Ecological Archives A025-044-A1

Neal E. Flanagan, Curtis J. Richardson, and Mengchi Ho. 2015. Connecting differential responses of native and invasive riparian plants to climate change and environmental alteration. Ecological Applications 25:753767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0767.1

Appendix A. Tables showing supplemental data including (1) watershed characteristics, (2) temperature and hydrology treatments, (3) plant species, and (4) chemical and physical properties of the study sites.

Table A1. A summary of watershed characteristics dam and reference locations used in this study. The urban category represents areas of human habitation, cultivated represents areas used for crop production and pasture, forested and unmanaged represents the remainder of the watershed that is primarily forested in the southeastern USA.

Site

Treatment

Area

Land use (%)

 

 

km²

Urban

Cultivated

Forested and unmanaged

Philpott Dam

Cold

979

9

9

82

Smith Mountain Dam

Cold

2303

17

18

65

John's River

Reference

543

3

4

93

Pigg River

Reference

1044

4

26

70

Yadkin River

Reference

637

3

9

88

Cowen's Ford Dam

Warm

4703

14

15

71

Gaston Dam

Warm

21778

7

20

73

Kerr Dam

Warm

20848

7

21

72

All summaries use 2006 National Land Cover Dataset (Fry et al. 2011).

Fry, J., G. Xian, S. Jin, J. Dewitz, C. Homer, L. Yang, C. Barnes, N. Herold, and J. Wickham. 2011. National land cover database 2006 percent developed imperviousness. Raster digital data. MRLC.gov. http://www.mrlc.gov/nlcd06_data.php.

 

Table A2. Summary of site temperature and hydrology treatments.

Location

Treatments

 

Hydrology

Temperature –
Large Scale

Temperature –
Local Scale Gradient

Cowen's Ford

Emergent

Warm

Upstream

Cowen's Ford

Riparian

Warm

Upstream

Cowen's Ford

Emergent

Warm

Mid

Cowen's Ford

Riparian

Warm

Mid

Cowen's Ford

Emergent

Warm

Downstream

Cowen's Ford

Riparian

Warm

Downstream

Kerr

Emergent

Warm

Mid

Kerr

Riparian

Warm

Mid

Gaston

Emergent

Warm

Mid

Gaston

Riparian

Warm

Mid

John's River

Emergent

Reference

Mid

John's River

Riparian

Reference

Mid

Pigg River

Emergent

Reference

Mid

Pigg River

Riparian

Reference

Mid

Yadkin River

Emergent

Reference

Mid

Yadkin River

Riparian

Reference

Mid

Phillpot

Emergent

Cold

Mid

Phillpot

Riparian

Cold

Mid

Smith Mountain

Emergent

Cold

Upstream

Smith Mountain

Riparian

Cold

Upstream

Smith Mountain

Emergent

Cold

Mid

Smith Mountain

Riparian

Cold

Mid

Smith Mountain

Emergent

Cold

Downstream

Smith Mountain

Riparian

Cold

Downstream

 

Table A3. Summary of the 20 most important plant species encountered in plant transect surveys in the three temperature treatments (WARM, COLD, REFERENCE). Status = Native (N) or Invasive (I) species. *Modified Importance = sum of relative density and relative frequency with maximum value of 200.

Temperature

Scientific Name

Status

Growth Habit

Importance*

WARM

Peltandra virginica

N

Forb

12.8

 

Scirpus cyperinus

N

Graminoid

10.4

 

Bidens laevis

N

Forb

9.3

 

Mikania scandens

N

Vine

8.8

 

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

N

Graminoid

8.2

 

Juncus effusus

N

Graminoid

8.2

 

Commelina virginica

N

Forb

7.3

 

Symphyotrichum pilosum

N

Forb

6.9

 

Typha latifolia

N

Forb

6.6

 

Murdannia keisak

I

Forb

6.3

 

Saururus cernuus

N

Forb

5.0

 

Triadenum walteri

N

Forb

4.8

 

Polygonum sagittatum

N

Forb

4.5

 

Eleocharis quadrangulata

N

Graminoid

4.4

 

Polygonum hydropiperoides

N

Forb

4.1

 

Justicia americana

N

Forb

4.1

 

Polygonum setaceum

N

Forb

4.0

 

Sagittaria latifolia

N

Forb

3.9

 

