Ecological Archives A020-048-A3

Thomas F. Cuffney, Robin A. Brightbill, Jason T. May, and Ian R. White. 2010. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental changes associated with urbanization in nine metropolitan areas. Ecological Applications 20:1384–1401.

Appendix C. List of variables and their definitions for hydrology, water temperature, water chemistry and pesticide indices, SPMD chemistry, and habitat.

TABLE C1.  Hydrologic variables
[POR, period of record;  h: hour; XA, cross-sectional area].

Variable

Definition

cv

coefficient of variation of cross-sectional area over all hours in POR.

skew

Skew of cross-sectional area over all hours in POR.

cv_log

coefficient of variation of hourly cross-sectional area values, where cross-sectional area values are equal to log(1+cross-sectional area)

coefdisp

coefficient of dispersion (75th percentile cross-sectional area-25th percentile cross-sectional area)/median cross-sectional area

mean

mean cross-sectional area value or POR

median

median (50th percentile) cross-sectional area value over POR

mean_DA

mean cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by drainage area

med_DA

median (50th percentile) cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by drainage area

pct_99n

99th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_95n

95th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_90n

90th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_75n

75th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_25n

25th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_10n

10th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_5n

5th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area value over POR

pct_99a

99th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

pct_95a

95th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

pct_90a

90th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

pct_75a

75th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

pct_25a

25th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

pct_10a

10th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

pct_5a

5th percentile cross-sectional area value over POR - Actual value in square meters

mxh_75

Maximum duration of high cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); high cross-sectional area greater than 75th percentile.

mxh_90

Maximum duration of high cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); high cross-sectional area greater than 90th percentile.

mxh_95

Maximum duration of high cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); high cross-sectional area greater than 95th percentile.

mdh_75

Median duration of high cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); high cross-sectional area greater than 75th percentile.

mdh_90

Median duration of high cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); high cross-sectional area greater than 90th percentile.

mdh_95

Median duration of high cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); high cross-sectional area greater than 95th percentile.

mxl_25

Maximum duration of low cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); low cross-sectional area less than 25th percentile.

mxl_10

Maximum duration of low cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); low cross-sectional area less than 10th percentile.

mxl_5

Maximum duration of low cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); low cross-sectional area less than 5th percentile.

mdl_25

Median duration of low cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); low cross-sectional area less than 25th percentile.

mdl_10

Median duration of low cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); low cross-sectional area less than 10th percentile.

mdl_5

Median duration of low cross-sectional area pulses over POR (h); low cross-sectional area less than 5th percentile.

d_pchang

Sum of the absolute value of the relative change in daily mean cross-sectional area, SUM (|cross-sectional area(t) - cross-sectional area(t-1)|/cross-sectional area(t)),
over POR, where cross-sectional area(t) is the daily mean cross-sectional area on day t.

rb_flash

Version of Richards-Baker flashiness index, = sum of the absolute values of change in mean daily XA, divided by the sum of the daily mean XAs for the POR; (SUM|cross-sectional area(t)-cross-sectional area(t-1)|) / (SUM cross-sectional area(t)), where
cross-sectional area(t) is the daily mean XA on day t

cum_chng

Sum of the absolute value of the total rise and fall in cross-sectional area over POR

cum_med

Sum of the absolute value of the total rise and fall in cross-sectional area over POR, divided by median cross-sectional area over POR

mx_trise

The maximum change in cross-sectional area during one rising period

md_trise

The median event rise, over the POR, which is the normalizing variable for 'periodr' variables below

mx_tfall

The maximum change in cross-sectional area during one falling period

md_tfall

The median event fall, over the POR, which is the normalizing variable for 'periodf' variables below

periodr3

Frequency of rising cross-sectional area events, where total rise is greater than or
equal to 3 times the median total rise over POR (number of rises)

periodr5

Frequency of rising cross-sectional area events, where total rise is greater than or
equal to 5 times the median total rise over POR (number of rises)

periodr7

Frequency of rising cross-sectional area events, where total rise is greater than or
equal to 7 times the median total rise over POR (number of rises)

periodr9

Frequency of rising cross-sectional area events, where total rise is greater than or
equal to 9 times the median total rise over POR (number of rises)

periodf3

Frequency of falling cross-sectional area events, where total fall is greater than or equal to 3 times the median total fall over POR (number of falling events)

periodf5

Frequency of falling cross-sectional area events, where total fall is greater than or
equal to 5 times the median total fall over POR (number of falling events)

periodf7

Frequency of falling cross-sectional area events, where total fall is greater than or
equal to 7 times the median total fall over POR (number of falling events)

periodf9

Frequency of falling cross-sectional area events, where total fall is greater than or
equal to 9 times the median total fall over POR (number of falling events)

mx_durrs

Maximum duration (number of hours) of consecutive periods of rising cross-sectional area over POR

md_durrs

Median duration (number of hours) of consecutive periods of rising cross-sectional area over POR

mx_durfl

Maximum duration (number of hours) of consecutive periods of falling cross-sectional area over POR

md_durfl

Median duration (number of hours) of consecutive periods of falling cross-sectional area over POR

 

TABLE C2.  Water-temperature variables.

