Ecological Archives A017-019-A3

Julia A. Klein, John Harte, and Xin-Quan Zhao. 2007. Experimental warming, not grazing, decreases rangeland quality on the Tibetan Plateau. Ecological Applications 17:541–557.

Appendix C. ANOVA results for warming and clipping effects on vegetative properties.

The following six tables present results from the split-plot repeated-measures ANOVA as described in the Methods section of the text. Since only one habitat contained shrubs, for this variable we conducted a simple, repeated-measures ANOVA and grouped plots in low and high grazing history sites. This was also the case for individual forb species (since not all species occurred in all sites). Moreover, for the forb group overall, we have four years of data (1998–2001); we have three years of data (1999–2001) for separate forb species, and for palatable vegetation. NDF = numerator degrees of freedom; DDF = denominator (error) degrees of freedom. Hab = habitat, Comb = combined treatments, Add = additive treatments, Yr = year.

TABLE C1. Results from the repeated measure, split plot ANOVA where total, graminoid, forb, shrub, and palatable ANPP (gm-2yr-1) were the dependent variables. For total and shrub foliar ANPP, there was a significant combined × year interaction. However, the combined treatment was not statistically significant in any one year. Similarly, there was a significant habitat × clip interaction for graminoid ANPP; however, the clip effect was statistically significant for neither the shrubland nor the meadow habitat.

              TOTAL            GRAMINOID               FORB               SHRUB          PALATABLE  
MODEL
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
Hab
1
2
2.17
0.28
1
2
3.05
0.22
1
2
5.32
0.15
-
-
-
-
1
2
135.72
0.01
Warm
1
6
14.65
0.01
1
6
17.88
0.01
1
6
1.64
0.25
1
28
1.53
0.23
1
6
3.90
0.10
Hab × Warm
1
6
4.85
0.07
1
6
0.34
0.58
1
6
0.24
0.64
-
-
-
-
1
6
2.34
0.18
Clip
1
6
3.54
0.11
1
6
0.26
0.63
1
6
67.00
0.00
1
28
1.09
0.31
1
6
2.40
0.17
Hab × Clip
1
6
0.01
0.92
1
6
3.12
0.13
1
6
4.31
0.08
-
-
-
-
1
6
2.10
0.20
Warm × Clip
1
6
0.47
0.52
1
6
0.01
0.92
1
6
0.16
0.70
1
28
0.48
0.50
1
6
0.82
0.40
Hab × Wm × Cli
1
6
0.01
0.92
1
6
0.04
0.85
1
6
4.04
0.09
-
-
-
-
1
6
0.07
0.80
Yr
3
24
15.62
<.0001
3
24
7.19
0.00
3
24
52.49
<.0001
3
84
1.43
0.24
2
16
11.16
0.00
Hab × Yr
3
24
4.82
0.01
3
24
3.01
0.05
3
24
3.70
0.03
-
-
-
-
2
16
2.51
0.11
Warm × Yr
3
24
2.87
0.06
3
24
3.40
0.03
3
24
0.55
0.65
3
84
5.20
0.00
2
16
1.28
0.31
Hab × Warm × Y
3
24
1.88
0.16
3
24
0.59
0.63
3
24
1.21
0.33
-
-
-
-
2
16
1.35
0.29
Clip × Yr
3
24
2.84
0.06
3
24
1.17
0.34
3
24
1.42
0.26
3
84
36.67
0.00
2
16
1.82
0.19
Hab × Clip × Yr
3
24
0.80
0.51
3
24
0.36
0.78
3
24
0.29
0.83
-
-
-
-
2
16
0.55
0.59
Warm × Clip × Y
3
24
1.13
0.36
3
24
1.10
0.37
3
24
1.34
0.28
3
84
0.68
0.57
2
16
1.30
0.30
Hab × Wm × Cl × 
3
24
0.25
0.86
3
24
0.53
0.66
3
24
0.39
0.76
-
-
-
-
2
16
1.26
0.31
Comb
1
2
1.43
0.35
1
2
9.81
0.09
1
2
21.58
0.04
1
14
0.02
0.90
1
2
0.10
0.79
Hab × Comb
1
2
1.66
0.33
1
2
2.41
0.26
1
2
1.14
0.40
-
-
-
-
1
2
4.71
0.16
Comb × Yr
3
12
5.33
0.01
3
12
2.11
0.15
3
12
0.96
0.44
3
42
8.77
0.00
2
8
0.35
0.71
Hab × Comb × Y
3
12
0.33
0.80
3
12
0.43
0.73
3
12
0.62
0.62
-
-
-
-
2
8
0.12
0.89
Add
1
2
3.88
0.19
1
2
8.49
0.10
1
2
11.76
0.08
1
14
0.78
0.39
1
2
10.94
0.08
Hab × Add
1
2
1.45
0.35
1
2
1.45
0.35
1
2
1.74
0.32
-
-
-
-
1
2
2.74
0.24
Add ×   Yr
3
12
6.30
0.01
3
12
4.96
0.02
3
12
1.53
0.26
3
42
4.76
0.01
2
8
2.98
0.11
Hab × Add × Yr
3
12
0.79
0.52
3
12
1.73
0.21
3
12
0.58
0.64
-
-
-
-
2
8
0.79
0.49

