPA's Near Coastal ecological status and trends program. Pages 121–129 in Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Ecological Quality Assurance Workshop. Canada Centre for Inland Waters. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Paul, J. F., and G. E. Morrison. 1995. Watershed stressors and EMAP estuarine indicators for south shore Rhode Island. Pages 15–22 in Proceedings of the U.S. EPA Geographic Information Systems Conference, 1995.

Paul, J. F., K. J. Scott, D. E. Campbell, J. H. Gentile, C. S. Strobel, R. M. Valente, S. B. Weisberg, A. F. Holland, and J. A. Ranasinghe. 2001. Developing and applying a benthic index of estuarine condition for the Virginian Biogeographic Province. Ecological Indicators 1:83–99.

Paul, J. F., K. J. Scott, A. F. Holland, S. B. Weisberg, and J. K. Summers. 1992. Estuarine component of the U.S. EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. EPA/600/J-93/136. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Paul, J. F., K. J. Scott, A. F. Holland, S. B. Weisberg, J. K. Summers, and A. Robertson. 1992. The estuarine component of the US E.P.A.'s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Chemistry and Ecology 7:93–116.

Schimmel, S. C., B. D. Melzian, D. E. Campbell, C. J. Strobel, S. J. Benyi , J. S. Rosen, and H. W. Buffum. 1994. Statistical Summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province-1991. EPA/620/R-94/005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Schimmel, S. C., and C. J. Strobel. 1991. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Near Coastal Component: 1990 demonstration project field activities. EPA/600/99-90/028. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel, C. J., S. J. Benyi, D. J. Keith, H. W. Buffum, and E. A. Petrocelli. 1994. Statistical Summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province - 1992. EPA/620/R-94/019. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel, C. J., H. W. Buffum, S. J. Benyi, E. A. Petrocelli, D. R. Reifsteck, and D. J. Keith. 1995. Statistical Summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province - 1990 to 1993. EPA/620/R-94/026. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel, C. J., and R. M. Valente. 1995. Quality assurance report: EMAP-Virginian Province, 1990–1993. EPA/620/R-95/007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Summers, J. K., A. F. Holland, and J. F. Paul. 1990. Sampling design for the EMAP Near-Coastal Project. EPA/600/8-90/108. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Summers, J. K., J. F. Paul, and A. Robertson. 1995. Monitoring the ecological condition of estuaries in the United States. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 49:93–108.

USEPA [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]. 1995. EMAP-Estuaries laboratory methods manual, volume I - Biological and physical analyses. EPA/620/R-95/008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Weisberg, S. B., J. B. Frithsen, A. F. Holland, J. F. Paul, K. J. Scott, J. K. Summers, H. T. Wilson, R. M. Valente, D. G. Heimbuch, J. Gerritsen, S. C. Schimmel, and R. W. Latimer. 1993. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province 1990 Demonstration Project Report. EPA/620/R-93/006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Weisberg, S. B., P. Himchak, T. Baum, H. T. Wilson, and R. Allen. 1996. Temporal trends in abundance of fish in the tidal Delaware River. Estuaries 19:723–729.

Weisberg, S. B., H. T. Wilson, D. G. Heimbuch, H. L. Windom, and J. K. Summers. 1998. Comparison of sediment metal:aluminum relationships between the eastern and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 61:373–385.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

For this data paper, we drew heavily on text from Strobel et al. (1995) and Paul et al. (1999), which are on the EMAP Web site (www.epa.gov/emap). We wish to thank the two anonymous reviewers whose comments materially improved this paper. The work described in this document is a culmination of the efforts and dedication of dozens of individuals involved in the EMAP-Virginian Province study (detailed list in Strobel et al. 1995). The research described in this paper has been funded in part by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The paper has not been subjected to Agency review. Therefore, it does not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. This is contribution number AED-02-028 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island.

 

LITERATURE CITED

Bailey, R. G. 1983. Delineation of ecosystem regions. Environmental Management 7:365–373.

Connell, D. W., and G. J. Miller. 1984. Chemistry and ecotoxicology of pollution. John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.

