Ecological Archives A025-025-A3

Jelle P. Hilbers, Frank van Langevelde, Herbert H. T. Prins, C. C. Grant, Mike J. S. Peel, Michael B. Coughenour, Henrik J. de Knegt, Rob Slowtow, Izak P. J. Smit, Greg A. Kiker, and Willem F. de Boer. 2015. Modeling elephant-mediated cascading effects of water point closure. Ecological Applications 25:402415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-0322.1

Appendix C. Standardized beta coefficients between simulated animals species and plant groups.

Table C1. The standardized beta coefficients (β) between plant groups and animal species (N = 240 per combination). 95% confidence intervals are reported between brackets.

 

Elephant bulls

Elephant cows

Grass biomass

0–1 m

1–2 m

2–3 m

3–6 m

>6 m

Buffalo

Roan

Wildebeest

Zebra

Impala

Steenbok

Bushbuck

Kudu

Giraffe

Elephant bulls

1

.95*

(.91/.99)

-.36*

(-.48/-.24)

-.01

(-.14/.11)

.09

(-.04/.21)

-.02

(-.15/.11)

-.02

(.14/.11)

-.07

(-.20/.05

.28*

(.16/.41)

.18

(.05/.31)

-.34*

(-.46/-.22)

-.32*

(-.44/-.20)

-.32*

(-.44/-.20)

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.10

(-.22/.03)

-.07

(-.20/.06)

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

Elephant cows

.95*

(.91/.99)

1.00

-.24*

(-.37/-.12)

-.12

(-.25/.01)

-.10

(-.22/.03)

-.16

(-.29/-.04)

-.16

(-.28/-.03)

-.27*

(-.39/-.15)

.23*

(.11/.36)

-.05

(-.18/.08)

-.20

(-.33/-.07)

-.18

(-.30/-.05)

-.15

(-.27/-.02)

-.24*

(-.36/-.12)

.05

(-.08/.18)

.09

(-.04/.21)

-.21

(-.33/-.08)

Grass biomass

-.36*

(-.48/-.24)

-.24*

(-.37/-.12)

1.00

.01

(-.12/.14)

-.82*

(-.89/-.75)

-.79*

(-.87/-.72)

-.78*

(-.86/-.70)

-.12

(-.25/.00)

-.85*

(-.92/-.79)

-.48*

(-.59/-.37)

.99*

(.96/1.01)

.89*

(83/.95)

.81*

(.73/.88)

.99*

(.97/1.01)

.09

(-.03/.22)

.05

(-.08/.18)

.98*

(.96/1.01)

0–1 m

-.01

(-.14/.11)

-.12

(-.25/.01)

.01

(-.12/.14)

1.00

.25*

(.13/.38)

.21

(.08/.33)

.20

(.08/.33)

.48*

(.37/.59)

-.20

(-.32/-.07)

.17

(.05/.30)

-.06

(-.18/.07)

-.20

(-.33/-.08)

-.24*

(-.36/-.11)

.06

(-.07/.18)

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.03

(-.16/.10)

1–2 m

.09

(-.04/.21)

-.10

(-.22/.03)

-.82*

(-.89/-.75)

.25*

(.13/.38)

1.00

.98*

(.96/1.01)

.97*

(.94/1.00)

.62*

(.52/.72)

.60*

(.49/.70)

.53*

(.42/.64)

-.88*

(-.94/-.82)

-.89*

(-.95/-.83)

-.84*

(-.91/-.77)

-.79*

(-.87/-.72)

-.27*

(-.40/-.15)

-.27*

(-.39/-.14)

-.87*

(-.93/.81)

2–3 m

-.02

(-.15/.11)

-.16

(-.29/-.04)

-.79*

(-.87/-.72)

.21

(.08/.33)

.98*

(.96/1.01)

1.00

1.00*

(.99/1.01)

.58*

(.47/.68)

.60*

(.50/.70)

.41*

(.29/.53)

-.85*

(-.92/-.72)

-.86*

(-.93/-.80)

-.77*

(-.86/-.69)

-.79*

(-.87/.-.71)

-.19

(-.31/-.06)

-.17

(-.30/-.05)

-.86*

(-.92/-.79)

3–6 m

-.02

(.14/.11)

-.16

(-.28/-.03)

-.78*

(-.86/-.70)

.20

(.08/.33)

.97*

(.94/1.00)

1.00*

(.99/1.01)

1.00

.60*

(.49/.70)

.61*

(.50/.71)

.39*

(.27/.51)

-.85*

(-.91/-.78)

-.87*

(-.93/-.81)

-.76*

(-.84/-.67)

-.78*

(-.86/-.71)

-.15

(-.27/-.02)

-.13

(-.26/-.01)

-.86*

(-.92/-.79)

>6 m

-.07

(-.20/.05)

-.27*

(-.39/-.15)

-.12

(-.25/.00)

.48*

(.37/.59)

.62*

(.52/.72)

.58*

(.47/.68)

.60*

(.49/.70)

1.00

-.06

(-.19/.06)

.40*

(.28/.52)

-.24*

(-.37/-.12)

-.39*

(-.51/-.27)

-.38*

(-.50/-.26)

