Ecological Archives A025-023-A1

Laurel A. Smith, Jason S. Link, Steven X. Cadrin, and Debra L. Palka. 2015. Consumption by marine mammals on the Northeast U.S. continental shelf. Ecological Applications 25:373389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-1656.1

Appendix A. Marine mammal abundance estimation summarized from Link et al. 2006.

Abundance estimates were derived for most cetaceans from summer 2004 and 2006 NEFSC marine mammal surveys (Waring et al. 2009). Right whale abundance was the exception, which was based on the 2004 aerial photo census from the North Atlantic Right Whale Sighting Survey (Neimeyer et al. 2008). Shipboard and aerial abundance estimates within the NEUS shelf region were derived from the length of track lines (L), number of sightings (n), and average group size (s) within each of the four ecoregions (Table A1) and the estimates of the effective strip width (esw) and g(0) (the probability that an animal on the track line is detected) derived from the entire survey. Thus, the abundance for a species k within ecoregion i on platform j (ship or plane) was:

 

where Aij was the area within ecoregion i that was surveyed by platform j. The total abundance for species k within a region was the sum of the aerial and shipboard abundance estimates for that species.

Abundance estimates from these surveys represent the summer season, however each species has different migration patterns and timings of when they utilize the NEUS shelf region. Therefore seasonal residence ratios within each ecoregion were defined as a proportion of the summer population within that region during a given season (Table A2), based on expert opinion and general patterns documented in the Cetacean and Turtle Assessment Program (CETAP 1982) and Department of Navy (2005). The seasons were defined as summer (June to August), fall (September to November), winter (December to February), and spring (March to May).

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Table A1. Areas of the four ecoregions used to calculate abundance for cetacean species, from Link et al. 2006.

Region

2004 area (km²)

2004 track length (km)

 

total

ship

plane

total

ship

plane

Gulf of Maine

79,127.953

0.000

79,127.953

2,787.415

0.000

2,787.415

Georges Bank

43,666.157

5,944.480

37,721.676

1,000.495

239.953

760.542

Southern New England

64,060.370

10,466.536

53,593.834

2,157.936

477.454

1,680.482

Mid-Atlantic Bight

59,807.290

3,774.530

56,032.760

875.180

131.696

743.484

TOTAL

246,661.770

20,185.547

226,476.223

6,821.026

849.103

5,971.923

             

strata

2006 area (km²)

2006 track length (km)

 

total

ship

plane

total

ship

plane

Gulf of Maine

79,127.953

0.000

79,127.953

2,989.794

0.000

2,989.794

Georges Bank

43,666.157

0.000

43,666.157

1,133.424

0.000

1,133.424

Southern New England

64,060.370

0.000

64,060.370

1,808.127

0.000

1,808.127

Mid-Atlantic Bight

59,807.290

0.000

59,807.290

0.000

0.000

0.000

TOTAL

246,661.770

0.000

246,661.770

5,931.345

0.000

5,931.345

 

Table A2. Seasonally-weighted average abundance estimates of cetacean species found in four ecoregions of the NEUS shelf: Georges Bank (GB), Gulf of Maine (GOM), Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) and Southern New England (SNE), from Link et al. 2006.

