Ecological Archives A025-133-A1

Noam Levin, Salit Kark, and David Crandall. 2015. Where have all the people gone? Enhancing global conservation using night lights and social media. Ecological Applications 25:21532167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/15-0113.1

Appendix A. Tables of references for visitation statistics to protected areas in twelve countries; the number of geo-tagged Flickr photos globally when summed for land and sea areas, coastal and non-coastal areas, protected and unprotected areas, as well as for three night-light intensity levels; the three most visited protected areas in 40 selected countries, according to the total number of Flickr photos; the three most popular protected areas in 40 selected countries according to Flickr; the three most photographed protected areas in 40 selected countries according to Flickr based on the most photographed grid cell within them; the three most popular protected areas shown for 40 selected countries according to Flickr; the three most impacted protected areas in 40 selected countries based on the average of the percentage of lit area and the percentage area with photographers; and the three most impacted protected areas in 40 selected countries based on the average of the percentage of lit area and the percentage area with photographers.

Table A1. References for visitation statistics to protected areas in twelve countries. Visitation data period shows the years for which the data on number of visitors per park were collected for each country based on the source listed below.

Country

Visitation data period

Source (reference)

Website

Argentina

2000–2004

Zimmermann, 2006

http://www.terrabrasil.org.br/noticias/materias/visitacao.pdf

Australia (Queensland)

2012

QPWS, 2012

http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/managing/pdf/community-survey-exec.pdf

Australia (Victoria)

2011

Parks Victoria, 2011

http://www.enviroactive.com.au/sites/default/files/docs/
Parks-Victoria-Visitation-Data.xls

Brazil

2000–2005

Zimmermann, 2006

http://www.terrabrasil.org.br/noticias/materias/visitacao.pdf

Canada

2008/9 – 2012/13

Parks Canada, 2013

http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/docs/pc/attend/table3.aspx

Chile

2012

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas, 2013

http://www.ine.cl/canales/menu/publicaciones/calendario_de_publicaciones/
pdf/informe_anual_turismo_2012.pdf

Ecuador

1999-2003

Zimmermann, 2006

http://www.terrabrasil.org.br/noticias/materias/visitacao.pdf

Kenya

2008, 2009

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2014

https://www.opendata.go.ke/-Environment-And-Natural-Resources/
Visitors-To-Parks-And-Game-Reserves-By-Park-And-Ye/cd8y-h54z

Nepal

2008–2012

Nepal, 2013

http://www.tourism.gov.np/uploaded/TourrismStat2012.pdf

New Zealand

2010–2012

New Zealand, 2014

http://www.doc.govt.nz/about-doc/role/
visitor-statistics-and-research/national-parks-visitor-statistics/

South Africa

2010, 2011

SAN Parks, 2011

http://sanparks.org/assets/docs/general/annual-report-2011.pdf

The United Kingdom

2009

UK, 2014

http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk/learningabout/whatisanationalpark/
factsandfigures

USA

2010

NPS, 2011

http://nature.nps.gov/socialscience/docs/puso_abstract_2010.pdf

 

Table A2. The number of geo-tagged Flickr photos globally when summed for land and sea areas, coastal and non-coastal areas, protected and unprotected areas, as well as for three night-light intensity levels, including: dark areas, lit areas (DMSP brightness values (L < 15) and brightly lit areas (DMSP brightness values (L >15). Coastal areas were defined as being within 5 km of the coastline.

 

L = 0

0 < L ≤ 15

L > 15

Grand Total

Land

 5,467,947

 23,725,390

 142,205,570

 171,398,907

 Non-coastal

 4,735,890

 19,262,960

 103,127,110

 127,125,960

  Unprotected

 2,129,230

 13,671,500

 98,496,600

 114,297,330

  Protected

 2,606,660

 5,591,460

 4,630,510

 12,828,630

 Coastal

 732,057

 4,462,430

 39,078,460

 44,272,947

  Unprotected

 344,356

 2,759,180

 36,544,200

 39,647,736

  Protected

 387,701

 1,703,250

 2,534,260

 4,625,211

Marine

 1,238,517

 3,375,323

 11,312,047

 15,925,887

 Coastal

 743,101

 3,321,180

 10,580,660

 14,644,941

  Unprotected

 385,910

 2,065,180

 9,055,640

 11,506,730

  Protected

 357,191

 1,256,000

 1,525,020

 3,138,211

 Non coastal

 495,416

 54,143

 731,387

 1,280,946

  Unprotected

 467,218

 44,293

 713,332

 1,224,843

  Protected

 28,198

 9,850

 18,055

 56,103

Grand Total

 6,706,464

 27,100,713

 153,517,617

 187,324,794


 