Hale S. S., M. M. Hughes, J. F. Paul, R. S. McAskill, S. A. Rego, D. R. Bender, N. J. Dodge, T. L. Richter, and J. L. Copeland. 1998. Managing scientific data: the EMAP approach. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 51:429–440.

Hale, S. S., J. S. Rosen, D. Scott, J. F. Paul, and M. M. Hughes. 1999. EMAP information management plan: 1998-2001. EPA/620/R-99/001a. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

Holland, A. F. 1990. Near Coastal Program Plan for 1990: Estuaries. EPA/600/4-90-033. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Hunsaker, C. T., and D. E. Carpenter, editors. 1990. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program: ecological indicators. EPA/600/3-90/060. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC., USA.

NASA. 1991. Directory Interchange Format manual; version 4.0. National Space Science Data Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA.

NOAA. 1992. The National Status and Trends Program, marine environmental quality. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

NRC [National Research Council]. 1990. Managing troubled waters: the role of marine environmental monitoring. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Officer, C. B., R. B. Biggs, J. L. Taft, L. E. Cornin, M. A. Tyler, and W. R. Boynton. 1984. Chesapeake Bay anoxia: Origin, development, and significance. Science 223:22–27.

Overton, W. S., D. White and D. L. Stevens. 1991. Design report of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. EPA/600/3-91/053. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Paul, J. F., J. H. Gentile, K. J. Scott, S. C. Schimmel, D. E. Campbell, and R. W. Latimer. 1999. EMAP-Virginian Province four-year assessment (1990–1993). EPA/620/R-99/004.U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Paul, J. F., K. J. Scott, A. F. Holland, S. B. Weisberg, J. K. Summers, and A. Robertson. 1992. The estuarine component of the US E.P.A.'s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program. Chemistry and Ecology 7:93–116.

Reifsteck, D. R., C. J. Strobel, and D. J. Keith. 1993. EMAP-Estuaries 1993 Virginian Province field operations and safety manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Reifsteck, D. R., C. J. Strobel, and S. C. Schimmel. 1992. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) - Estuaries 1992, Virginian Province field operations and safety manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Rosen, J. S., J. Beaulieu, M. Hughes, H. Buffum, J. Copeland, R. Valente, J. Paul, F. Holland, S. Schimmel, C. Strobel, K. Summers, K. J. Scott, and J. Parker. 1990. Data base management system for coastal demonstration project. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Schimmel, S. C. 1990. Implementation plan for Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program Near Coastal demonstration project. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Schimmel, S. C., B. D. Melzian, D. E. Campbell, S. J. Benyi, J. S. Rosen, and H. W. Buffum. 1994. Statistical summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province - 1991. EPA/620/R-94/005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

SAB [Science Advisory Board]. 1988. Future risk: research strategies for the 1990s. The report of the Research Strategies Committee. Science Advisory Board, Washington, DC, USA.

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Strobel, C. J. 1990. EMAP-Near Coastal Component: 1990 Virginian Province demonstration project, field operations manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel, C. J., H. W. Buffum, S. J. Benyi, E. A. Petrocelli, D. R. Reifsteck, and D. J. Keith. 1994. Statistical Summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province - 1992. EPA/620/R-94/019. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel, C. J., H. W. Buffum, S. J. Benyi, E. A. Petrocelli, D. R. Reifsteck, and D. J. Keith. 1995. Statistical Summary: EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province, 1990–1993. EPA/620/R-94/026. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel C. J., and S. C. Schimmel. 1991. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program - Near Coastal Component: 1991 Virginian Province effort, field operations and safety manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Strobel, C. J. and R. M. Valente. 1995. Quality assurance report: EMAP-Virginian Province, 1990–1993. EPA/620/R-95/007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Terrell, T. T. 1979. Physical regionalization of coastal ecosystems of the United States and its territories. FWS/OBS-79/80. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC, USA.

