Ecological Archives A021-096-A1

Eric W. Seabloom, Cara D. Benfield, Elizabeth T. Borer, Amanda G. Stanley, Thomas N. Kaye, and Peter W. Dunwiddie. 2011. Provenance, lifespan, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus. Ecological Applications 21:2129–2142.

Appendix A. Tables showing additional details on plant and soil characteristics and responses.

TABLE A1. Soil variables measured in field observational plots.

Variable Analytical method Range of values (mean ▒ SE)
Soil moisture Gravimetric 17.3–52.6 % by w (33.0 ▒ 1.4)
pH Orion Microprocessor pH/millivolt Meter Model 811 4.9–5.8 (5.4 ▒ 0.04)
Ammonium Flow Injection Analysis Colorimetry by QuikChem Method 10-107-06-2-A 0.2–3.2 Corrected mg N/L (1.2 ▒ 0.1)
Nitrate Flow Injection Analysis Colorimetry by QuikChem Method 10-107-04-1-A 0.06–2.1 Corrected mg N/L (0.5 ▒ 0.08)
Total organic carbon High Temperature Catalytic Combustion 10.2–40.4 mg C/L (21.2 ▒ 1.0)
Total nitrogen Chemiluminescence Detection and Combustion 1.4–5.6 mg N/L (3.1 ▒ 0.2)
Total phosphorous Colorimetry 554.55–1887.32 mg P/kg soil (1044.6 ▒ 130.6)

TABLE A2. Species of grasses used in the greenhouse fertilization experiment. Seed for the experimental grass species was hand collected in June and July 2006 from Basket Butte (Basket Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Marion County, Oregon), Bellfountain Prairie (William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge, Benton County, Oregon), and Oak Creek (McDonald-Dunn Research Forest, Benton County, Oregon), or obtained from local native seed producers (Landmark Seed, Albany, Oregon; Pacific Northwest Natives, Albany, Oregon; and Outsidepride.com, Inc., Independence, Oregon).

Species Tribe Lifespan Provenance Source
Avena fatua Aveneae Annual Exotic Collected: Basket Butte
Arrhenatherum elatius Aveneae Perennial Exotic Collected: Basket Butte and Bellfountain Prairie
Koeleria macrantha Aveneae Perennial Native Purchased: Landmark Seed
Bromus hordeaceus Bromeae Annual Exotic Collected: Basket Butte
Bromus inermis Bromeae Perennial Exotic Purchased: Outside Pride
Bromus carinatus Bromeae Perennial Native Purchased: Pacific Northwest Natives
Cynosurus echinatus Poeae Annual Exotic Collected: Basket Butte and Oak Creek
Schedonorus phoenix Poeae Perennial Exotic Collected: Basket Butte
Festuca roemeri Poeae Perennial Native Purchased: Pacific Northwest Natives
Taeniatherum caput-medusae Triticeae Annual Exotic Collected: Basket Butte
Elymus glaucus Triticeae Perennial Native Collected: Basket Butte

TABLE A3. Concentration of the compounds used in the fertilizer solutions(modified from Hoagland and Arnon 1938, Downs and Hellmers 1975). KH2PO4 and NH4NO3 were each supplied at concentrations equivalent to 0.2%, 1%, and 10% the concentration prescribed in a half-strength Hoagland’s recipe. While the concentration of all other nutrients remain the same, these low, medium, and “high” N and P concentrations were crossed to produce nine fertilizer solutions.

  Compound Concentration (ÁM)
Macronutrients K2SO4 1250
MgSO4·7H2O 1000
KH2PO4 1, 5, 50a
CaSO4·2H2O 2000
NH4NO3 7.5, 37.5, 375a
Micronutrientsb KCl 25
H3BO3 12.5
MnSO4·H2O 1
ZnSO4·7H2O 1
CuSO4·5H2O 0.25
H2MoO4·H2O 0.25
NaFeEDDHA (6% Fe) 10

a KH2PO4 and NH4NO3 are each supplied at concentrations equivalent to 0.2%, 1%, and 10% the concentration prescribed in a half-strength Hoagland’s recipe.
b All solutions, regardless of concentration of N and P, receive the same concentration of micronutrients


TABLE A4. Standardized Mantel statistic and P value of randomization test for Mantel’s tests for correlation between soil chemistry variables and ordination scores of sample units in species space.

Soil chemistry variable Mantel’s r P
Soil moisture -0.053 0.1490
pH 0.263 0.0010
Ammonium 0.117 0.0540
Nitrate 0.459 0.0010
Total organic carbon 0.024 0.2830
Total nitrogen 0.076 0.0770
Total phosphorus 0.431 0.0010

TABLE A5. Mean total biomass (mg) ▒ 1SE for each species-planting density-N level.