L = 0

0 < L ≤ 15

L > 15

Grand Total

Land

2.92%

12.67%

75.91%

91.50%

 Non-coastal

2.53%

10.28%

55.05%

67.86%

  Unprotected

1.14%

7.30%

52.58%

61.02%

  Protected

1.39%

2.98%

2.47%

6.85%

 Coastal

0.39%

2.38%

20.86%

23.63%

  Unprotected

0.18%

1.47%

19.51%

21.17%

  Protected

0.21%

0.91%

1.35%

2.47%

Marine

0.66%

1.80%

6.04%

8.50%

 Coastal

0.40%

1.77%

5.65%

7.82%

  Unprotected

0.21%

1.10%

4.83%

6.14%

  Protected

0.19%

0.67%

0.81%

1.68%

 Non coastal

0.26%

0.03%

0.39%

0.68%

  Unprotected

0.25%

0.02%

0.38%

0.65%

  Protected

0.02%

0.01%

0.01%

0.03%

Grand Total

3.58%

14.47%

81.95%

100.00%

 

Table A3. The three most visited protected areas (> 25 km²) in 40 selected countries, according to the total number of Flickr photos. Larger protected areas will have larger values. For number of photos standardized by area size of each protected area see Table A3. Names of all protected areas are based on the World Database of Protected Areas (http://www.protectedplanet.net/).

Continent

Country

# 1 most photographed

# 2 most photographed

# 3 most photographed

Name

# Flickr photos

Name

# Flickr photos

Name

# Flickr photos

North America

Canada

Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks

 127,974

Algonquin

 17,124

Fraser River Delta

 13,867

North America

Mexico

Cabo San Lucas

 36,450

Costa Occidental de Isla Mujeres Punta Cancún y Punta Nizuc

 14,570

Arrecife de Puerto Morelos

 8,578

North America

United States

Yosemite

 175,169

Grand Canyon

 140,690

Florida Keys

 139,718

Central America

Costa Rica

Manuel Antonio

 12,461

Arenal

 7,227

Gandoca-Manzanillo (mixto)

 2,310

South America

Argentina

Los Glaciares

 17,821

Nahuel Huapi

 16,371

Iguazu

 13,902

South America

Brazil

Lago de Sobradinho

 19,460

Parati-Mirim

 13,413

Lago do Paranoá

 13,284

South America

Chile

Rapa Nui

 14,642

Torres del Paine

 12,131

Bosques Templados Lluviosos

 4,943

South America

Peru

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

 48,754

Lago Titicaca (Peruvian sector)

 18,813

Huascarán

 2,882

Europe

France

Vanoise

 72,218

Ballons des Vosges

 50,849

Baie du Mont Saint-Michel

 40,428

Europe

Germany

Rhein- Ahr-Eifel

 59,382

Niederlausitzer Landrücken

 51,600

Unteres Saaletal

 46,624

Europe

Greece

Antichasia Ori Kai Meteora

 8,516

Oros Parnassos

 7,395

Lefka Ori Kai Paraktia Zoni

 4,985

Europe

Italy

Santuario per i Mammiferi Marini

 189,041

Laguna di Venezia

 117,403

Cinque Terre

 37,847

Europe

Russian Federation

Lake Baikal

 6,539

Vladivostokskiy

 5,263

Prielbrus'e

 1,673

Europe

Spain

Albufera de Valencia

 55,474

Montserrat-Roques Blanques-riu Llobregat

 17,901

Montes y cumbre de Tenerife

 17,534

Europe

Switzerland

Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch

 25,708

Neuland

 22,792

Vierwaldstättersee mit Kernwald Bürgenstock & Rigi

 17,172

Europe

United Kingdom

Lake District

 191,435

South Downs

 184,735

Peak District

 169,523

Asia

Bangladesh

Sundarbans Reserved Forest

 324

Bhawal

 186

Kaptai

 97

Asia

China

Dianchi

 12,023

Mount Huangshan

 8,821

Jiuzhaigou

 5,801

Asia

India

Ranthambore

 3,892

Western Ghats

 3,322

Rajaji

 2,857

Asia

Indonesia

Muara Angke

 7,683

Bromo Tengger Semeru

 4,649

Bunaken (Laut)

 4,452

Asia

Israel

Mount Meron

 1,313

Mount Carmel

 1,249

Judean Desert

 1,149

Asia

Japan

Seto - Naikai

 43,999

Okinawa Kaigan

 27,419

Fuji-Hakone-Izu

 23,180

Asia

Kazakhstan

Alma-Atinskiy

 357

Ele Alatau

 279

Kokshetau

 134

Asia

Nepal

Sagarmatha (Everest)

