Ecological Archives A020-048-A2

Thomas F. Cuffney, Robin A. Brightbill, Jason T. May, and Ian R. White. 2010. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental changes associated with urbanization in nine metropolitan areas. Ecological Applications 20:1384–1401.

Appendix B. List of variables and their definitions for landcover, infrastructure, and census.

TABLE B1. Landcover variables.

Variable

Definition

 Basin land cover

 
 

P_NLCD1

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: water (% basin area)

 

P_NLCD2

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: developed (% basin area)

 

P_NLCD3

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: barren (includes all level 2 barren and
unconsolidated categories) (% basin area)

 

P_NLCD4

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: forest (% basin area)

 

P_NLCD5

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: shrubland (includes all level 2 shrub and
scrub categories)(% basin area)

 

P_NLCD7

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: herbaceous upland natural/semi-natural
vegetation (grassland) (% basin area)

 

P_NLCD8

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: crops and pasture (% basin area)

 

P_NLCD9

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: wetlands (% basin area)

 

NLCD_IS

NLCD 2001 mean percent impervious surface in the basin

 

NOAA_IS

Mean percent impervious surface in the basin derived from NOAA 1 km resolution data
for 1990s (see http://dmsp.ngdc.noaa.gov/html/download_isa2000_2001.html)

Distance weighted land cover

 

pWATERdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: water (% basin area, weighted by distance
from sampling site)

 

pURBANdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: developed (% basin area, weighted by
distance from sampling site)

 

pBAREdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: barren (includes all level 2 barren and
unconsolidated categories) (% basin area, weighted by distance from sampling site)

 

pFORdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: forest (% basin area, weighted by distance
from sampling site)

 

pRANGEdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: shrubland (includes all level 2 shrub and
scrub categories)(% basin area, weighted by distance from sampling site)

 

pHERBw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: herbaceous upland natural/semi-natural
vegetation (grassland) (% basin area, weighted by distance from sampling site)

 

pAGRIdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: crops and pasture (% basin area, weighted
by distance from sampling site)

 

pWETLDdw

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: wetlands (% basin area, weighted by
distance from sampling site)

Segment-scale land cover

 

SEGCUR

Segment length in meters. This is the curvilinear length of the stream upstream from the
sampling site

 

SEG_RSX

Number of road - stream intersections in segment area. Segment area is the riparian
zone (~100 m each side of stream centerline) along the segment

 

SEGRSXK

Number of road - stream intersections per stream segment kilometer

 

SEG_RMD

Mean distance from stream segment to nearest road (m). (mean distance of every point
along the stream - 30m pixels - to the nearest road to that point)

 

SINUOS

Segment sinuosity (unitless). Curvilinear length/ straight length between segment
end points

 

SEGGRAD

Segment gradient, m/km. Number of meters the stream falls in elevation for every
km of segment length

 

pWATRseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: water (% segment riparian
area)

 

pURBseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: developed (% segment riparian
area)

 

pBAREseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: barren (includes all level 2
barren and unconsolidated categories) (% segment riparian area)

 

pFORseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: forest (% segment riparian
area)

 

pRANGseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: shrubland (includes all level 2
shrub and scrub categories) (% segment riparian area)

 

pHERBseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: herbaceous upland
natural/semi-natural vegetation (grassland) (% segment riparian area)

 

pAGseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: crops and pasture (% segment
riparian area)

 

pWETseg

Segment area in aggregated NLCD01 "level 1" category: wetlands (% segment riparian
area)

Stream buffer land cover (~100 m each side of stream centerline)

 

P_NLCDB1

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: water (% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB2

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: developed (% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB3

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: barren (includes all level 2 barren and
unconsolidated categories) (% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB4

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: forest (% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB5

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: shrubland (includes all level 2 shrub and
scrub categories)(% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB7

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: herbaceous upland natural/semi-natural
vegetation (grassland) (% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB8

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: crops and pasture (% buffer area)

 

P_NLCDB9

Aggregated NLCD 2001 "level 1" category: wetlands (% buffer area)

 

NLCD_BIS

NLCD 2001 mean percent impervious surface in the riparian zone

Basin fragmentation

 
 

BSHAP_IX

Basin Shape Index (unitless). This is a measure of the basin shape/compactness.
Same metric as "SIM_" below, except calculated on the entire basin boundary, not
just particular patches within the basin. Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values
indicate compact shape (e.g., perfectly round basin would have value of 1.0), and
higher values indicate more irregular shapes (e.g., a very long skinny basin might
have a value of 3 or more)

 

NP_C1

Number of patches of water

 