Variable

Definition

AnndDays

Annual degree days

SAVE1h

Average summer temperature based on 1 h measurements

SMAX1h

Maximum temperature over summer period based on 1 h measurements

SMIN1h

Minimum temperature over summer period based on 1 h measurements

SRANGE1h

Range in temperatures over summer period based on 1 h measurements

SSD1h

Standard deviation of temperatures over summer period based on 1 h measurements

SR1hAve

Average hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over the summer period based on 1 h measurements

SR1hMax

Maximum hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over the summer period based on 1 h measurements

SR1hMin

Minimum hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over the summer period based on 1 h measurements

SR1hRNG

Range in hourly rates of change in temperature (absolute values) over the summer period based on 1 h measurements

SR1hSD

Standard deviation in the hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over the summer period based on 1 h measurements

SR1h1SDn

Number of summer temperature rate changes that were less than or equal to 1
standard deviation of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

SR1h2SDn

Number of summer temperature rate changes that were greater than 1 standard
deviation and less than or equal to 2 standard deviations of the mean rate of
change for the year based on 1 h measurements

SR1h3SDn

Number of summer temperature rate changes that were greater than 2 standard
deviations and less than or equal to 3 standard deviations of the mean rate of
change for the year based on 1 h measurements

SR1h4SDn

Number of summer temperature rate changes that were greater than 3 standard
deviations and less than or equal to 4 standard deviations of the mean rate of
change for the year based on 1 h measurements

SR1h5SDn

Number of summer temperature rate changes that were greater than 4 standard
deviations and less than or equal to 5 standard deviations of the mean rate of
change for the year based on 1 h measurements

SR1h6SDn

Number of summer temperature rate changes that were greater than 5 standard
deviations of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

AVE1h

Average annual temperature based on 1 h measurements

MAX1h

Maximum temperature over annual period based on 1 h measurements

MIN1h

Minimum temperature over annual period based on 1 h measurements

RANGE1h

Range in temperatures over annual period based on 1 h measurements

SD1h

Standard deviation of temperatures over annual period based on 1 h measurements

R1hAve

Average hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over an annual period based on 1 h measurements

R1hMax

Maximum hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over an annual period based on 1 h measurements

R1hMin

Minimum hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over an annual period based on 1 h measurements

R1hRNG

Range in hourly rates of change in temperature (absolute values) over an annual period based on 1 h measurements

R1hSD

Standard deviation in the hourly rate of change in temperature (absolute values) over an annual period based on 1 h measurements

R1h1SDn

Number of temperature rate changes that were less than or equal to 1 standard
deviation of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

R1h2SDn

Number of temperature rate changes that were greater than 1 standard deviation and less than or equal to 2 standard deviations of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

R1h3SDn

Number of temperature rate changes that were greater than 2 standard deviations
and less than or equal to 3 standard deviations of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

R1h4SDn

Number of temperature rate changes that were greater than 3 standard
deviations and less than or equal to 4 standard deviations of the mean
rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

R1h5SDn

Number of temperature rate changes that were greater than 4 standard
deviations and less than or equal to 5 standard deviations of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

R1h6SDnp

Number of temperature rate changes that were greater than 5 standard
deviations of the mean rate of change for the year based on 1 h measurements

 

TABLE C3.  Water chemistry variables and pesticide indices.

Variable

Definition

Field measurements

 

    High base-flow

 
 

PFINES_H

Suspended sediment, sieve diameter, percent smaller than 0.063 millimeters: high base flow

 

SUSSD_H

Suspended sediment concentration, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

DISSOX_H

Dissolved oxygen, water, unfiltered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

PH_H

pH, water, unfiltered, field, standard units: high base flow

 

COND_H

Specific conductance, water, unfiltered, microsiemens per centimeter
at 25 degrees Celsius: high base flow

 

ALK_H

Alkalinity, dissolved, field, incremental titration: high base flow

 

CARB_H

Carbonate, dissolved, field, incremental titration: high base flow

 

BICARB_H

Bicarbonate, dissolved, field, incremental titration: high base flow

    Low base-flow

 
 

PFINES_L

Suspended sediment, sieve diameter, percent smaller than 0.063 millimeters: high base-flow

 

SUSSD_L

Suspended sediment concentration, milligrams per liter: high base-flow

 

DISSOX_L

Dissolved oxygen, water, unfiltered, milligrams per liter: high base-flow

 

PH_L

pH, water, unfiltered, field, standard units: high base-flow

 

COND_L

Specific conductance, water, unfiltered, microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius: high base-flow

 

ALK_L

Alkalinity, dissolved, field, incremental titration: high base-flow

 

CARB_L

Carbonate, dissolved, field, incremental titration: high base-flow

 

BICARB_L

Bicarbonate, dissolved, field, incremental titration: high base-flow

Nutrients and major ions

    High base-flow

 
 

CHLOR_H

Chloride, water, filtered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

SULFA_H

Sulfate, water, filtered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

TKN_H

Ammonia plus organic nitrogen, water, unfiltered, milligrams per liter as nitrogen: high base flow

 

AMMON_H

Ammonia, water, filtered, milligrams per liter as nitrogen: high base flow

 

NOX_H

Nitrite plus nitrate, water, filtered, milligrams per liter as nitrogen: high base flow

 

NO2_H

Nitrite, water, filtered, milligrams per liter as nitrogen: high base flow

 

ORTHOP_H

Orthophosphate, water, filtered, milligrams per liter as phosphorus: high base flow

 

PARTN_H

Particulate nitrogen, suspended in water, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

TOTP_H

Phosphorus, water, unfiltered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

TPARC_H

Total nitrogen, water, unfiltered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

PINORC_H

Inorganic carbon, suspended sediment, total, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

PORGC_H

Organic carbon, suspended sediment, total, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

DISORC_H

Organic carbon, water, filtered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 

NO3_H

Nitrate, water, filtered, milligrams per liter as nitrogen: high base flow

 

TOTN_H

Total nitrogen, water, unfiltered, milligrams per liter: high base flow

 Low base-flow

 
 

CHLOR_L

Chloride, water, filt