 

TABLE C2. ANOVA results for treatment effects on the ANPP of seven different forb species.

Model
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
 
Oxytropis spp.     
Gentiana straminea   
Stellera chamajasme   
Sausurrea superba   
Warm
1
43
5.66
0.02
1
12
1.77
0.21
1
12
3.43
0.09
1
43
3.74
0.06
Clip
1
43
5.97
0.02
1
12
2.28
0.16
1
12
0.00
0.96
1
43
12.32
0.00
Warm × Clip
1
43
1.99
0.17
1
12
6.53
0.03
1
12
0.00
0.95
1
43
0.01
0.91
Yr
2
86
4.90
0.01
2
24
2.74
0.08
2
24
2.40
0.11
2
86
7.47
0.00
Warm × Yr
2
86
4.92
0.01
2
24
1.67
0.21
2
24
1.56
0.23
2
86
0.69
0.50
Clip × Yr
2
86
2.50
0.09
2
24
3.59
0.04
2
24
0.39
0.68
2
86
0.41
0.66
Warm × Clip × Yr
2
86
2.72
0.07
2
24
3.01
0.07
2
24
0.60
0.56
2
86
2.29
0.11
Comb
1
22
0.00
0.96
1
6
2.712
0.151
1
6
1.36
0.29
1
22
1.03
0.32
Comb × Yr
2
44
1.00
0.38
2
12
0.883
0.439
2
12
1.26
0.32
2
44
0.56
0.57
Add
1
22
2.54
0.13
1
6
11.81
0.014
1
6
2.19
0.19
1
22
1.01
0.33
Add ×   Yr
2
44
2.24
0.12
2
12
2.627
0.113
2
12
0.63
0.55
2
44
1.79
0.18
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
 
Morina chinensis   
Aster flaccidus   
Polygonum viviparum   
 
 
 
 
Warm
1
11
0.25
0.62
1
11
12.02
0.01
1
12
2.88
0.12
 
 
 
 
Clip
1
11
2.33
0.16
1
11
11.66
0.01
1
12
3.53
0.08
 
 
 
 
Warm × Clip
1
11
0.07
0.80
1
11
3.71
0.08
1
12
5.16
0.04
 
 
 
 
Yr
2
22
9.36
0.00
2
22
22.77
0.00
2
24
5.31
0.01
 
 
 
 
Warm × Yr
2
22
0.20
0.82
2
22
4.68
0.02
2
24
0.21
0.82
 
 
 
 
Clip × Yr
2
22
0.29
0.75
2
22
1.52
0.24
2
24
1.54
0.24
 
 
 
 
Warm × Clip × Yr
2
22
1.10
0.35
2
22
0.17
0.85
2
24
2.91
0.07
 
 
 
 
Comb
1
6
1.76
0.23
1
6
0.00
0.97
1
6
0.06
0.81
 
 
 
 
Comb × Yr
2
12
0.01
0.99
2
12
0.88
0.44
2
12
1.32
0.30
 
 
 
 
Add
1
6
3.98
0.09
1
6
6.97
0.04
1
6
3.71
0.10
 
 
 
 
Add ×   Yr
2
12
2.03
0.17
2
12
1.89
0.19
2
12
3.56
0.06
 
 
 
 

 

TABLE C3. ANOVA results where GC represents the difference between the grazing control (grazed) plots and the clipped plots, as described in the Methods section of the text.