 14,960

Annapurna

 14,832

Makalu-Barun

 2,735

Asia

Pakistan

K2

 297

Cholistan

 112

Indus River

 101

Asia

South Korea

Baekdudaegan Mountains Reserve

 3,023

Mount Sorak

 2,395

Bukhansan

 1,382

Asia

Taiwan

Kenting

 50,349

Yangmingshan

 45,170

Taroko

 33,134

Asia

Turkey

Göreme

 23,943

Bogazkoy-Alacahoyuk

 782

Lake Uluabat

 266

Africa

Algeria

Tassili N'Ajjer

 1,059

Djurdjura

 13

El Kala

 11

Africa

Congo DRC

Virunga

 878

N'Sele

 205

Gangala-na Bodio

 133

Africa

Egypt

Ras Mohammed

 33,359

Nabq

 9,207

Abu Gallum

 4,371

Africa

Ethiopia

Murle

 614

Awash

 448

Simien

 321

Africa

Gabon

Lopé National Park

 98

Plateaux Batéké

 9

Ivindo

 7

Africa

Kenya

Masai Mara

 12,111

Lake Nakuru

 7,926

Tsavo West

 3,478

Africa

Nigeria

Jere

 26

Yankari

 21

Madalla

 15

Africa

South Africa

Table Mountain

 26,822

Kruger

 21,851

Cape Floral Region Protected Areas

 21,763

Africa

Tanzania

Ngorongoro

 17,186

Kilimanjaro

 12,191

Serengeti

 11,535

Oceania

Australia

Great Barrier Reef

 61,616

Mornington Peninsula & Western Port

 27,491

Moreton Bay

 27,211

Oceania

New Zealand

Te Wahipounamu û South West New Zealand

 72,003

Tongariro

 14,742

Arthurs Pass

4,766

Oceania

Papua New Guinea

Paga Hill

 769

Wewak Peace Memorial Park

 153

Kokoda Memorial Park

 77

 

Table A4. The three most popular protected areas (> 25 km²) in 40 selected countries according to Flickr (mean number of photos within the all the grid cells of a protected area). Names of all protected areas are based on the World Database of Protected Areas.

Continent

Country

# 1 most photographed

# 2 most photographed

# 3 most photographed

Name

Mean # of photos

Name

Mean # of photos

Name

Mean # of photos

North America

Canada

Upper Canada Migratory Bird Sanctuary

 113.87

Cypress

 93.36

Mount Seymour

 87.36

North America

Mexico

Cabo San Lucas

 867.86

Costa Occidental de Isla Mujeres Punta Cancún y Punta Nizuc

 194.27

Arrecife de Puerto Morelos

 107.23

North America

United States

Mount Tamalpais

 613.52

Mugu Lagoon to Latigo Point

 437.81

Yosemite

 387.13

Central America

Costa Rica

Arenal

 71.55

Cabo Blanco

 61.09

Pya Hermosa -Pta Mala

 39.88

South America

Argentina

Iguazu

 26.58

Litoral Chaqueño

 10.27

Nahuel Huapi 2

 10.27

South America

Brazil

Tijuca

 295.89

Parati-Mirim

 163.57

Lago do Paranoá

 96.96

South America

Chile

Rapa Nui

 128.44

Valle de La Luna y parte de la Sierra de Orbate

 27.11

El Morado

 11.03

South America

Peru

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

 156.77

Isla Ballestas Norte, Centro y Sur

 21.33

Titicaca

 11.90

Europe

France

Vallee de l'Epte Francilienne et ses Affluents

 360.95

Chambord

 149.50

Le Gardon et ses Gorges

 86.88

Europe

Germany

Grunewald

 367.03

Seulingswald

 336.13

Bergstraße - Mitte

 321.84

Europe

Greece

Limni Ioanninon

 72.60

Dytika Asterousia (apo Agiofarango Eos Kokkino Pyrgo)