Species

Region

Summer Abundance Estimate

% of Population in Region by Season

Seasonally Weighted Average Abundance

Winter

Spring

Summer

Fall

Fin or Sei Whale

GB

183.96

0.2

1.3

1

0.4

133.37

GOM

1343.82

0.1

0.9

1

0.7

907.08

MAB

78.82

0.21

1

1

0.2

47.29

SNE

463.05

0.1

0.8

1

0.3

254.68

Humpback Whale

GB

100.14

0.1

1.2

1

0.2

62.59

GOM

516.38

0.1

1

1

0.3

309.83

MAB

100

0.2

1

0

1

55

SNE

100

0.1

1

0

1

52.5

Minke Whale

GB

64.17

0

1.3

1

0.1

38.5

GOM

753.25

0.05

0.8

1

0.2

386.04

MAB

100

0

2

1

0

75

SNE

117.18

0

1.5

1

0.1

76.17

Right Whale

GB

325

0.2

0.4

0.2

0.3

89.38

GOM

325

0

0.1

0.7

0.5

105.63

MAB

325

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.1

65

SNE

325

0

0.2

0

0.1

24.38

Pilot Whale

GB

2488.99

0.1

2

1

0.3

2115.39

GOM

2610

0.1

0.8

1

0.5

1566

MAB

174.68

0.3

1

1

1

144.11

SNE

1076.31

0.1

2

1

0.3

914.86

Bottlenose Dolphin

GB

741.95

0.05

1

1

0.2

417.34

MAB

8491.67

0.05

1

1

0.7

5838.03

SNE

6232.96

0.05

1

1

0.5

3817.69

Common Dolphin

GB

10739.24

2

1.5

1

2

17451.27

GOM

9369.25

0.7

0.7

1

1.5

9135.02

MAB

2634.32

2

2

1

0.2

3424.62

SNE

5862.25

2

2

1

2

10258.93

Whiteside Dolphin

GB

709.99

0.3

2

1

1

763.24

GOM

20767.04

0.2

0.7

1

0.7

13498.58

SNE

1317.21

0

2

1

0.5

1152.56

Harbor Porpoise

GB

30607.5

0.05

0.6

0

0.3

7269.28

GOM

30607.5

0.4

0.4

0

0.3

8417.06

MAB

30607.5

0.4

0.4

0

0.3

8417.06

SNE

30607.5

0.3

0.4

0

0.3

7651.88

 

Table A3. Summer abundance estimates, residency ratio and mean individual mass used to calculate consumption estimates within the Northeast US (NEUS) continental shelf study area.

Common Name

Species name

Survey Year

Summer Abundance Estimate*

CV of Summer Abundance

Source for Abundance Estimates**

Residence Ratio*

Residence Ratio Adjusted*

Annual Abundance*

Mean Individual Weight (kg)*

Fin whale

Balaenoptera physalus

2004

1,364

0.686

a

0.65

 

885

50,000

Humpback whale

Megaptera novaeangliae

2006

272

0.824

a

0.59

0.82

223

30,408

Right whale

Eubalaena glacialis

2004

128

 

b

0.22

0.80

102

23,383

Sei whale

Balaenoptera borealis

2004

1,128

0.996

a

0.58

 

655

16,811

Minke whale

Balaenoptera acutorostrata

2006

2,931

0.848

a

0.56

 

1,631

6,566

Pilot whale

Globicephala sp.

2004

11,388

0.490

a

0.75

 

8,502

851

Bottlenose dolphin

Tursiops truncatus

2004

2,241

0.676

a

0.66

 

1,481

188

Atlantic white-sided dolphin

Lagenorhynchus acutus

2006

8,909

0.389

a

0.68

 

6,025

92

Common dolphin

Delphinus delphis

2004

60,998

0.635

a

0.93

 

56,878

80

Harbor porpoise

Phocoena phocoena

2006

18,358

0.564

a

0.26

 

4,762

31

Gray seal

Halichoerus grypus

2008

10,783

0.337

c

1

 

10,783

181

Harbor seal

Phoca vitulina concolor

2001

99,340

0.097

d

1

 

99,340

75

*Methods for calculating these estimates are detailed in the Appendix 1 text.

**a: NEFSC marine mammal surveys (Waring et al. 2009), b: Aerial photo census from the North Atlantic Right Whale Sighting Survey (Neimeyer et al. 2008), c: Aerial pinniped pup counts off of the New England coast (Wood 2009), expanded to total population estimate by using a 4.116 ratio of pups to adults, based on surveys from the United Kingdom (SCOS 2008), d: Aerial pinniped survey (Waring et al. 2009)

 

Table A4. Prey species included in marine mammal prey groups and for comparisons to commercial fishing catches.

