Ecological Archives A013-019-A4

Donald Ludwig, Steve Carpenter, and W. Brock. 2003. Optimal phosphorus loading for a potentially eutrophic lake. Ecological Applications 13:1135–1152.

Appendix D. A figure showing comparison of optimal loadings and present values (PV).

   FIG. D1. Comparison of optimal P loadings and present values (PV) for policies taking account of and neglecting uncertainty in Pc, for discount rate = 0.01. The keys show the values corresponding to the colors. P and M concentrations are in kilograms per square meter.



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