Ecological Archives A025-007-A1

Itai van Rijn, Thomas M. Neeson, and Yael Mandelik. 2015. Reliability and refinement of the higher taxa approach for bee richness and composition assessments. Ecological Applications 25:8898.

Appendix A. Information on unpublished studies included in the analysis and a list of the taxonomists who identified the specimens.

A. Arid data set - "Agriculture habitats" study (A.Gotlieb, unpublished data) – the study was conducted in the spring of 2009 and 2010 along 5 transects extending from agriculture areas to nearby natural habitats (wadis). Adjacent transects were at least 2 km apart. Along each transect four sites (plots), 2500 m² each, were marked at distances of 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 m from the agriculture area. Each site was sampled 4 times in 2009 and 2010, from mid-February to May, corresponding to peak activity period, at ca. 3 weeks intervals. During each sampling event bees were netted off wild flowers for a total of 80 min, split between the morning (8–12) and the afternoon hours (12–16), in the beginning of the season, and extended to 7–17 afterwards (if weather permitted). In total 62 and 113 wild bee species were sampled in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Species (or other unique classification in cases where specimens couldn't be determined to species) sampled in this study include:

Hoplitis zonalis

Afranthidium carduele

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) dinkleri

Amegilla albigena

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) gujaraticus

Amegilla mucorea

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) xanthopoda

Ammobates dubius

Hylaeus (Prosopis) albonotatus

Ammobates mavromoustakisi

Icteranthidium cf. croceum

Ammobates minutissimus

Icteranthidium decoloratum

Ammobates sp.aff. Dubius

Icteranthidium ferrugineum

Ammobates syriacus

Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia) gibber

Andrena (Aciandrena) sp. 1

Lasioglossum (Ctenonomia) vagans

Andrena (Chlorandrena) isis

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) leucopymatum

Andrena (Chrysandrena) aegyptiaca

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) mandibulare

Andrena (Distandrena) govinda

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) masculum

Andrena (Distandrena) govinda aff.

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) sp. 1

Andrena (Distandrena) mariana leptura

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) sp. 2

Andrena (Graecandrena) sp. 2

Megachile aff. nitidicollis

Andrena (Melanapis) fuscosa

Megachile atrocastanea

Andrena (Melandrena) albifacies

Megachile cf. inexpectata

Andrena (Poliandrena) sp. 3

Megachile cf. maxillosa

Andrena (Simandrena) biskrensis

Megachile cf. minutissima

Andrena (Suandrena) savignyi

Megachile cf. rubripes

Anthidium echinatum

Megachile cinnamomea

Anthidium eremicum

Megachile concinna

Anthidium tesselatum

Megachile insignis

Anthidium wuestneii

Megachile levistriga

Anthophora sp. aff. lutulenta 1

Megachile sp. nov "flavilabris"

Camptopoeum negevense

Megachile tkalcui

Ceratina parvula

Melitta maura

Ceylalictus punjabensis

Nomada dilleri

Ceylalictus seistanicus

Nomioides facilis

Ceylalictus variegatus

Nomioides klausi

Colletes elegans

Nomioides minutissimus

Colletes judaicus

Nomioides rotundiceps

Colletes nanus

Nomioides squamiger

Colletes perezi

Nomioides turanicus

Colletes pseudojejunus

Osmia alfkenii

Colletes pumilus

Osmia avedata

Dasypoda albipila

Osmia fasciata

Epeolus flavociliatus

Osmia laticella

Eucera (Hetereucera) syriaca

Osmia latreillei

Eucera (Synhalonia) biscrensis

Panurgus buteus

Eucera (Synhalonia) cuniculina

Panurgus dentatus

Eucera (Synhalonia) microsoma

Panurgus nigriscopus

Eudioxys quadrispinosa

Parammobatodes maroccanus

Haetosmia circumventa

Parammobatodes rozeni

Halictus (Halictus) resurgens

Pasites maculatus

Halictus (Seladonia) lucidipennis

Protosmia (Nanosmia) sp. 1

Halictus (Seladonia) smaragdulus

Protosmia (Nanosmia) sp. nov. 2

Halictus (vestitohalictus) cupidus

Pseudapis nilotica

Halictus (vestitohalictus) pici

Pseudoanthidium bytinskii

Heriades (Michenerella) sp. 1

Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum

Hoplitis (Annosmia) sp. 1

Pseudoheriades moricei

Hoplitis (Anthocopa) cf. rubricrus

Stenoheriades eingeddicus

Hoplitis (Hoplitis) sp. 2

Stenosmia aravensis

Hoplitis (Stenosmia) sp. 3

Tetraloniella niveata m.