 57.48

Chersonisos Gramvoussas Kai Nisides Imeri Kai Agria Gramvoussa Pontikonisi

 52.15

Europe

Italy

Cinque Terre

 742.10

Valle del Lambro

 724.08

Parco Regionale Bacino Fiume Sarno

 568.41

Europe

Russian Federation

Vladivostokskiy

 15.57

Plescheevo Ozero

 13.22

Losiny Ostrov

 5.58

Europe

Spain

Sebadales de Playa del Inglés

 496.64

Albufera de Valencia

 252.15

Montserrat-Roques Blanques-riu Llobregat

 223.76

Europe

Switzerland

Les Grangettes

 243.21

Ruin'Aulta

 132.27

Pilatus

 104.03

Europe

United Kingdom

Causeway Coast

 476.56

Sussex

 366.17

Thanet Coast

 288.45

Asia

Bangladesh

Bhawal

 2.24

Kaptai

 1.94

Chimbuk

 0.59

Asia

China

Guangfu

 163.00

Sanya Coral Reef

 85.03

Mount Huangshan

 58.03

Asia

India

Keoladeo

 58.28

Sanjay Gandhi

 26.94

Bannerghatta

 19.54

Asia

Indonesia

Muara Angke

 284.56

Batukau I/II/III

 25.09

Bromo Tengger Semeru

 10.54

Asia

Israel

Mount Carmel

 43.07

Gan Hapsalim

 17.78

Mount Meron

 15.63

Asia

Japan

Okinawa Kaigan

 43.52

Fuji-Hakone-Izu

 30.10

Hida - Kisogawa

 15.59

Asia

Kazakhstan

Alma-Atinskiy

 0.45

Kokshetau

 0.16

Ele Alatau

 0.08

Asia

Nepal

Sagarmatha (Everest)

 14.43

Phulchoki

 10.90

Royal Chitwan

 3.02

Asia

Pakistan

Kot Zabzai

 0.77

Margalla Hills

 0.26

Head Islam/Chak Kotora

 0.26

Asia

South Korea

Bukhansan

 17.72

Seoraksan

 12.31

Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes

 10.90

Asia

Taiwan

Yangmingshan

 410.64

North Coast

 222.59

Kenting

 182.42

Asia

Turkey

Göreme and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia

 221.48

Bogazkoy-Alacahoyuk

 30.08

Altindere Valley

 4.02

Africa

Algeria

Lac Oubeïra

 0.08

Djurdjura

 0.08

Lac des Oiseaux

 0.03

Africa

Congo DRC

N'Sele

 7.59

Virunga

 0.14

Yangambi

 0.06

Africa

Egypt

Ras Mohammed

 46.72

Nabq

 19.97

Abu Gallum

 11.24

Africa

Ethiopia

Simien

 3.00

Arba-Minch

 2.13

Awash

 0.74

Africa

Gabon

Lopé -Okanda

 0.02

Pongara

 0.01

Plateaux Batéké

 0.01

Africa

Kenya

Lake Nakuru

 54.60

Loitokitok

 24.21

Nairobi

 15.63

Africa

Nigeria

Madalla

 0.60

Jere

 0.37

Otamiri River

 0.07

Africa

South Africa

Table Mountain

 98.25

Robberg

 29.83

Lourens River

 24.51

Africa

Tanzania

Kilimanjaro

 18.10

Lake Manyara

 13.57

Mount Meru

 8.95

Oceania

Australia

Noosa

 120.42

Barron Gorge

103.92

Jenolan

 92.45

Oceania

New Zealand

Tongariro

 17.63

Westland Tai Poutini

 13.15

Abel Tasman

 12.90

Oceania

Papua New Guinea

Paga Hill

 4.75

Wewak Peace Memorial Park

 0.95

Kokoda Memorial Park

 0.48

 

Table A5. The three most photographed protected areas (> 25 sq. km) in 40 selected countries according to Flickr based on the most photographed grid cell within them. Names of all protected areas are based on the World Database of Protected Areas.

Continent

Country

# 1 most photographed

# 2 most photographed

# 3 most photographed

Name

Maximum # photos

Name

Maximum # photos

Name

Maximum # photos

North America

Canada

Banff

 9,760

Fraser River Delta

 2,189

Jasper

 2,104

North America

Mexico

Cabo San Lucas

 13,264

Costa Occidental de Isla Mujeres Punta Cancún y Punta Nizuc

 7,778

Arrecife de Puerto Morelos

 2,187

North America

United States

Florida Keys

 37,167

Black Rock Desert-High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails

 31,552

Grand Canyon

 23,877

Central America

Costa Rica

Manuel Antonio

 3,722

Marino Ballena

 921

Ostional (estatal)

 892

South America

Argentina

Iguazu

 9,240

Nahuel Huapi 2

 2,402

Los Glaciares

 2,254

South America

Brazil

Lago de Sobradinho

 17,080

Parati-Mirim

 9,874

Tijuca

 6,982

South America

Chile

Rapa Nui

 2,263

Bosques Templados Lluviosos

 504

Fundo Yerba Loca

 463

South America

Peru

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

 27,806

Lago Titicaca (Peruvian sector)