Hibiscus moscheutos

N

Forb

3.8

 

Vernonia noveboracensis

N

Forb

3.3

 

 

 

 

 

COLD

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani

N

Graminoid

25.8

 

Mentha x piperita

I

Forb

17.6

 

Murdannia keisak

I

Forb

15.9

 

Polygonum sagittatum

N

Forb

11.9

 

Polygonum hydropiper

I

Forb

10.0

 

Arthraxon hispidus

I

Graminoid

7.6

 

Polygonum amphibium

N

Forb

7.1

 

Myosotis scorpioides

I

Forb

6.7

 

Hibiscus moscheutos

N

Forb

6.2

 

Helenium autumnale

N

Forb

6.0

 

Symphyotrichum pilosum

N

Forb

4.4

 

Sparganium americanum

N

Forb

4.0

 

Phalaris arundinacea

I

Graminoid

3.9

 

Leersia oryzoides

N

Graminoid

3.6

 

Elymus virginicus

N

Forb

3.5

 

Ludwigia palustris

N

Forb

2.8

 

Impatiens capensis

N

Forb

2.8

 

Vernonia noveboracensis

N

Forb

2.7

 

Juncus acuminatus

N

Graminoid

2.5

 

Cinna arundinacea

N

Graminoid

2.4

Table A3 cont'd.

Temperature

Scienctific Name

Status

Life Form

Importance*

REFERENCE

Murdannia keisak

I

Forb

26.6

 

Polygonum arifolium

N

Forb

14.6

 

Polygonum hydropiper

I

Forb

11.1

 

Typha latifolia

N

Forb

8.6

 

Leersia oryzoides

N

Graminoid

8.5

 

Boehmeria cylindrica

N

Forb

8.0

 

Scirpus cyperinus

N

Graminoid

7.8

 

Polygonum hydropiperoides

N

Forb

6.6

 

Echinochloa crus-galli

I

Graminoid

6.4

 

Ludwigia palustris

N

Forb

6.4

 

Onoclea sensibilis

N

Fern

5.4

 

Impatiens capensis

N

Forb

4.5

 

Lonicera japonica

I

Vine

4.1

 

Carex lupulina

N

Graminoid

4.1

 

Commelina virginica

N

Forb

4.1

 

Elymus hystrix

N

Graminoid

3.6

 

Polygonum punctatum

N

Forb

3.5

 

Symphyotrichum pilosum

N

Forb

3.5

 

Carex crinita

N

Forb

3.4

 

Sagittaria latifolia

N

Forb

3.4

 

Table A4. Summary of soil chemical and physical properties by treatment.

Variable

Unit

Treatment

mean ± SE

N

BD

g·cm-3

Warm

  0.80 ± 0.27

10

 

 

Reference

  0.58 ± 0.09

  6

 

 

Cold

  0.82 ± 0.23

  8

Clay

%

Warm

  9.88 ± 4.77

10

 

 

Reference

15.57 ± 1.76

  6

 

 

Cold

  7.58 ± 3.00

  8

Sand

%

Warm

  56.6 ± 20.7

10

 

 

Reference

  20.1 ±   7.0

  6

 

 

Cold

  53.5 ± 16.2

  8

Total C

%

Warm

  2.85 ± 1.21

10

 

 

Reference

  5.46 ± 1.35

  6

 

 

Cold

  3.03 ± 1.49

  8

Total P

µg·g-1

Warm

 1171 ± 233

10

 

 

Reference

 1427 ± 150

  6

 

 

Cold

 1053 ± 269

  8

Ex P

µg·g-1

Warm

  2.61 ± 3.61

10

 

 

Reference

  8.05 ± 5.24

  6

 

 

Cold

  3.58 ± 1.55

  8

Total N

µg·g-1

Warm

 2167 ±   901

10

 

 

Reference

 3813 ± 1073

  6

 

 

Cold

 1962 ±   842

  8

NH4–N

µg·g-1

Warm

  4.03 ± 4.90

10

 

 

Reference

  1.24 ± 1.05

  6

 

 

Cold

  0.93 ± 0.94

  8

NO3–N

 µg·g-1

Warm

  1.58 ± 1.61

10

 

 

Reference

  9.56 ± 6.55

  6

 

 

Cold

  6.46 ± 4.10

  8


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