Variable
Model
NDF
DDF
F
P
           
Total Vegetation GC
1
2
1.26
0.379
  Hab × GC
1
2
0.01
0.924
  GC × Yr
1
4
0.69
0.452
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.01
0.943
   
 
 
 
 
Forb GC
1
2
1.77
0.315
  Hab × GC
1
2
1.14
0.398
  GC × Yr
1
4
9.6
0.036
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.77
0.431
   
 
 
 
 
Graminoid GC
1
2
1.82
0.309
  Hab × GC
1
2
0.03
0.877
  GC × Yr
1
4
1.45
0.295
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.02
0.896
   
 
 
 
 
Grass GC
1
2
1.5
0.345
  Hab × GC
1
2
0.41
0.587
  GC × Yr
1
4
1.45
0.295
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.01
0.939
   
 
 
 
 
Sedge GC
1
2
1.14
0.397
  Hab × GC
1
2
1.15
0.396
  GC × Yr
1
4
0.54
0.502
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.31
0.606
   
 
 
 
 
Shrub GC
1
14
0.00
0.977
  GC × Yr
1
14
1.60
0.226
   
 
 
 
 
Total Palatable Ve GC
1
2
1.13
0.399
  Hab × GC
1
2
0.38
0.601
  GC × Yr
1
4
0.46
0.536
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
1.26
0.324
   
 
 
 
 
Non Palatable For GC
1
2
0.39
0.596
  Hab × GC
1
2
0.13
0.756
  GC × Yr
1
4
1.52
0.285
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.1
0.769
   
 
 
 
 
Palatable Forb GC
1
2
1.17
0.393
  Hab × GC
1
2
0.86
0.452
  GC × Yr
1
4
0.06
0.821
  Hab × GC × Yr
1
4
0.75
0.435

 

TABLE C4. ANOVA results of treatment effects on BG biomass. We sampled BG biomass in 1998 and 2000 by taking one 6-cm diameter soil core per plot to 10-cm depth at peak AG biomass. We separated coarse (>2mm diameter) from fine (<2mm diameter) roots. Coarse roots include rhizomes and underground storage organs. We did not distinguish live from dead roots. The only significant treatment effect was on total root biomass (hab × warm × yr). The LSD test shows there was no warming effect on total root biomass at the meadows, and a marginal increase in total root biomass with warming at the shrublands (+39.22 g/m2, P = 0.12).

  Model
NDF
DDF
F
P
   
 
 
 
 
Total Habitat
1
2
0.01
0.930
  Warm
1
6
0.09
0.771
  Hab × Warm
1
6
0.93
0.372
  Clip
1
6
0.10
0.762
  Hab × Clip
1
6
0.92
0.374
  Warm × Clip
1
6
0.00
0.993
  Hab × Warm × Clip
1
6
0.55
0.486
  Year
1
8
105.46
0.000
  Hab × Yr
1
8
0.05
0.834
  Warm × Yr
1
8
0.01
0.910
  Hab × Warm × Yr
1
8
4.56
0.065
  Clip × Yr
1
8
0.24
0.636
  Hab × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.03
0.865
  Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.04
0.842
  Hab × Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.00
0.985
   
 
 
 
 
> 2mm Habitat
1
2
1.18
0.391
  Warm
1
6
0.01
0.908
  Hab × Warm
1
6
0.15
0.714
  Clip
1
6
0.01
0.909
  Hab × Clip
1
6
0.11
0.755
  Warm × Clip
1
6
0.01
0.919
  Hab × Warm × Clip
1
6
0.63
0.458
  Year
1
8
25.82
0.001
  Hab × Yr
1
8
9.20
0.016
  Warm × Yr
1
8
0.06
0.819
  Hab × Warm × Yr
1
8
1.37
0.275
  Clip × Yr
1
8
0.00
0.986
  Hab × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.02
0.904
  Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.07
0.801
  Hab × Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.15
0.711
   