 1,302

Manú

 1,075

Europe

France

Baie du Mont Saint-Michel

 30,294

Chambord

 9,131

Garonne Ariège Hers Salat Pique et Neste

 8,058

Europe

Germany

Ackerhügelland westlich Erfurt mit Fahnerscher Höhe

 36,431

Niederlausitzer Landrücken

 17,767

Weserbergland - Kaufunger Wald

 17,752

Europe

Greece

Oros Parnassos

 2,984

Antichasia Ori Kai Meteora

 1,528

Ymittos - Aisthitiko Dasos Kaisarianis - Limni Vouliagmenis

 1,294

Europe

Italy

Laguna di Venezia

 47,578

Valle del Lambro

 17,201

Parco Regionale Bacino Fiume Sarno

 16,627

Europe

Russian Federation

Vladivostokskiy

 1,212

Pribaikalsky

 611

Ugra

 294

Europe

Spain

Albufera de Valencia

 31,923

Montserrat-Roques Blanques-riu Llobregat

 6,509

Costes del Garraf

 5,557

Europe

Switzerland

Les Grangettes

 7,672

Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch

 6,431

Pilatus

 2,356

Europe

United Kingdom

Sussex Downs

 27,513

Peak District

 11,021

North Wessex Downs

 9,768

Asia

Bangladesh

Bhawal

 60

Kaptai

 60

Sundarban South

 33

Asia

China

Dianchi

 1,561

Guangfu

 1,486

Laoshan

 1,211

Asia

India

Ranthambore

 1,016

Gautala

 926

Bannerghatta

 772

Asia

Indonesia

Muara Angke

 3,761

Batukau I/II/III

 1,517

Bromo Tengger Semeru

 1,020

Asia

Israel

Mount Carmel

 372

Mount Meron

 261

Judean Desert

 218

Asia

Japan

Seto - Naikai

 9,064

Okinawa Kaigan

 8,086

Hakusan

 6,159

Asia

Kazakhstan

Kokshetau

 120

Ele Alatau

 115

Alma-Atinskiy

 61

Asia

Nepal

Annapurna

 1,033

Sagarmatha (Everest)

 1,000

Royal Chitwan

 579

Asia

Pakistan

Cholistan

 98

Kot Zabzai

 69

K2

 35

Asia

South Korea

Seoraksan

 596

Gyeongju

 455

Baekdudaegan

 452

Asia

Taiwan

Kenting

 7,893

Yangmingshan

 6,486

Taroko

 4,607

Asia

Turkey

Göreme and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia

 2,403

Bogazkoy-Alacahoyuk

 261

Lake Uluabat

 161

Africa

Algeria

Tassili n'Ajjer

 200

Djurdjura

 5

Lac des Oiseaux

 3

Africa

Congo DRC

N'Sele

 139

Gangala-na Bodio

 133

Virunga

 118

Africa

Egypt

Nabq

 3,727

Ras Mohammed

 2,115

St. Catherine

 954

Africa

Ethiopia

Abijatta-Shalla Lakes

 198

Awash

 189

Murle

 168

Africa

Gabon

Ecosystem and Relict Cultural Landscape of Lopé -Okanda

 58

Plateaux Batéké

 7

Ivindo

 6

Africa

Kenya

Tsavo West

 868

Mombasa (marine reserve)

 812

Lake Nakuru

 675

Africa

Nigeria

Jere

 26

Yankari

 17

Gashaka-Gumti

 11

Africa

South Africa

Table Mountain

 6,105

Kruger

 1,390

Kwandwe

 645

Africa

Tanzania

Kilimanjaro

 1,706

Ngorongoro

 1,542

Selous

 890

Oceania

Australia

Uluru-Kata Tjuta

 6,411

Great Barrier Reef

 5,523

Moreton Bay

 5,025

Oceania

New Zealand

Fiordland

 3,304

Westland

 1,738

Paparoa

 1,622

Oceania

Papua New Guinea

Paga Hill

 127

Kokoda Memorial Park

 49

Wewak Peace Memorial Park

 34

 

Table A6. The three most popular protected areas (> 25 sq. km) shown for 40 selected countries according to Flickr (the total number of photos in non-lit areas (L < 15) is presented for each country).