USEPA [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]. 1984. Chesapeake Bay: A framework for action. Prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

USEPA [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]. 1994. Methods for assessing the toxicity of sediment-associated contaminants with estuarine and marine amphipods. EPA 600/R-94/025. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

USEPA [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency]. 1995. EMAP-Estuaries laboratory methods manual, volume I - biological and physical analyses. EPA/620/R-95/008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Valente, R., and J. Schoenherr. 1991. EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province quality assurance project plan. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Valente, R., and C. J. Strobel. 1993. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program-Estuaries: 1993 Virginian Province quality assurance project plan. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Valente, R., C. J. Strobel, J. E. Pollard, K. M. Peres, T. C. Chiang, and J. Rosen. 1990. Quality assurance project plan for EMAP Near Coastal: 1990 demonstration project. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Valente, R., C. J. Strobel, and S. C. Schimmel. 1992. EMAP-Estuaries Virginian Province 1992 quality assurance project plan. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA.

Valette-Silver, N. 1992. Elemental analyses in marine sediments and biological tissues. Quality Assurance Program: Summary 1985–1990. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 66. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Office of Ocean Resources Conservation and Assessment, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Weisberg, S. B., J. B. Frithsen, A. F. Holland, J. F. Paul, K. J. Scott, J. K. Summers, H. T. Wilson, D. G. Heimbuch, J. Gerritsen, S. C. Schimmel, and R. W. Latimer. 1993. Virginian Province demonstration project report, EMAP-Estuaries: 1990. EPA/620/R-93/006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC, USA.


Data Files

Data files are in ASCII format. Each data file is accompanied by a metadata file (in both ASCII and PDF formats). The structure for these metadata files is based on the NASA Directory Interchange Format (NASA 1991).

The file naming convention is vp(yr)_(type of data)_(details).(ext).

File extensions: ASCII - .txt; PDF - .pdf; compressed files - .zip

Data and metadata files have also been organized into the logical groups shown below and compressed with PKZIP. The file vp90_93_stations.zip also contains an ArcInfo export file
(vp90-93_stations_coverage_e00.zip) of all the station locations.

vp90_93_stations.zip
vp90_93_water_quality.zip
vp90_93_sediment.zip
vp90_93_benthic.zip
vp90_93_fish.zip

List of files follows.

vp90_93_stations.zip 137,000 bytes 17 file(s) 281,000 bytes

File

Type/description

Size (bytes)

# Records

vp90_stations_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1990 Station Location/Information

24,000

 

vp91_stations_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Station Location/Information

24,000

 

vp92_stations_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1992 Station Location/Information

24,000

 

vp93_stations_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1993 Station Location/Information

24,000

 

vp90_stations_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1990 Station Location/Information

25,000

 

vp91_stations_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Station Location/Information

25,000

 

vp92_stations_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1992 Station Location/Information

25,000

 

vp93_stations_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1993 Station Location/Information

25,000

 

vp90_station_loc_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Station Location

7,001

111

vp90_station_info_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Station Information

9,172

111

vp91_station_loc_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Station Location

6,402

101

vp91_station_info_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Station Information

8,392

101

vp92_station_loc_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Station Location

6,526

103

vp92_station_info_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Station Information

8,548

103

vp93_station_loc_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Station Location

6,937

110

vp93_station_info_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Station Information

9,094

110

vp90-93_stations_coverage
_e00.zip

ArcInfo coverage: Virginian Province 1990-93 Stations

21,924

 

 

vp90_93_water_quality.zip 172,000 bytes 20 file(s) 377,000 bytes

File

Type/description

Size (bytes)

# Records

vp90_surfacewater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Surface Water Quality

9,475

111

vp90_bottomwater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Bottom Water Quality

8,731

111

vp90_water_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1990 Water Quality Quality Assurance Codes

488

2

vp91_surfacewater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991Surface Water Quality

8,705

101

vp91_bottomwater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Bottom Water Quality

8,022

101

vp91_water_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1991 Water Quality Quality Assurance Codes

812

9

vp92_surfacewater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Surface Water Quality

8,859

103

vp92_bottomwater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Bottom Water Quality

8,163

103

vp92_water_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1992 Water Quality Assurance Codes

1,534

16

vp93_surfacewater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Surface Water Quality

9,398

110

vp93_bottomwater_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Bottom Water Quality