Species Density 7.5 Ámol N
mean ▒ 1 SE
37.5 Ámol N
mean ▒ 1 SE
375 Ámol N
mean ▒ 1 SE
Arrhenatherum elatius 1 88.8 ▒ 20 176.3 ▒ 35 1055.0 ▒ 180
10 28.6 ▒ 4 36.6 ▒ 5 150.9 ▒ 17
Avena fatua 1 79.2 ▒ 11 110.2 ▒ 21 526.8 ▒ 130
10 55.2 ▒ 10 60.2 ▒ 9 99.2 ▒ 14
Bromus carinatus 1 131.6 ▒ 28 225.9 ▒ 47 849.0 ▒ 150
10 56.5 ▒ 11 72.5 ▒ 14 183.3 ▒ 37
Bromus hordeaceus 1 65.9 ▒ 11 162.1 ▒ 34 941.2 ▒ 160
10 18.1 ▒ 2 31.4 ▒ 3 129.8 ▒ 13
Bromus inermis 1 74.6 ▒ 19 186.8 ▒ 50 934.8 ▒ 190
10 26.0 ▒ 3 36.4 ▒ 3 151.0 ▒ 18
Cynosurus echinatus 1 88.1 ▒ 28 148.9 ▒ 37 1351.8 ▒ 290
10 15.3 ▒ 4 38.6 ▒ 10 175.2 ▒ 21
Elymus glaucus 1 71.9 ▒ 13 203.2 ▒ 33 630.9 ▒ 140
10 33.4 ▒ 4 38.0 ▒ 5 112.9 ▒ 14
Festuca arundinacea 1 99.3 ▒ 25 243.1 ▒ 43 1356.6 ▒ 250
10 26.3 ▒ 4 40.1 ▒ 5 174.1 ▒ 22
Festuca roemeri 1 204.4 ▒ 54 269.3 ▒ 40 1059.3 ▒ 230
10 75.2 ▒ 15 92.9 ▒ 15 227.1 ▒ 29
Koeleria macrantha 1 60.1 ▒ 18 156.1 ▒ 41 962.3 ▒ 190
10 11.0 ▒ 2 27.7 ▒ 4 136.0 ▒ 22
Taeniatherum caput-medusae 1 71.2 ▒ 13 171.6 ▒ 25 954.4 ▒ 160
10 29.0 ▒ 4 43.6 ▒ 4 111.7 ▒ 13

TABLE A6. Mean root-to-shoot ratio ▒ 1 SE for each species-planting density-N level.

Species Density 7.5 Ámol N
root:shoot ▒ 1 SE
37.5 Ámol N
root:shoot ▒ 1 SE
375 Ámol N
root:shoot ▒ 1 SE
Arrhenatherum elatius 1 2.27 ▒ 0.4 2.09 ▒ 0.3 1.74 ▒ 0.3
10 2.81 ▒ 0.8 2.10 ▒ 0.3 2.13 ▒ 0.4
Avena fatua 1 8.43 ▒ 7.6 0.71 ▒ 0.1 0.40 ▒ 0.1
10 0.49 ▒ 0.1 0.57 ▒ 0.1 0.53 ▒ 0.1
Bromus carinatus 1 1.59 ▒ 0.3 1.91 ▒ 0.4 1.02 ▒ 0.2
10 1.00 ▒ 0.1 0.93 ▒ 0.1 0.91 ▒ 0.1
Bromus hordeaceus 1 2.56 ▒ 0.4 1.70 ▒ 0.2 1.30 ▒ 0.2
10 2.98 ▒ 0.9 2.18 ▒ 0.6 1.60 ▒ 0.3
Bromus inermis 1 2.43 ▒ 0.3 2.10 ▒ 0.2 1.95 ▒ 0.3
10 2.24 ▒ 0.4 1.89 ▒ 0.3 2.01 ▒ 0.4
Cynosurus echinatus 1 2.11 ▒ 0.5 2.52 ▒ 0.6 1.87 ▒ 0.4
10 4.31 ▒ 1.6 2.04 ▒ 0.4 2.54 ▒ 0.6
Elymus glaucus 1 1.79 ▒ 0.2 2.19 ▒ 0.4 1.22 ▒ 0.2
10 1.74 ▒ 0.4 1.43 ▒ 0.1 1.26 ▒ 0.1
Festuca arundinacea 1 4.57 ▒ 1.8 2.61 ▒ 0.5 1.57 ▒ 0.3
10 3.04 ▒ 0.6 2.28 ▒ 0.4 2.05 ▒ 0.3
Festuca roemeri 1 1.79 ▒ 0.4 1.86 ▒ 0.3 1.12 ▒ 0.2
10 2.15 ▒ 0.2 2.54 ▒ 0.3 1.86 ▒ 0.2
Koeleria macrantha 1 2.31 ▒ 0.4 3.95 ▒ 1.4 1.73 ▒ 0.4
10 2.23 ▒ 0.5 3.38 ▒ 0.8 2.80 ▒ 0.9
Taeniatherum caput-medusae 1 1.78 ▒ 0.3 1.64 ▒ 0.4 1.28 ▒ 0.3
10 1.42 ▒ 0.3 1.46 ▒ 0.3 1.10 ▒ 0.2

LITERATURE CITED

Downs, R. J., and H. Hellmers. 1975. Environment and the experimental control of plant growth. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA.

Hoagland, D. R., and D. I. Arnon. 1938. The water culture method for growing plants without soil. Circular / University of California, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station.


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