-.07

(-.19/.06)

-.35*

(-.47/-.23)

-.38*

(-.50/-.26)

-.24* (-.36/-.11)

Buffalo

.28*

(.16/.41)

.23*

(.11/.36)

-.85*

(-.92/-.79)

-.20

(-.32/-.07)

.60*

(.49/.70)

.60*

(.50/.70)

.61*

(.50/.71)

-.06

(-.19/.06)

1.00

.35*

(.23/.47)

-.81*

(-.88/-.73)

-.64*

(-.73/-.54)

-.44*

(-.55/-.32)

-.87*

(-.93/-.80)

.28*

(.15/.40)

.37*

(.25/.49)

-.82*

(-.90/-.75)

Roan

.18

(.05/.31)

-.05

(-.18/.08)

-.48*

(-.59/-.37)

.17

(.05/.30)

.53*

(.42/.64)

.41*

(.29/.53)

.39*

(.27/.51)

.40*

(.28/.52)

.35*

(.23/.47)

1.00

-.49*

(-.60/-.38)

-.37*

(-.49/-.25)

-.50*

(-.61/-.39)

-.38*

(-.50/-.26)

-.44*

(-.55/-.32)

-.40*

(-.51/-.28)

-.45*

(-.56/-.33)

Wildebeest

-.34*

(-.46/-.22)

-.20

(-.33/-.07)

.99*

(.96/1.01)

-.06

(-.18/.07)

-.88*

(-.94/-.82)

-.85*

(-.92/-.72)

-.85*

(-.91/-.78)

-.24*

(-.37/-.12)

-.81*

(-.88/-.73)

-.49*

(-.60/-.38)

1.00

.94*

(.89/.98)

.86*

(.79/.92)

.98*

(.95/1.00)

.15

(.02/.28)

.13

(-.00/.25)

.99*

(.98/1.01)

Zebra

-.32*

(-.44/-.20)

-.18

(-.30/-.05)

.89*

(83/.95)

-.20

(-.33/-.08)

-.89*

(-.95/-.83)

-.86*

(-.93/-.80)

-.87*

(-.93/-.81)

-.39*

(-.51/-.27)

-.64*

(-.73/-.54)

-.37*

(-.49/-.25)

.94*

(.89/.98)

1.00

.91*

(.86/.96)

.88*

(.82/.94)

.18

(.05/.30)

.21

(.08/.33)

.93*

(.89/.98)

Impala

-.32*

(-.44/-.20)

-.15

(-.27/-.02)

.81*

(.73/.88)

-.24*

(-.36/-.11)

-.84*

(-.91/-.77)

-.77*

(-.86/-.69)

-.76*

(-.84/-.67)

-.38*

(-.50/-.26)

-.44*

(-.55/-.32)

-.50*

(-.61/-.39)

.86*

(.79/.92)

.91*

(.86/.96)

1.00

.77*

(.69/.84)

.50*

(.39/.61)

.51*

(.40/.62)

.83*

(.75/.90)

Steenbok

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.24*

(-.36/-.12)

.99*

(.97/1.01)

.06

(-.07/.18)

-.79*

(-.87/-.72)

-.79*

(-.87/.-.71)

-.78*

(-.86/-.71)

-.07

(-.19/.06)

-.87*

(-.93/-.80)

-.38*

(-.50/-.26)

.98*

(.95/1.00)

.88*

(.82/.94)

.77*

(.69/.84)

1.00

.01

(-.12/.14)

-.03

(-.16/.10)

.98*

(.96/1.01)

Bushbuck

-.10

(-.22/.03)

.05

(-.08/.18)

.09

(-.03/.22)

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.27*

(-.40/-.15)

-.19

(-.31/-.06)

-.15

(-.27/-.02)

-.35*

(-.47/-.23)

.28*

(.15/.40)

-.44*

(-.55/-.32)

.15

(.02/.28)

.18

(.05/.30)

.50*

(.39/.61)

.01

(-.12/.14)

1.00

.93*

(.88/.98)

.07

(-.06/.20)

Kudu

-.07

(-.20/.06)

.09

(-.04/.21)

.05

(-.08/.18)

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.27*

(-.39/-.14)

-.17

(-.30/-.05)

-.13

(-.26/-.01)

-.38*

(-.50/-.26)

.37*

(.25/.49)

-.40*

(-.51/-.28)

.13

(-.00/.25)

.21

(.08/.33)

.51*

(.40/.62)

-.03

(-.16/.10)

.93*

(.88/.98)

1.00

.04

(-.09/.17)

Giraffe

-.33*

(-.45/-.21)

-.21

(-.33/-.08)

.98*

(.96/1.01)

-.03

(-.16/.10)

-.87*

(-.93/.81)

-.86*

(-.92/-.79)

-.86*

(-.92/-.79)

-.24* (-.36/-.11)

-.82*

(-.90/-.75)

-.45*

(-.56/-.33)

.99*

(.98/1.01)

.93*

(.89/.98)

.83*

(.75/.90)

.98*

(.96/1.01)

.07

(-.06/.20)

.04

(-.09/.17)

1.00

*. Coefficient is significant at the 0.001 level (two-tailed).


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