8,660

110

vp93_water_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1993 Water Quality Assurance Codes

628

5

vp90_water_quality_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1990 Water Quality Data

34,000

 

vp91_water_quality_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Water Quality Data

36,000

 

vp92_water_quality_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1992 Water Quality Data

34,000

 

vp93_water_quality_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1993 Water Quality Data

38,000

 

vp90_water_quality_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1990 Water Quality Data

36,000

 

vp91_water_quality_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Water Quality Data

39,000

 

vp92_water_quality_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1992 Water Quality Data

38,000

 

vp93_water_quality_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1993 Water Quality Data

38,000

 

 

vp90_93_benthic.zip 446,000 bytes 25 file(s) 1,670,000 bytes

File

Type/description

Size (bytes)

# Records

vp90_benthic_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1990 Benthic Community Data

31,000

 

vp91_benthic_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Benthic Community Data

33,000

 

vp92_benthic_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1992 Benthic Community Data

31,000

 

vp93_benthic_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1993 Benthic Community Data

32,000

 

vp90_benthic_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1990 Benthic Community Data

36,000

 

vp91_benthic_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Benthic Community Data

37,000

 

vp92_benthic_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1992 Benthic Community Data

36,000

 

vp93_benthic_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1993 Benthic Community Data

36,000

 

vp90_benthic_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1990 Benthic Species Abundance Data

28,000

 

vp91_benthic_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1991 Benthic Species Abundance Data

44,000

 

vp92_benthic_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1992 Benthic Species Abundance Data

28,000

 

vp93_benthic_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1993 Benthic Species Abundance Data

28,000

 

vp90_benthic_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1990 Benthic Species Abundance Data

31,000

 

vp91_benthic_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1991 Benthic Species Abundance Data

31,000

 

vp92_benthic_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1992 Benthic Species Abundance Data

30,000

 

vp93_benthic_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1993 Benthic Species Abundance Data

30,000

 

vp90-93_benthic_taxonomy.txt

Virginian Province 1990-93 Benthic Species List

98,484

 

vp90_benthic_species_abun_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1990 Benthic Species Abundance Data

278,326

3515

vp90_benthic_community_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1990 Benthic Community Data

11,075

111

vp91_benthic_species_abun_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1991 Benthic Species Abundance Data

264,659

3342

vp91_benthic_community_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1991 Benthic Community Data

10,155

101

vp92_benthic_species_abun_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1992 Benthic Species Abundance Data

244,751

3090

vp92_benthic_community_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1992 Benthic Community Data

10,339

103

vp93_benthic_species_abun_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1993 Benthic Species Abundance Data

260,393

3288

vp93_benthic_community_data.txt

Data: VA Province 1993 Benthic Community Data

10,983

110

 

vp90_93_fish.zip 310,000 bytes 30 file(s) 869,000 bytes

File

Type/description

Size (bytes)

# Records

vp90_fish_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1990 Fish Species Abundance Data

30,000

 

vp91_fish_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1991 Fish Species Abundance Data

23,000

 

vp92_fish_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1992 Fish Species Abundance Data

25,000

 

vp93_fish_species_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1993 Fish Species Abundance Data

28,000

 

vp90_fish_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1990 Fish Species Abundance Data

32,000

 

vp91_fish_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1991 Fish Species Abundance Data

22,000

 

vp92_fish_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1992 Fish Species Abundance Data

23,000

 

vp93_fish_species_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1993 Fish Species Abundance Data

29,000

 

vp91_fish_tissue_chemistry_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Tissue Chemistry Data

50,000

 

vp91_fish_tissue_chemistry_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Tissue Chemistry Data

39,000

 

vp90_fish_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1990 Fish Community Data

28,000

 

vp91_fish_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Community Data

23,000

 

vp92_fish_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1992 Fish Community Data

24,000

 

vp93_fish_community_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1993 Fish Community Data

27,000

 

vp90_fish_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1990 Fish Community Data

28,000

 

vp91_fish_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Community Data

22,000

 

vp92_fish_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1992 Fish Community Data

23,000

 

vp93_fish_community_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1993 Fish Community Data