Continent

Country

# 1 most photographed

# 2 most photographed

# 3 most photographed

Name

Photos in non-lit areas

Name

Photos in non-lit areas

Name

Photos in non-lit areas

North America

Canada

Banff

 52,808

Jasper

 19,757

Algonquin

 17,124

North America

Mexico

Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California

 4,803

Sian Ka'an

 3,841

Arrecifes de Cozumel

 3,631

North America

United States

Yosemite

 175,169

Grand Canyon

 140,690

Yellowstone

 122,073

Central America

Costa Rica

Manuel Antonio

 12,461

Arenal

 7,227

Gandoca-Manzanillo (mixto)

 2,310

South America

Argentina

Los Glaciares

 16,986

Iguazu

 13,816

Nahuel Huapi 1

 7,058

South America

Brazil

Lago de Sobradinho

 17,366

Iguaçu

 7,492

Baleia Franca

 5,840

South America

Chile

Rapa Nui

 14,642

Torres del Paine

 12,131

Bosques Templados Lluviosos

 4,943

South America

Peru

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

 48,754

Lago Titicaca (Peruvian sector)

 11,673

Huascarán

 2,882

Europe

France

Loire Anjou Touraine

 23,861

Verdon

 23,233

Luberon

 21,383

Europe

Germany

Rhein-Ahr-Eifel

 46,711

Ackerhügelland westlich Erfurt mit Fahnerscher Höhe

 36,792

Unteres Saaletal

 20,922

Europe

Greece

Lefka Ori Kai Paraktia Zoni

 4,985

Ethniko Thalassio Parko Alonnisou - Voreion Sporadon & Anatoliki Skopelos

 3,892

Oros Parnassos

 3,123

Europe

Italy

Santuario per i Mammiferi Marini

 66,534

Cinque Terre

 37,847

The Dolomites

 18,400

Europe

Russian Federation

Lake Baikal

 5,914

Prielbrus'e

 1,673

Golden Mountains of Altai

 1,364

Europe

Spain

Montes y Cumbre de Tenerife

 17,035

Teide

 13,869

Cabo de Gata-Nijar

 12,559

Europe

Switzerland

Swiss Alps Jungfrau-Aletsch

 23,785

Vierwaldstõttersee mit Kernwald Bürgenstock und Rigi

 9,693

Oberengadiner Seenlandschaft und Berninagruppe

 5,873

Europe

United Kingdom

Lake District

 174,599

Peak District

 144,474

Cotswolds

 109,563

Asia

Bangladesh

Sundarbans

 324

Bhawal

 183

Kaptai

 97

Asia

China

Mount Huangshan

 8,029

Jiuzhaigou

 5,448

Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan

 3,944

Asia

India

Ranthambore

 3,523

Western Ghats

 3,322

Nanda Devi

 2,572

Asia

Indonesia

Bromo Tengger Semeru

 4,649

Bunaken (Laut)

 4,449

Komodo

 3,329

Asia

Israel

Judean Desert

 1,129

Mazuq HaZinnim

 576

Massiv Elat

 315

Asia

Japan

Seto - Naikai

 23,739

Chubu - Sangaku

 19,527

Hakusan

 12,045

Asia

Kazakhstan

Alma-Atinskiy

 357

Kokshetau

 134

Ele Alatau

 87

Asia

Nepal

Sagarmatha (Everest)

 14,960

Annapurna

 14,832

Makalu-Barun

 2,735

Asia

Pakistan

K2

 297

Cholistan

 110

Khunjerab

 95

Asia

South Korea

Baekdudaegan

 2,417

Mount Sorak

 2,279

Jeju Island

 1,122

Asia

Taiwan

Taroko

 33,134

Kenting

 23,348

Northeast Coast

 13,792

Asia

Turkey

Göreme

 2,324

Bogazkoy-Alacahoyuk

 782

Lake Uluabat

 266

Africa

Algeria

Tassili N'Ajjer

 649

Djurdjura

 13

El Kala

 8

Africa

Congo DRC

Virunga

 666

Gangala-na Bodio

 133

Yangambi

 111

Africa

Egypt

Ras Mohammed

 7,328

St. Catherine

 3,794

Nabq

 2,190

Africa

Ethiopia

Murle

 614

Awash

 448

Simien

 321

Africa

Gabon

Lopé

 98

Plateaux Batéké

 9

Ivindo

 7

Africa

Kenya

Masai Mara

 12,111

Lake Nakuru

 7,926

Tsavo West

 3,478

Africa

Nigeria

Jere

 26

Yankari

 21

Gashaka-Gumti

 11

Africa

South Africa

Kruger

 21,781

Table Mountain

 10,189

Cape Floral Region Protected Areas

 5,814

Africa

Tanzania

Ngorongoro

 17,186

Kilimanjaro

 12,191

Serengeti

 11,535

Oceania

Australia

Great Barrier Reef

 43,096

Uluru-Kata Tjuta

 23,493

Mornington Peninsula & Western Port

17,171

Oceania

New Zealand

Te Wahipounamu û South West New Zealand

 72,003

Tongariro

 14,742

Arthurs Pass

4,766

Oceania

Papua New Guinea

Wewak Peace Memorial Park

 153

Kokoda Memorial Park

 77

Kamiali

 15

 