Hoplitis aravensis

Tetraloniella sp. 1

Hoplitis christae

Tetraloniella sp. 2

Hoplitis enslini

Thyreus elegans

Hoplitis flavicornis

Thyreus hyalinatus

Hoplitis helouanensis

Thyreus ramosus

Hoplitis hofferi

Xylocopa hottentotta

Hoplitis jordanica

Xylocopa pubescens

Hoplitis moricei


Hoplitis parana


Hoplitis quinquespinosa


Hoplitis segura


B. Mediterranean data set – "Planted pine forests and natural habitats" study (T. Koznichki, unpublished data) – the study was conducted in 2010–2011 in five pairs of sites, a natural habitat site (shrubland) and an adjacent forest site in a planted pine forest (Pinus halepensis, with regeneration of understory natural vegetation), ca. 200 m apart. Each site (plot) was 25 m² in size. Four forests were included in the study; adjacent pairs of sites were at least 2.2 km apart. Each site was sampled 5 times (early and late spring, summer, autumn, and winter). In each site during each sampling event bees were sampled using (a) 12 pan-traps (colored plastic bowls, 15 cm in diameter and 4 cm deep filled with soapy water) spread uniformly across the site from 8 to 16, and (b) nets, sampling off flowers for a total of 30 min, split between the morning (8–12) and the afternoon hours (12–16). In total 159 wild bee species were sampled. Species (or other unique classification in cases where specimens couldn't be determined to species) sampled in this study include:

Halictus semiticus

Amegilla sp.1

Heriades punctuliferus

Ammobates sp.1

Hoplitis antalya

Andrena (Aenandrena) bisulcata

Hoplitis bifoveolata

Andrena (Carandrena) falcinella

Hoplitis bisulca

Andrena (Carandrena) levantina

Hoplitis gallinula

Andrena (Carandrena) nubica

Hoplitis obtusa

Andrena (Chlorandrena) orientana

Hoplitis onychophora

Andrena (Chlorandrena) panurgimorpha 

Hoplitis pallicornis

Andrena (Chlorandrena) pinkeunia 

Hoplitis unispina

Andrena (Chrysandrena) merula

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) sidensis

Andrena (Cryptandrena) brumanensis

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) trifidus

Andrena (Graecandrena) hyemala repressa

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) lineolatus

Andrena (Holandrena) fimbriatoides

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) taeniolatus

Andrena (Margandrena) krausiella

Hylaeus (Spatulariella) longimaculus

Andrena (Margandrena) menachemella

Hylaeus armeniacus

Andrena (Melandrena) elmaria

Hylaeus bifasciatus

Andrena (Melandrena) nigroaenea

Hylaeus punctatus

Andrena (Micrandrena) spreta

Hylaeus stellatus

Andrena (Notandrena) nitidiuscula nigellata

Lasioglossum (Dialictus) morio

Andrena (Poecilandrena) crassana inka

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) adaliae

Andrena (Poliandrena) caspica

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) anellum

Andrena (Poliandrena) unicincta

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) imbecillum

Andrena (Ptilandrena) glidia 

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) israelense

Andrena (Taeniandrena) similis

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) malachurum

Andrena (Truncandrena) fuligula

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) nigripes

Andrena (Truncandrena) rufomaculata 

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) obscuratum

Andrena (Ulandrena) dauma

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) pseudosphecodimorphum

Andrena (Ulandrena) isabellina

Lasioglossum (Evylaeus) pygmaeum

Andrena (Zonandrena) flavipes

Lasioglossum epipygiale

Andrena (Zonandrena) gazella flammea

Lasioglossum laticeps hellenicum

Andrena abbreviata abnormis

Lasioglossum marginatum

Andrena alfkenelloides cardalia

Lasioglossum politum atomarium

Andrena astica

Lasioglossum transitorium

Andrena curiosa

Megachile giraudi

Andrena fulvitarsis

Megachile montenegrensis

Andrena glandaria

Megachile parietina

Andrena glareola

Nomada basalis

Andrena henotica

Nomada bifasciata

Andrena paradoxa

Nomada braunsiana

Andrena regina

Nomada caspia

Andrena rufitibialis limosa

Nomada confinis

Andrena taraxaci

Nomada femoralis

Andrena tiaretta

Nomada filicornis

Andrena tkalcui

Nomada flavoguttata

Andrena virgata

Nomada glaucopis

Anthidiellum (breviuscum) troodicum

Nomada hera

Anthidium dalmaticum syriacum

Nomada israelis

Ceratina bispinosa

Nomada lapillula

Ceratina cucurbitina

Nomada lateritia

Ceratina dentiventris

Nomada nausicaa

Ceratina parvula

Nomada ottomanensis

Chelostoma bytinskii

Nomada pallispinosa

Chelostoma diodon

Nomada propinqua

Chelostoma distinctum

Nomada rubricollis

Chelostoma isabellinum

Osmia aquila

Chelostoma mocsaryi

Osmia caerulescens

Chelostoma schlettereri

Osmia cephalotes

Chelostoma sp. nov. 1

Osmia cyanoxantha

Chelostoma sp. nov. 2

Osmia distinguenda

Coelioxys elsei

Osmia dives

Eoanthidium insulare

Osmia gallinula

Eucera aeolopus

Osmia ligurica

Eucera caerulescens

Osmia nana

Eucera cinnamomea

Osmia rufohirta

Eucera clypeata

Osmia scutellaris

Eucera clupeoides

Osmia signata

Eucera decipiens

Osmia subcornuta

Eucera ebmeri

Osmia submicans

Eucera friesei

Osmia teunisseni

Eucera gaullei

Osmia viridana

Eucera laxiscopa

Protosmia Chelostomopsis sp. nov. 1

Eucera microsoma

Protosmia monstrosa

Eucera nigrilabris

Protosmia tiflensis

Eucera penicillata

Pseudoanthidium rhombiferum

Eucera plumigera

Rhodanthidium septemdentatum

Eucera rhodia

Stelis nasuta

Eucera syriaca

Stenoheriades sp. nov.1

Halictus (Halictus) resurgens

Xylocopa violacea

Halictus (Halictus) tetrazonianellus


Halictus (Seladonia) smaragdulus


C. Temperate data set – "Abandoned agriculture fields" study (Y. Mandelik, unpublished data) - the study was conducted in the spring and summer of 2006 in 20 sites (plots), 5000 m² each, located in abandoned (old) field of variable ages (1–20 years since cultivation ceased) and contrasting management regime (either regularly mowed or unmowed). Old fields spanned a range of structural configurations, from open grasslands to dense scrublands. Sites were at least 1.7 km apart. Each site was sampled 4 times between June and August, corresponding to peak activity period, at ca. 3 weeks intervals. In each site during each sampling event bees were netted off wild flowers for a total of 60 min, split between the morning (9–12) and the afternoon hours (12–15). In total 106 wild bee species were sampled. Species (or other unique classification in cases where specimens couldn't be determined to species) sampled in this study include:

Hylaeus affinis/modestus

Agapostemon texanus

Hylaeus leptocephalus

Agapostemon virescens

Hylaeus mesillae

Andrena carlini

Lasioglossum abanci

Andrena commoda

Lasioglossum admirandum

Andrena cressonii

Lasioglossum albipenne

Andrena gardineri

Lasioglossum bruneri

Andrena hippotes

Lasioglossum coeruleum

Andrena miserabilis

Lasioglossum coreopsis

Andrena nasonii

Lasioglossum coriaceum

Andrena nubecula

Lasioglossum cressonii

Andrena nuda

Lasioglossum fuscipenne

Andrena perplexa

Lasioglossum illinoense

Andrena placata

Lasioglossum imitatum

Andrena pruni

Lasioglossum laevissimum

Andrena robertsonii

Lasioglossum nigroviride

Andrena rudbekia

Lasioglossum nymphaearum

Andrena simplex

Lasioglossum obscurum

Andrena vicina

Lasioglossum oenotherae

Andrena wilkella

Lasioglossum pectorale

Anthidium manicatum

Lasioglossum pilosum

Anthidium oblongatum

Lasioglossum platyparium

Anthophora abrupta

Lasioglossum quebecense

Augochlora pura

Lasioglossum tegulare

Augochlorella aurata

Lasioglossum truncatum

Augochloropsis metallica

Lasioglossum versans

Bombus bimaculatus

Lasioglossum versatum

Bombus citrinus

Lasioglossum vierecki

Bombus fervidus

Lasioglossum viridatum

Bombus griseocollis

Lasioglossum zephyrum

Bombus impatiens

Megachile brevis

Bombus pensylvanicus

Megachile latimanus

Bombus perplexus

Megachile mendica

Bombus vagans

Megachile rotundata

Calliopsis andreniformis

Megachile sculpturalis

Ceratina calcarata/dupla

Melissodes bimaculata

Ceratina strenua

Melissodes denticulata

Coelioxys banksi

Melissodes desponsa

Coelioxys obtusiventris

Melissodes druriella

Coelioxys octodentata

Nomada articulata

Colletes compactus

Nomada bethunei

Colletes simulans

Nomada cressonii

Eucera atriventris

Nomada luteoloides

Eucera dubitata

Nomada maculata

Eucera hamata

Osmia bucephala

Halictus confusus

Osmia distincta

Halictus ligatus/poeyi

Osmia pumila

Halictus parallelus

Perdita octomaculata

Halictus rubicundus

Pseudopanurgus compositarum

Heriades carinatus

Pseudopanurgus sp. (near rudbeckiae)

Heriades variolosus

Sphecodes heraclei

Hoplitis pilosifrons

Stelis lateralis

Hoplitis producta

Xylocopa virginica

Hoplitis truncata

Bees caught in the arid and the Mediterranean studies were curated, identified by the relevant expert taxonomist for that group (see full list of taxonomists in the methods) and deposited in the Entomology Department, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Bees caught in the temperate study were curated, identified by S. Droege and J. Ascher, and deposited in the Entomology Department, Rutgers University.

The taxonomists who identified the specimens:

Holger Dathe (Hylaeus), Terry Griswold (Megachilidae), Andreas Müller (Osmiini, Anthidiini), Sébastien Patiny (Panurginae, Rophitinae), Alain Pauly (Halictidae), Christophe Praz (Megachile, Lithurgus), Stephan Risch (Eucerini), Erwin Scheuchl (Andrena), Max Schwarz (parasitic taxa), Michaël Terzo (Xylocopinae).

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