 
 
 
 
≤2mm Habitat
1
2
5.53
0.143
  Warm
1
6
0.07
0.800
  Hab × Warm
1
6
0.69
0.438
  Clip
1
6
0.08
0.786
  Hab × Clip
1
6
0.83
0.398
  Warm × Clip
1
6
0.03
0.867
  Hab × Warm × Clip
1
6
0.01
0.913
  Year
1
8
40.70
0.000
  Hab × Yr
1
8
23.33
0.001
  Warm × Yr
1
8
0.26
0.621
  Hab × Warm × Yr
1
8
1.33
0.281
  Clip × Yr
1
8
0.48
0.506
  Hab × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.00
0.960
  Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.01
0.915
  Hab × Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.36
0.564

 

TABLE C5. ANOVA results for total ANPP in 2000 from May through October.

Model
NDF
DDF
F
P
 
 
 
 
 
Month
5
40
55.86
<.0001
Habitat × Month
5
40
12.79
<.0001
Warm × Month
5
40
2.32
0.06
Habitat × Warm × Month
5
40
0.90
0.49
Clip × Month
5
40
4.34
0.00
Habitat × Clip × Month
5
40
3.85
0.01
Warm × Clip × Month
5
40
2.04
0.09
Habitat × Warm × Clip × 
5
40
0.97
0.45
Combined × Month
5
20
12.71
<.0001
Habitat × Combined × M
5
20
1.53
0.23
Additive × Month
5
20
10.22
<.0001
Habitat × Additive × Mo
5
20
1.00
0.44

 

TABLE C6. ANOVA results for treatment effects on the foliar N content of different vegetation groups.

 
Forb N   
Grass N   
Sedge N   
Shrub N   
MODEL
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
Hab
1
2
0.03
0.88
1
2
0.15
0.73
1
2
0.02
0.91
-
-
-
-
Warm
1
6
0.00
0.98
1
6
0.04
0.85
1
6
4.01
0.09
1
28
0.05
0.82
Hab × Warm
1
6
0.29
0.61
1
6
1.47
0.27
1
6
3.64
0.11
-
-
-
-
Clip
1
6
3.04
0.13
1
6
33.07
0.00
1
6
6.02
0.05
1
28
0.34
0.57
Hab × Clip
1
6
0.10
0.76
1
6
7.77
0.03
1
6
0.19
0.68
-
-
-
-
Warm × Clip
1
6
0.07
0.81
1
6
0.41
0.55
1
6
0.00
0.98
1
28
0.01
0.94
Hab × Wm × Clip
1
6
0.10
0.76
1
6
0.01
0.92
1
6
0.25
0.63
-
-
-
-
Yr
1
8
0.01
0.91
1
8
15.44
0.00
1
8
38.12
0.00
1
28
33.07
0.00
Hab × Yr
1
8
4.11
0.08
1
8
1.81
0.22
1
8
1.64
0.24
-
-
-
-
Warm × Yr
1
8
0.00
0.97
1
8
0.04
0.85
1
8
10.01
0.01
1
28
10.79
0.00
Hab × Warm × Yr
1
8
0.35
0.57
1
8
2.11
0.18
1
8
0.24
0.63
-
-
-
-
Clip × Yr
1
8
0.39
0.55
1
8
3.78
0.09
1
8
4.78
0.06
1
28
1.35
0.26
Hab × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.96
0.36
1
8
5.89
0.04
1
8
1.63
0.24
-
-
-
-
Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.10
0.76
1
8
1.50
0.26
1
8
0.10
0.76
1
28
0.44
0.51
Hab × Wm × Cl × Yr
1
8
0.13
0.72
1
8
0.30
0.60
1
8
0.84
0.39
-
-
-
-
Comb
1
2
1.31
0.37
1
2
9.15
0.09
1
2
12.0
0.07
1
14
0.31
0.59
Hab × Comb
1
2
0.02
0.90
1
2
4.74
0.16
1
2
1.39
0.36
-
-
-
-
Comb × Yr
1
4
0.18
0.69
1
4
1.35
0.31
1
4
18.21
0.01
1
14
2.14
0.17
Hab × Comb × Yr
1
4
0.06
0.81
1
4
0.28
0.63
1
4
1.91
0.24
-
-
-
-
Add
1
2
0.00
0.97
1
2
1.54
0.34
1
2
2.04
0.29
1
14
0.34
0.57
Hab × Add
1
2
0.74
0.48
1
2
14.1
0.06
1
2
0.64
0.51
-
-
-
-
Add ×   Yr
1
3
1.18
0.36
1
4
29.5
0.01
1
4
4.52
0.1
1
14
0.23
0.64
Hab × Add × Yr
1
3
2.71
0.20
1
4
0.04
0.86
1
4
0.01
0.91
-
-
-
-