27,000

 

vp90-93_fish_taxonomy.txt

Fish Species List for Virginian Province 1990-93

23,397

468

vp90_fish_species_abun_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Fish Species Abundance

35,390

440

vp90_fish_community_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Fish Community Abundance

4,698

111

vp90_fish_species_abun_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Species Abundance

38,313

477

vp91_fish_tissue_chem_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Tissue Chemistry

176,282

1887

vp91_chemisty_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1991: Chemistry QA Code Lookup Table

647

3

vp91_fish_community_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Fish Community Abundance

4,318

101

vp92_fish_species_abun_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Fish Species Abundance

37,602

468

vp92_fish_community_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Fish Community Abundance

4,394

103

vp93_fish_species_abun_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Fish Species Abundance

43,053

537

vp93_fish_community_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Fish Community Abundance

4,660

110

vp91_tissue_analytes.txt

Analyte Code Table: Virginian Province 1991 Tissue Chemistry

3,545

8

 

vp90_93_sediment.zip 620,000 bytes 41 file(s) 3,540,000 bytes

File

Type/description

Size (bytes)

# Records

vp90_sediment_chemistry_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Chemistry Data

47,000

 

vp91_sediment_chemistry_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Chemistry Data

43,000

 

vp92_sediment_chemistry_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Chemistry Data

43,000

 

vp93_sediment_chemistry_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Chemistry Data

43,000

 

vp90_sediment_chemistry_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Chemistry Data

56,000

 

vp91_sediment_chemistry_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Chemistry Data

54,000

 

vp92_sediment_chemistry_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Chemistry Data

56,000

 

vp93_sediment_chemistry_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Chemistry Data

57,000

 

vp90_sediment_grain_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Grain Data

27,000

 

vp91_sediment_grain_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Grain Data

24,000

 

vp92_sediment_grain_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Grain Data

24,000

 

vp93_sediment_grain_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Grain Data

24,000

 

vp90_sediment_grain_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Grain Data

29,000

 

vp91_sediment_grain_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Grain Data

24,000

 

vp92_sediment_grain_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Grain Data

24,000

 

vp93_sediment_grain_metadata.txt

Metadata text: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Grain Data

25,000

 

vp90_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1990 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

27,000

 

vp91_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1991 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

27,000

 

vp92_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1992 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

27,000

 

vp93_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.pdf

Metadata PDF: VA Province 1993 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

27,000

 

vp90_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1990 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

29,000

 

vp91_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1991 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

29,000

 

vp92_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1992 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

29,000

 

vp93_sediment_toxicity_test_metadata.txt

Metadata text: VA Province 1993 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

28,000

 

vp90_sediment_chemistry_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Chemistry Data

426,101

4675

vp90_sediment_toxicity_test_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

8,898

111

vp90_sediment_grain_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1990 Sediment Grain Data

9,085

111

vp90_sediment_chemistry_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1990: Chemistry QA Code Lookup Table

981

5

vp91_sediment_chemistry_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Chemistry Data

723,218

7940

vp91_sediment_toxicity_test_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

8,148

103

vp91_sediment_grain_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1991 Sediment Grain Data

8,325

103

vp91_sediment_chemistry_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1991: Chemistry QA Code Lookup Table

981

5

vp92_sediment_chemistry_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Chemistry Data

701,291

7699

vp92_sediment_toxicity_test_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

8,298

101

vp92_sediment_grain_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1992 Sediment Grain Data

8,477

101

vp92_sediment_chemistry_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1992: Chemistry QA Code Lookup Table

981

5

vp93_sediment_chemistry_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Chemistry Data

825,500

9064

vp93_sediment_toxicity_test_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Toxicity Test Data

8,823

111

vp93_sediment_grain_data.txt

Data: Virginian Province 1993 Sediment Grain Data

9,009

111

vp93_sediment_chemistry_qa_codes.txt

Virginian Province 1993: Chemistry QA Code Lookup Table

98

5

vp90-93_sediment_analyte.txt

Analyte Code Table: VA Province 1990-93 Sediment Chemistry

3,886

85


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