Marine mammal prey group

Common names of prey

Scientific names of prey

Species included for commercial catch

Squid

Longfin squid, shortfin squid, other squid, octopus

Loligo spp., Illex spp., Teuthida, Octopodidae

Longfin squid, shortfin squid

Mesopelagic fish

Lanternfish, pearlsides, myctophids

Myctophidae, Maurolicus spp.

 

Clupeids

Atlantic herring, river herring, saury, anchovies

Clupea harengus, Alosa spp., Scomberesox saurus, Anchoa spp., Engraulis eurystole

Atlantic herring

Scombrids

Atlantic mackerel, king mackerel, jacks, scads

Scomber scombrus, Scomberomorus, cavalla, Carangidae

Atlantic mackerel

Large gadids

Atlantic cod, haddock, pollock

Gadus morhua, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Pollachius virens

Atlantic cod, haddock, pollock

Small gadids

Red hake, silver hake, white hake, spotted hake, rocklings

Urophycis chuss, Meluccius bilinearis, Urophycis tenuis, Urophycis regia, Enchelyopus cimbrius

Red hake, silver hake, offshore hake, white hake

Shrimp

Northern shrimp, prawns, krill

Paldalus spp., Farfantepenaeus spp., Euphausiidae

 

Zooplankton

Copepods, amphipods, mysids, caprellids, fish larvae, invertebrate larvae

Calanus finmarchicus, Pseudocalanus spp., Amphipoda, Mysidae, Caprellidae, Osteichthyes

 

Benthic invertebrates

Bivalves, gastropods, decapods

Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Decapoda

 

Sandlance

Sandlance, capelin, silversides, argentine

Ammodytoides spp., Mallotus villosus, Atherinidae, Argentinidae

 

Flatfish

Flounders

Pleuronectiformes

Yellowtail flounder, winter flounder, summer flounder, witch flounder, American plaice, Atlantic halibut, windowpane flounder

Miscellaneous fish

Skates, dogfish, redfish, lumpfish, ocean pout, hagfish, wolffish, butterfish, cunner, sea raven, unclassified or unidentified fish

Rajidae, Squalis acanthias, Sebastes fasciatus, Cyclopterus lumpus, Zoarces americanus, Myxine glutinosa, Anarhichas lupus, Peprilus triacanthus, Tautogolabrus adspersus, Hemitripterus americanus, Osteichthyes

 

 

Table A5. Diet composition of humpback whales from literature sources.

 

Percent Diet Composition by Source

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

 

Prey

b

g

h

i

j

j

a

b

k

l

c

d

e

f

m

l

n

 

Herring

P

P

 

0.17

         

O

           

I

 

Capelin

P

 

P

               

P

0

         

Saffron cod

P

                                 

Euphausiids

P

         

1.0

0.8

   

P

 

0.8

0.667

I

     

Mackerel

 

P

P

                 

0.2

         

Krill

   

P

                             

Sand lance

   

P

           

0.6

   

0

     

I

 

Fish/white fish

   

P

 

0.95

0.3

 

0.2

0.6

     

0

         

Zooplankton

       

0.05

0.55

   

0.4

                 

Small pelagics

         

0.15

               

I

     

Copepods

             

0

       

0

 

P

     

Squid

             

0

       

0

 

P

     

Alaska pollock

                       

0

         

Sardine

                         

0.333

       

Demersal fish

                           

P

     

Nektonbenthonic crustaceans

                           

P

     

Banded drum

                             

0.396

   

Atlantic croaker

                             

0.564

   

Spot

                             

0.023

   

Weakfish

                             

0.014

   

Red drum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.003

 

 