 

TABLE C7. ANOVA results for treatment effects on the foliar C:N content of different vegetation groups.

 
Forb C:N   
Grass C:N   
Sedge C:N   
Shrub C:N   
MODEL
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
NDF
DDF
F
P
Hab
1
2
0.02
0.89
1
2
0.25
0.67
1
2
0.08
0.81
-
-
-
-
Warm
1
6
0.26
0.63
1
6
0.43
0.54
1
6
2.20
0.19
1
28
0.60
0.45
Hab × Warm
1
6
0.43
0.54
1
6
2.13
0.19
1
6
3.25
0.12
-
-
-
-
Clip
1
6
2.45
0.17
1
6
23.22
0.00
1
6
5.21
0.06
1
28
0.03
0.86
Hab × Clip
1
6
0.09
0.78
1
6
4.63
0.07
1
6
0.85
0.39
-
-
-
-
Warm × Clip
1
6
0.00
0.96
1
6
0.35
0.58
1
6
0.02
0.90
1
28
0.03
0.86
Hab × Wm × Clip
1
6
0.00
0.97
1
6
0.03
0.88
1
6
0.93
0.37
-
-
-
-
Yr
1
8
2.06
0.19
1
8
11.19
0.01
1
8
36.27
0.00
1
28
29.97
0.00
Hab × Yr
1
8
4.45
0.07
1
8
0.01
0.93
1
8
1.33
0.28
-
-
-
-
Warm × Yr
1
8
0.42
0.54
1
8
0.47
0.51
1
8
9.16
0.02
1
28
10.40
0.00
Hab × Warm × Yr
1
8
0.35
0.57
1
8
1.77
0.22
1
8
0.16
0.70
-
-
-
-
Clip × Yr
1
8
0.22
0.65
1
8
1.11
0.32
1
8
3.02
0.12
1
28
1.41
0.25
Hab × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.74
0.42
1
8
1.91
0.20
1
8
1.15
0.32
-
-
-
-
Warm × Clip × Yr
1
8
0.04
0.84
1
8
1.31
0.29
1
8
0.11
0.74
1
28
0.50
0.49
Hab × Wm × Cl × Yr
1
8
0.03
0.87
1
8
0.26
0.63
1
8
1.05
0.34
-
-
-
-
Comb
1
2
0.42
0.58
1
2
5.03
0.15
1
2
5.88
0.14
1
14
0.41
0.53
Hab × Comb
1
2
0.05
0.85
1
2
3.82
0.19
1
2
0.31
0.63
-
-
-
-
Comb × Yr
1
4
0.01
0.92
1
4
0.87
0.40
1
4
9.36
0.04
1
14
2.02
0.18
Hab × Comb × Yr
1
4
0.03
0.88
1
4
0.00
0.98
1
4
0.92
0.39
-
-
-
-
Add
1
2
0.01
0.92
1
2
4.66
0.16
1
2
4.42
0.17
1
14
0.16
0.70
Hab × Add
1
2
1.03
0.42
1
2
6.8
0.12
1
2
1.44
0.35
-
-
-
-
Add ×   Yr
1
3
0.01
0.92
1
4
10.8
0.03
1
4
8.76
0.04
1
14
0.17
0.68
Hab × Add × Yr
1
3
0.96
0.40
1
4
0.42
0.55
1
4
0.06
0.81
-
-
-
-



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