PD_C1

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of water

 

LPI_C1

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest patch of
water (%)

 

PAM_C1

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of water (ha)

 

SIM_C1

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for water. Measure of mean patch shape/compactness.
Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values indicate compact shape (e.g., perfectly
square patch would have value of 1), and higher values indicate more irregular
shapes (e.g., a very long skinny patch might have a value of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C1

Proximity Index for water, Mean - Measure of isolation and fragmentation of patches
(unitless). Large numbers mean many patches of the same type within the specified
proximity (in our case 1000m); low numbers the reverse

 

EDM_C1

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for water, Mean. Mean nearest neighbor
distance for patches of water (m). Measure of how dispersed the patches are

 

PLA_C1

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for water - Percentage of patch adjacencies that are of
the same type (%). If patches are surrounded by similar patches, this will be a high
number, if patches are mostly surrounded by a different kind of patch, it will be a
low number

 

NP_C2

Number of patches of developed land

 

PD_C2

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of developed land

 

LPI_C2

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest patch of
developed land (%)

 

PAM_C2

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of developed land (ha)

 

SIM_C2

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for developed land. Measure of mean patch
shape/compactness. Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values
indicate compact shape (e.g., perfectly square patch would have value
of 1), and higher values indicate more irregular shapes (e.g. a very
long skinny patch might have a value of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C2

Proximity Index for developed land, Mean - Measure of isolation and
fragmentation of patches (unitless). Large numbers mean many
patches of the same type within the specified proximity (in our case
1000m); low numbers the reverse.

 

EDM_C2

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for developed land, Mean. Mean
nearest neighbor distance for patches of developed land (m). Measure
of how dispersed the patches are.

 

PLA_C2

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for Developed Land - Percentage of patch
adjacencies that are of the same type (%). If patches are surrounded
by similar patches, this will be a high number, if patches are mostly
surrounded by a different kind of patch, it will be a low number.

 

NP_C3

Number of patches of barren land

 

PD_C3

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of barren land

 

LPI_C3

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest
patch of barren land (%)

 

PAM_C3

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of barren land (ha)

 

SIM_C3

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for barren land. Measure of mean patch
shape/compactness. Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values
indicate compact shape (e.g., perfectly square patch would have value
of 1), and higher values indicate more irregular shapes (e.g. a very
long skinny patch might have a value of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C3

Proximity Index for barren land, Mean - Measure of isolation and
fragmentation of patches (unitless). Large numbers mean many
patches of the same type within the specified proximity (in our case
1000m); low numbers the reverse.

 

EDM_C3

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for barren land, Mean. Mean nearest
neighbor distance for patches of barren land (m). Measure of how
dispersed the patches are.

 

PLA_C3

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for barren land - Percentage of patch
adjacencies that are of the same type (%). If patches are surrounded
by similar patches, this will be a high number, if patches are mostly
surrounded by a different kind of patch, it will be a low number.

 

NP_C4

Number of patches of forested land

 

PD_C4

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of forested land

 

LPI_C4

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest
patch of forested land (%)

 

PAM_C4

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of forested land (ha)

 

SIM_C4

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for forested land. Measure of mean patch
shape/compactness. Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values
indicate compact shape (e.g., perfectly square patch would have value
of 1), and higher values indicate more irregular shapes (e.g., a very
long skinny patch might have a value of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C4

Proximity Index for forested land, Mean - Measure of isolation and
fragmentation of patches (unitless). Large numbers mean many
patches of the same type within the specified proximity (in our case
1000m); low numbers the reverse.

 

EDM_C4

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for forested land, Mean. Mean nearest
neighbor distance for patches of forested land (m). Measure of how
dispersed the patches are

 

PLA_C4

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for forested Land - Percentage of patch adjacencies
that are of the same type (%). If patches are surrounded by similar patches, this
will be a high number, if patches are mostly surrounded by a different kind of patch,
it will be a low number

 

NP_C5

Number of patches of shrub/grasslands

 

PD_C5

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of shrub/grasslands

 

LPI_C5

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest patch of
shrub/grasslands (%)

 

PAM_C5

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of shrub/grasslands (ha)

 

SIM_C5

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for shrub/grasslands. Measure of mean patch
shape/compactness. Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values indicate compact
shape (e.g., perfectly square patch would have value of 1), and higher values
indicate more irregular shapes (e.g., a very long skinny patch might have a value
of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C5

Proximity Index for shrub/grasslands, Mean - Measure of isolation and fragmentation
of patches (unitless). Large numbers mean many patches of the same type within
the specified proximity (in our case 1000m); low numbers the reverse