Table A7. The three most impacted protected areas (> 25 sq. km) in 40 selected countries based on the average of the % of lit area (> 15) and the % area with photographers; Protected areas near metropolitan areas are often the most impacted (e.g., Topanga State Park, near Los Angles, USA).

Continent

Country

# 1 most photographed

# 2 most photographed

# 3 most photographed

Name

% impact

Name

% impact

Name

% impact

North America

Canada

Mer Bleue

 86.4%

Cypress

 80.6%

Lac Saint - Louis (Center du lac)

 64.3%

North America

Mexico

Ejidos de Xochimilco y San Gregorio Atlapulco

 92.9%

Manglares de Nichupte

 75.7%

Sierra de Guadalupe

 66.7%

North America

United States

Topanga

 96.1%

Cuyahoga Valley

 95.8%

San Francisco Bay

 94.6%

Central America

Costa Rica

Cabo Blanco

 40.9%

Arenal

 34.7%

Estero Puntarenas y Manglares

 33.8%

South America

Argentina

Litoral Chaqueño

 65.4%

Campo General Belgrano

 44.7%

Punta Lara

 42.8%

South America

Brazil

Tijuca

 95.8%

Serra dos Pretos Forros

 95.7%

Lago do Paranoá

 91.6%

South America

Chile

Rapa Nui

 43.9%

Isla Mocha

 28.3%

La Campana

 28.3%

South America

Peru

Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu

 26.2%

Ancón

 14.1%

Isla Ballestas Norte Centro y Sur

 13.3%

Europe

France

Marais salants de Guérande traicts du Croisic et dunes de Pen-Bron

 88.9%

Estuaire de la Rance

 82.3%

Chaine de l'Etoile- Massif du Garlaban

 77.4%

Europe

Germany

Grunewald

 98.8%

GrünGürtel und Grünzüge in der Stadt Frankfurt am Main

 97.8%

Hessische Mainauen

 97.1%

Europe

Greece

Ymittos - Aisthitiko Dasos Kaisarianis - Limni Vouliagmenis

 85.2%

Oros Ymittos

 82.5%

Vravrona - Paraktia Thalassia Zoni

 81.5%

Europe

Italy

Valle del Lambro

 100%

Colle San Bartolo e litorale pesarese

 98.9%

Appia Antica

 96.9%

Europe

Russian Federation

Losiny Ostrov

 70.1%

Plescheevo Ozero

 49.4%

Southern coast of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea)

 37.5%

Europe

Spain

Serra de Collserola

 96.0%

Font Groga

 95.4%

Montgó

 95.2%

Europe

Switzerland

Albiskette-Reppischtal

 93.5%

Reusslandschaft

 80.5%

Glaziallandschaft Zwischen Lorzentobel und Sihl Höhronenkette

 78.0%

Europe

United Kingdom

Thames Basin Heaths

 97.1%

Sefton Coast

 96.7%

Cannock Chase

 92.8%

Asia

Bangladesh

Bhawal

 15.1%

Chimbuk

 6.9%

Dakhar Haor

 5.7%

Asia

China

Guangfu

 89.4%

Haiyangzhenxiwuzhong

 82.4%

Sanya Coral Reef National Nature Reserve

 55.4%

Asia

India

Sanjay Gandhi

 82.1%

Keoladeo National Park

 45.0%

Karnala

 43.6%

Asia

Indonesia

Muara Angke

 96.3%

Jayabaya

 25.8%

Gunung Unggaran

 19.8%

Asia

Israel

Mount Carmel

 93.1%

Hare Yehuda

 72.7%

Mount Meron

 64.8%

Asia

Japan

Kita Kyushu

 71.5%

Kongo - Ikoma - Kisen

 57.2%

Tonegawa - Genryubu

 51.2%

Asia

Kazakhstan

Mangyshlakskiy

 11.6%

Ele Alatau

 1.6%

Alma-Atinskiy

 1.4%

Asia

Nepal

Phulchoki

 24.8%

Sagarmatha

 15.4%

Shivapuri

 11.8%

Asia

Pakistan

Gat Wala

 45.4%

Margalla Hills

 35.4%

Chichawatni Plantation

 33.7%

Asia

South Korea

Bukhansan

 79.5%

Nakdonggang  Estuary

 67.6%

Gyeryongsan

 53.0%

Asia

Taiwan

Yangmingshan

 98.2%

North Coast

 88.3%

Northeast Coast

 49.0%

Asia

Turkey

Göreme and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia

 84.2%

Bogazkoy-Alacahoyuk

 17.3%

Altindere Valley

 8.2%

Africa

Algeria

Réserve Intégrale du Lac Oubeïra

 4.2%

El Kala

 3.0%

 