*1:Kawamura 1980, 2:Hjort and Rudd 1929, 3:Mitchell 1974, 4:Overholtz et al. 1991, 5:Kenney et al. 1985, 6:Pauly et al. 1998, 7:Mitchell 1973, 8:Nemoto and Kawamura 1977, 9:Sigurjonsson and Vikingsson 1992, 10:Hain et al. 1982, 11:Christensen et al. 1990, 12:Nemoto 1959, 13:Frost and Lowry 1981, 14:Laerm et al. 1997, 15:Weinrich et al. 1997

**a:North Pacific, b:North Atlantic, c:Nova Scotia, d:Gulf of Maine, e:multiple regions, f:Antarctic, g:Iceland, h:Northeast US, i:Norway, May to early summer, j:Norway, mid-summer to early winter, k:North Pacific, l:waters adjacent to Japan, m:Berring Sea, n:Stellwagen Bank

***P:prey present, I:important prey, O:occational prey


Table A6. Mean diet compositions of marine mammals by standard prey groups, based on literature sources. Minimum and maximum diet compositions from literature are in parenthesis.

 

Large gadids

Small gadids

Flatfish

Clupeids

Scombrids

Sandlance

Meso-pelagics

Misc. fish

Benthic invertebrates

Squid

Shrimp

Zoo-plankton

Literature Sources

Fin whale

(0)

(0)

 

(0.0015)

(0.00035)

(0.015)

(0)

(0.00091)

 

(0.00093)

(0.40)

(0.00025)

3, 5, 9, 12, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26, 31, 33, 49, 53, 78, 86, 96

0.0040

0.0031

 

0.088

0.040

0.052

0.0032

0.033

 

0.036

0.63

0.11

(0.018)

(0.015)

 

(0.51)

(0.25)

(0.25)

(0.050)

(0.20)

 

(0.20)

(0.99)

(0.30)

Humpback whale

 

(0.00080)

 

(0.021)

(0.0063)

(0.0030)

 

(0.025)

 

(0.00033)

(0.050)

(0.00040)

1, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12, 19, 22, 24, 31, 41, 49, 53, 72, 75, 78

 

0.022

 

0.12

0.076

0.20

 

0.19

 

0.011

0.37

0.021

 

(0.25)

 

(0.13)

(0.50)

(0.63)

 

(1.0)

 

(0.13)

(1.0)

(0.25)

Right whale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(0.00074)

(0.25)

6, 9, 12, 18, 28, 29, 31, 37, 38, 42, 78, 102

                   

0.15

0.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1.0)

(1.0)

Sei whale

(0)

(0.0011)

 

(0.0051)

(0.0020)

(0.0020)

(0.0002)

(0.00064)

 

(0.0015)

(0.029)

(0.036)

5, 9, 12, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 26, 19, 33, 53, 78, 79, 86

0.016

0.0016

 

0.070

0.017

0.038

0.017

0.039

 

0.055

0.33

0.42

(0.17)

(0.0082)

 

(0.41)

(0.14)

(0.33)

(0.17)

(0.25)

 

(0.29)

(1.0)

(0.89)

Minke whale

(0.000059)

(0.00023)

(0)

(0.0025)

(0.00019)

(0.00023)

 

(0.000066)

 

(0.00011)

(0.0048)

(0)

22, 25, 30, 32, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 59, 62, 65, 70, 74, 78, 108

0.13

0.031

0.00010

0.30

0.039

0.16

 

0.015

 

0.0063

0.32

0.0065

(0.86)

(0.50)

(0.0026)

(1.0)

(0.82)

(1.0)

 

(0.13)

 

(0.17)

(1.0)

(0.17)

Pilot whale

 

(0.0013)

 

(0.00075)

(0.011)

 

(0)

(0.0019)

(0)

(0.29)

 

 

45, 49, 53, 57, 68, 69, 71, 78, 92, 96, 101, 104, 106, 110

 

0.012

 

0.027

0.14

 

0.0046

0.088

0.0084

0.72

   

 

(0.11)

 

(0.20)

(0.71)

 

(0.050)

(0.46)

(0.081)

(1.0)

 

 