 

EDM_C5

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for shrub/grasslands, Mean. Mean nearest
neighbor distance for patches of shrub/grasslands (m). Measure of how dispersed
the patches are

 

PLA_C5

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for shrub/grasslands - Percentage of patch adjacencies
that are of the same type (%). If patches are surrounded by similar patches, this will
be a high number, if patches are mostly surrounded by a different kind of patch, it
will be a low number

 

NP_C8

Number of patches of agricultural/pasture land

 

PD_C8

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of agricultural/pasture land

 

LPI_C8

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest patch of
agricultural/pasture land (%)

 

PAM_C8

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of agricultural/pasture land (ha)

 

SIM_C8

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for agricultural/pasture land. Measure of mean patch
shape/compactness. Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values indicate compact
shape (e.g. perfectly square patch would have value of 1), and higher values
indicate more irregular shapes (e.g., a very long skinny patch might have a value
of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C8

Proximity Index for agricultural/pasture land, Mean - Measure of isolation and
fragmentation of patches (unitless). Large numbers mean many patches of the
same type within the specified proximity (in our case 1000m); low numbers the
reverse

 

EDM_C8

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for agricultural/pasture land, Mean. Mean
nearest neighbor distance for patches of agricultural/pasture land (m). Measure
of how dispersed the patches are

 

PLA_C8

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for agricultural/pasture land - Percentage of patch
adjacencies that are of the same type (%). If patches are surrounded by similar
patches, this will be a high number, if patches are mostly surrounded by a different
kind of patch, it will be a low number

 

NP_C9

Number of patches of wetlands

 

PD_C9

Patch density (no./100 hectares) of wetlands

 

LPI_C9

Largest Patch Index - Percentage of basin area composed of the largest patch of
wetlands (%)

 

PAM_C9

Mean Patch Area - Mean patch area of wetlands (ha)

 

SIM_C9

Shape Index Mean (unitless) for wetlands. Measure of mean patch shape/compactness.
Values range from 1 to infinity. Low values indicate compact
shape (e.g. perfectly square patch would have value of 1), and higher values
indicate more irregular shapes (e.g., a very long skinny patch might have a value
of 3 or more)

 

PIM_C9

Proximity Index for wetlands, Mean - Measure of isolation and fragmentation of
patches (unitless). Large numbers mean many patches of the same type within
the specified proximity (in our case 1000m); low numbers the reverse.

 

EDM_C9

Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance for wetlands, Mean. Mean nearest neighbor
distance for patches of wetlands (m). Measure of how dispersed the patches are

 

PLA_C9

Proportion of Like Adjacencies for wetlands - Percentage of patch adjacencies that
are of the same type (%). If patches are surrounded by similar patches, this will be a
high number, if patches are mostly surrounded by a different kind of patch, it will be a low number

Antecedent land cover: land cover in candidate basins with urban intensity (MA-NUII) ≤ 10

 

AFOR

Antecedent forest land (P_NLCD_4)

 

AAG

Antecedent agriculture, % row crop and grasslands (P_NLCD_7 +  P_NLCD_8)

 

TABLE B2. Infrastructure variables.

Variable

Definition

RDLENGTH

Length of TIGER roads in watershed (km). Has been adjusted to exclude non-paved or access
roads, bike paths, etc.

ROADDEN

Road density in watershed = km of road/sq km of basin drainage area

RDARDEN

Road area index density. Road length multiplied by an area factor (by type of road) normalized
by watershed area (km/km2)

RDTRDEN

Road traffic index density. Road length multiplied by a traffic factor (by type of road) normalized
by watershed area (km/km2)

PSCOUNT

Density (no./100 km2) of point source dischargers in watershed (EPA database - NPDES)

TRICOUNT

Density (no./100 km2) of Toxics Release Inventory sites in watershed

 

TABLE B3. Census variables.

Variable

Definition

POP2000

2000 population (2000 census block based)

POPDEN00

2000 population density (people/square km) (2000 census block based)

HHDEN

Household density (occupied housing units per square kilometer) (2000 census block-group
based)

PPURBAN

Proportion of population living in urban area (2000 census block-group based)

PHO_G4P

Proportion of households occupied by 4 or more people (2000 census block-group based)

PP_L5Y

Proportion of population less than 5 years old (2000 census block-group based)

PP_SH95

Percent of population living in same house as in 1995 (2000 census block-group based)

PHS_G25

Proportion of population greater than 25 years old that have High School degrees (2000 census
block-group based)

PBCH_G25

Proportion of population greater than 25 years old that have Bachelors degree (2000 census
block-group based)