 

Africa

Congo DRC

N'Sele

 64.8%

Mangrove Nature Reserve or Marine Park

 6.7%

Virunga

 0.8%

Africa

Egypt

Wadi Degla

 47.1%

Malahet Ras Shukeir

 31.9%

Ras Mohammed

 24.0%

Africa

Ethiopia

Simien National Park

 11.7%

Arba-Minch

 11.3%

Awash

 3.4%

Africa

Gabon

Iguela

 20.2%

Mayumba

 10.4%

Ngove-Ndogo

 2.1%

Africa

Kenya

Nairobi

 43.4%

Lake Nakuru

 36.1%

Buffalo Springs

 25.2%

Africa

Nigeria

Olague

 50.3%

Taylor Creek

 40.1%

Sambrero

 37.4%

Africa

South Africa

Van Riebeeck Park

 75.0%

Diepsloot

 68.2%

Table Mountain

 65.6%

Africa

Tanzania

Mount Meru

 34.6%

Kilimanjaro National Park

 17.0%

Gombe

 15.5%

Oceania

Australia

Berowra Valley

 71.8%

Dandenong Ranges

 69.6%

Illawarra Escarpment

 66.7%

Oceania

New Zealand

Tongariro

 22.3%

Great Barrier Forest

 20.9%

Lower Dart

 19.3%

Oceania

Papua New Guinea

Paga Hill

 37.3%

Moitaka Wildlife Sanctuary

 15.0%

Wewak Peace Memorial Park

 5.6%

 

Table A8. Human activity (night lights and Flickr statistics) for three types of protected areas: World Heritage Sites, Ramsar Sites, and all others classes of protected areas.

Type of protected area

Number of protected areas

Median area (sq. km)

Mean
% area lit
(L > 15)

Median
number of photographers
per grid cell

Median
number of photos per grid cell

Median area with Flickr photographs

World Heritage Site

211

1,991

1.1%

0.07

0.50

3.3%

Ramsar Site

693

184

7.3%

0.06

0.31

4.9%

All others

25,789

120

5.4%

0.02

0.08

2.2%

Total

26,693

123

5.5%

0.02

0.08

2.3%

 

References for Supporting Information

Bigano, A., Hamilton, J.M., Lau, M., Tol, R.S., and Zhou, Y. 2007. A global database of domestic and international tourist numbers at national and subnational level. Int. J. Tour. Res. 9:147–174.

Chinn, M. D., and R. W. Fairlie. 2006. The determinants of the global digital divide: a cross-country analysis of computer and internet penetration. Oxford Economic Papers doi:10.1093/oep/gpl024.

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (2013) Turismo - Informe Anual 2012, ISBN: 978-956-323-131-1.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. 2014. Visitors to Parks and Game Reserves by Park and Year, 1996-2009.

Nepal. Nepal Tourism Statistics 2012. 2013. Government of Nepal, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation, Planning and Evaluation Division, Statistical Section, Singha Durbar, Kathmandu

Parks Canada. 2013. Parks Canada Attendance 2008-09 to 2012-13.

New Zealand. 2014. National parks visitor statistics, International visitor numbers to selected national parks.

NPS. 2011. Statistical Abstract, 2010, Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NRPC/SSD/NRDS—2011/147 National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Natural Resource Program Center. Social Science Division, Public Use Statistics Office, WASO-TNT P.O. Box 25287, Denver, Colorado 80225-0287.

Parks Victoria. 2011. Parks Victoria Visitation Data.

QPWS. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service Community Survey 2012. 2012. Prepared for Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing.

SAN Parks. 2011. South African National Parks Annual Report 2010/11.

UK. 2014. National Park facts and figures.

Zimmerman, A. 2006. Visitação nos parques nacionais brasileiros: um estudo à luz das experiências do Equador e da Argentina. 259p., 297 mm, (UnB-CDS, Mestre, Política e Gestão Ambiental, 2006).


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