Bottlenose dolphin

(0.020)

(0.0014)

(0.00021)

(0.00073)

(0.00050)

(0.00027)

(0.00013)

(0.041)

(0)

(0.0014)

(0.00019)

 

15, 43, 57, 59, 76, 78, 82, 84, 85, 89, 91, 92, 93, 98, 106, 109

0.056

0.18

0.0011

0.065

0.041

0.0073

0.00032

0.50

0.0050

0.15

0.00043

 

(0.59)

(0.77)

(0.010)

(0.16)

(0.31)

(0.082)

(0.0030)

(1.0)

(0.079)

(0.88)

(0.0040)

 

Atlantic white-sided dolphin

(0.00028)

(0.0064)

(0)

(0.0029)

(0.0012)

(0.037)

(0.014)

(0.017)

(0)

(0.051)

 

 

2, 4, 14, 21, 67, 73, 78, 105, 108

0.093

0.25

0.00053

0.18

0.048

0.079

0.080

0.050

0.0094

0.21

   

(0.56)

(0.66)

(0.0057)

(0.51)

(0.50)

(0.60)

(0.50)

(0.40)

(0.10)

(0.50)

 

 

Common dolphin

(0)

(0.00025)

(0)

(0.00042)

(0.00090)

(0.00069)

(0.00067)

(0.014)

(0)

(0.019)

 

 

45, 49, 57, 59, 60, 67, 78, 88, 92, 97, 99, 100, 105, 106

0.0010

0.15

0.00017

0.084

0.21

0.010

0.080

0.24

0.0013

0.22

   

(0.016)

(0.79)

(0.0027)

(0.49)

(0.90)

(0.14)

(0.40)

(0.78)

(0.023)

(1.0)

 

 

Table A6 (cont.)

 

Large gadids

Small gadids

Flatfish

Clupeids

Scombrids

Sandlance

Meso-pelagics

Misc. fish

Benthic invertebrates

Squid

Shrimp

Zoo-plankton

Literature Sources

Harbor porpoise

(0.0010)

(0.0035)

(0)

(0.0093)

(0.00042)

(0.0061)

(0.00038)

(0.00010)

(0)

(0.0030)

(0.00029)

 

8, 10, 40, 56, 59, 77, 78,  87, 90, 92, 93, 102

0.047

0.32

0.0012

0.27

0.054

0.092

0.021

0.15

0.0045

0.037

0.0094

 

(0.33)

(0.84)

(0.012)

(0.50)

(0.29)

(0.38)

(0.20)

(0.84)

(0.050)

(0.20)

(0.080)

 

Gray seal

(0.0080)

(0.00020)

(0.0025)

(0.000056)

(0.000040)

(0.00011)

 

(0.000071)

(0.000029)

(0.000045)

(0)

 

36, 54, 51, 54, 55, 58, 61, 64, 66, 78, 80, 83, 94, 95, 103, 105

0.19

0.088

0.14

0.099

0.026

0.34

 

0.083

0.0043

0.028

0.00032

 

(0.61)

(0.61)

(0.98)

(0.66)

(0.47)

(0.85)

 

(0.58)

(0.15)

(0.27)

(0.012)

 

Harbor seal

(0.0057)

(0.0020)

(0.0019)

(0.0015)

(0.000091)

(0.0040)

 

(0.0043)

(0.00011)

(0.0021)

(0.0013)

 

17, 20, 23, 27, 34, 35, 39, 44, 46, 63, 64, 78, 80, 81, 105, 107

0.095

0.20

0.13

0.13

0.011

0.25

 

0.099

0.011

0.069

0.0068

 

(0.32)

(0.73)

(0.73)

(0.50)

(0.10)

(0.99)

 

(0.45)

(0.10)

(0.63)

(0.095)

 