PHHI_L10

Proportion of households with income less than $10,000, 2000 (2000 census block-group based)

PHHI_L20

Proportion of households with household income less than $20,000 per year (2000 census block-
group based)

PHHI_L30

Proportion of households with income less than $30,000, 2000 (2000 census block-group based)

P_OWN

Proportion of occupied housing units that are owner occupied, 2000 (%), (2000 census block-
group based)

PHU_L5

Proportion of housing units built between 1995–2000 (2000 census block-group based)

PHU_L10

Proportion of housing units built between 1990–2000 (2000 census block-group based)

PHU_L20

Proportion of housing units built between 1980–2000 (2000 census block-group based)

PHUT

Percent of occupied housing units using utility gas (natural gas) as fuel (2000 census
block-group based)

PHLP

Percent of occupied housing units using liquid petroleum gas as fuel (2000 census
block-group based)

PHEL

Proportion of occupied housing units using electricity as fuel (2000 census block-group based)

MEDHHI

Median household income, 2000 (dollars) (2000 census block-group based)

PHOIL

Percent of occupied housing units using oil as fuel (2000 census block-group based)

PHWOOD

Percent of occupied housing units using wood as fuel (2000 census block-group based)

HUDEN

Density of housing units (housing units/square kilometer) (2000 census block-group based)

POCC_G65

Proportion of housing units occupied by persons greater than 65 years of age (2000 census
block-group based)

PPRURAL

Proportion of population living in rural area (2000 census block-group based)

PPMALE

Proportion of population that is male (2000 census block-group based)

PPFEMALE

Proportion of population that is female (2000 census block-group based)

PHFAM

Proportion of households occupied by a family (2000 census block-group based)

PHNONFAM

Proportion of households occupied by a non-family (2000 census block-group based)

PHO_L3P

Proportion of households occupied by less than 3 people (2000 census block-group based)

P_US

Proportion of citizens born in US (2000 census block-group based)

P_INSTAT

Proportion of citizens born in State of Residence (2000 census block- group based)

P_OUTST

Proportion of citizens born in other States in the US (2000 census block-group based)

P_NONUS

Proportion of citizens not born in US (2000 census block-group based)

PC_CTY95

Proportion of citizens living in same county more than 5 years (since 1995) (2000
census block-group based)

PC_ST95

Proportion of citizens living in same State more than 5 years (since 1995) (2000
census block-group based)

PM_GT25Y

Proportion of male population greater than 25 years of age (2000 census block-group based)

PF_GT25Y

Proportion of female population greater than 25 years of age (2000 census block-group based)

PM_GT16E

Proportion of male population greater than 16 years of age that are employed (2000
census block-group based)

PF_GT16E

Proportion of female population greater than 16 years of age that are employed (2000
census block-group based)

PPOP_POV

Proportion of population with income below the poverty level (2000 census block-group based)

PFAM_POV

Proportion of families with income below the poverty level (2000 census block-group based)

PHH_POV

Proportion of households with income below the poverty level (2000 census block-group based)

P_OCCUPY

Proportion of housing units that are occupied (2000 census block-group based)

P_VACANT

Proportion of housing units that are vacant (2000 census block-group based)

P_RENT

Proportion of occupied housing units that are renter occupied, 2000 (%), (2000 census
block-group based)

PH_1PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 1 person (2000 census block-group based)

PH_2PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 2 persons (2000 census block-group based)

PH_3PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 3 persons (2000 census block-group based)

PH_4PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 4 persons (2000 census block-group based)

PH_5PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 5 persons (2000 census block-group based)

PH_6PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 6 persons (2000 census block-group based)

PH_7PERS

Proportion of households occupied by 7 or more persons (2000 census block-group based)

PHU_G20

Proportion of housing units built prior to 1979 (1939 or earlier to 1979) (2000 census
block-group based)

PHU_G30

Proportion of housing units built prior to 1969 (1939 or earlier to 1969) (2000 census
block-group based)

PHU_G40

Proportion of housing units built prior to 1959 (1939 or earlier to 1959) (2000 census
block-group based)

PHU_G50

Proportion of housing units built prior to 1949 (1939 or earlier to 1949) (2000 census
block-group based)

PHU_G60

Proportion of housing units built prior to 1939 (2000 census block-group based)

PERCAPIN

Per Capita income (2000 census block-group based)

MFAMINC

Median family household income (2000 census block-group based)

MNFAMINC

Median non-family household income (2000 census block-group based)

POP90_00

Proportional change in population from 1990–2000 (2000 census block based)


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