*(1:Hjort and Rudd 1929, 2:Schevill 1956, 3:Nemoto 1957, 4:Sergeant and Fisher 1957, 5:Nemoto 1959, 6:Klumov 1963, 7:Mitchell 1973, 8:Rae 1973, 9:Mitchell 1974, 10:Smith and Gaskin 1974, 11:Jonsgard and Darling 1977, 12:Nemoto and Kawamura 1977, 13:Brodie 1978, 14:Katona et al. 1978, 15:Leatherwood et al. 1978, 16:Lockyer and Brown 1978, 17:Boulva and McLaren 1979, 18:Watkins 1979, 19:Kawamura 1980, 20:Pitcher 1980, 21:Sergeant et al. 1980, 22:Frost and Lowry 1981, 23:Behrends 1982, 24:Hain et al. 1982, 25:Jonsgard 1982, 26:Kawamura 1982, 27:Bowen and Sergeant 1983, 28:Northridge 1984, 29:Cummings 1985, 30:Kasamatsu and Hata 1985, 31:Kenney et al. 1985, 32:Bushuev 1986, 33:Mitchell et al. 1986, 34:Selzer et al. 1986, 35:Harkonen 1987, 36:Prime and Hammond 1987, 37:Wishner et al. 1988, 38:Murison and Gaskin 1989, 39:Payne 1989, 40:Recchia and Read 1989, 41:Christensen et al. 1990, 42:Mayo and Marx 1990, 43:Mead and Potter 1990, 44:Olesiuk et al. 1990, 45:Waring et al. 1990, 46:Harkonen 1991, 47:Ichii 1991, 48:Lydersen et al. 1991, 49:Overholtz and Waring 1991, 50:Kasamatsu 1992, 51:Murie and Lavigne 1992, 52:Nordoy and Blix 1992, 53:Sigurjónsson and Víkingsson 1992, 54:Bowen et al. 1993, 55:Bowen and Harrison 1994, 56:Fontaine et al. 1994, 57:Gonzalez et al. 1994, 58:Hammond 1994, 59:Santos et al. 1994, 60:Young and Cockcroft 1994, 61:Hammill et al. 1995, 62:Haug 1995, 63:Olsen and Bjorge 1995, 64:Bowen and Harrison 1996, 65:Haug et al. 1996, 66:Mohn and Bowen 1996, 67:Couperus 1997, 68:Gannon et al. 1997, 69:Gannon 1997, 70:Haug et al. 1997, 71:Kenney et al. 1997, 72:Laerm 1997, 73:Palka et al. 1997, 74:Skaug et al. 1997, 75:Weinrich et al. 1997, 76:Barros 1998, 77:Gannon et al. 1998, 78:Pauly 1998, 79:Bowen and Siniff 1999, 80:Ferland 1999, 81:Williams 1999, 82:Barros et al. 2000, 83:Hammill and Stenson 2000, 84:Blanco 2001, 85:Santos 2001, 86:Flinn 2002, 87:Borjesson 2003, 88:Harcourt et al. 2003, 89:Gannon 2004, 90:Santos 2004, 91:Amir et al. 2005, 92:De Pierrepont 2005, 93:Spitz et al. 2006, 94:Bowen 2007, 95:Hammill 2007, 96:Overholtz 2007, 97:Pusineri 2007, 98:Santos 2007, 99:Meynier 2008a, 100:Meynier 2008b, 101:Mintzer 2008, 102:Waring et al. 2008, 103:Ampela 2009, 104:Beatson 2009, 105:Craddock and Polloni 2009, 106:Fernandez 2009, 107:Kopec et al. 2009, 108:Jansen 2010, 109:McCabe 2010, 110:Spitz et al. 2011)

 

FigA1

Fig. A1. Regression sensitivity results of input parameters vs. consumption by: (A) fin whale, (B) humpback whale, (C) right whale, (D) sei whale, (E) minke whale, (F) pilot whale, (G) bottlenose dolphin, (H) Atlantic white-sided dolphin, (I) common dolphin, (J) harbor porpoise, (K) gray seal, and (L) harbor seal.


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