Ecological Archives E088-114-A1

Katherine F. Smith, Dov F. Sax, Steven D. Gaines, Vanina Guernier, and Jean-François Guégan. 2007. Globalization of human infectious disease. Ecology 88:1903–1910.

Appendix A. A table listing 332 human infectious agents, their taxonomic grouping, and reservoir and vector hosts as determined by the Global Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Network Database (GIDEON).

TABLE A1. 332 human infectious agents, their taxonomic grouping, reservoir and vector hosts as determined by GIDEON. Host categories include: human specific (H), multi-host (M) and zoonotic (Z). (R) designates infectious agents removed from analyses. Due to space limitations, national presence and absence is excluded from this appendix.

INFECTIOUS AGENT

TAXONOMIC GROUP

RESERVOIR HOSTS

VECTOR HOSTS

HOST CATEGORY

Pinta

bacterium

man

fly

H

Trachoma

bacterium

man

fly

H

Actinomycosis

bacterium

man

none

H

Chlamydia infections

bacterium

man

none

H

Chlamydia pneumonia infection

bacterium

man

none

H

Cholecystitis & cholangitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Cholera fever

bacterium

man

none

H

Chronic meningococcemia

bacterium

man

none

H

Clostridial myonecrosis

bacterium

soil, man

none

H

Conjunctivitis-inclusion

bacterium

man

none

H

Diphtheria

bacterium

man

none

H

Endemic syphilis (bejel)

bacterium

man

none

H

Gonorrhea

bacterium

man

none

H

Intracranial venous thrombosis

bacterium

man

none

H

Liver abscess-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Lymphogranuloma venereum

bacterium

man

none

H

Meningitis-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Mycoplasma pneumonia infection

bacterium

man

none

H

Otitis media

bacterium

man

none

H

Pericarditis-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Perirectal abscess

bacterium

man

none

H

Peritonitis-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Pertussis

bacterium

man

none

H

Pharyngeal & cervical space infx.

bacterium

man

none

H

Pharyngitis-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Pneumonia-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Sinusitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Syphilis

bacterium

man

none

H

Bartonellosis (South American)

bacterium

man

fly

H

Brain abscess

bacterium

man

none

H

Brazilian purpuric fever

bacterium

man

none

H

Chancroid

bacterium

man

none

H

Clostridium difficile colitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Endocarditis-infectious

bacterium

man

none

H

Epidural abscess

bacterium

man

none

H

Erysipelas or cellulitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Erythrasma

bacterium

man

none

H

Granuloma inguinale

bacterium

man

none

H

Kingella infection

bacterium

man

none

H

Malignant otitis externa

bacterium

man

none

H

Necrotizing skin/soft tissue infx.

bacterium

man

none

H

Neutropenic typhlitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Orbital infection

bacterium

man

none

H

Osteomyelitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Perinephric abscess

bacterium

man

none

H

Pyodermas

bacterium

man

none

H

Pyomyositis

bacterium

man

none

H

Rheumatic fever

bacterium

man

none

H

Rhinoscleroma

bacterium

man

none

H

Scarlet fever

bacterium

man

none

H

Septic arthritis

bacterium

man

none

H

Septicemia-bacterial

bacterium

man

none

H

Subdural empyema

bacterium

man

none

H

Suppurative parotitis

bacterium

man

none

H

Tropical phagedenic ulcer

bacterium

man

none

H

Typhoid and enteric fever

bacterium

man

none

H

Urinary tract infection

bacterium

man

none

H

Vaginellosis

bacterium

man

none

H

Candidiasis

fungus

man

none

H

Pneumocystis pneumonia

fungus

man

none

H

Fungal infection-invasive

fungus

man

none

H

Amibiasis abscess and colitis

parasite

man

fly

H

Loiasis

parasite

man

fly

H

Pediculosis

parasite

man

louse

H

Filariasis-Bancroftian

parasite

man

mosquito

H

Filariasis-Brugia timori

parasite

man

mosquito

H

Blastocystis infection

parasite

man

none

H

Dientamoebal diarrhea

parasite

man

none

H

Hookworm

parasite

man

none

H

Trichomoniasis

parasite

man

none

H

Omsk hemorrhagic fever

parasite

man

fly

H

Mansonelliasis-M.ozzardi

parasite

man

fly

H

Mansonelliasis-M.perstans

parasite

man

midge

H

Scabies

parasite

man

mite

H

Ascaridiosis

parasite

man

none

H

Dracunculiasis

parasite

man

none

H

Enterobiasis

parasite

man

none

H

Isosporiasis

parasite

man

none

H

Trichuriasis

parasite

man

none

H

Adenovirus

virus

man

none

H

Hepatitis B

virus

man

none

H

Hepatitis G

virus

man

none

H

Herpes simplex infection

virus

man

none

H

Herpes zoster

virus

man

none

H

HIV infection-initial illness

virus

man

none

H

Laryngotracheobronchitis

virus

man

none

H

Meningitis-aseptic

virus

man

none

H

Mononucleosis-infectious

virus

man

none

H

Parainfluenza virus infection

virus

man

none

H

Pleurodynia

virus

man

none

H

Poliomyelitis

virus

man

none

H

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

virus

man

none

H

Rotavirus infection

virus

man

none

H

Rubella

virus

man

none

H

Smallpox

virus

man

none

H

O'nyong nyong

virus

man

mosquito

H

Common cold

virus

man

none

H

Conjunctivitis-viral

virus

man

none

H

Cytomegalovirus infection

virus

man

none

H

Enterovirus infection

virus

man

none

H

Gastroenteritis-viral

virus

man

none

H

Hepatitis C

virus

man

none

H

Hepatitis D

virus

man

none

H

Herpes simplex encephalitis

virus

man

none

H

Measles

virus

man

none

H

Mumps

virus

man

none

H

Parvovirus infection

virus

man

none

H

Roseola or human herpesvirus

virus

man

none

H

Varicella-Zoster

virus

man

none

H

Angiomatosis

bacterium

man, cat, tick

flea, tick

M

Bartonellosis (other)

bacterium

man, rat

louse

M

Typhus-epidemic

bacterium

man, flying squirrel

louse

M

Escherichia coli diarrhea

bacterium

man, mammal (non-human)

none

M

Leprosy

bacterium

man, armadillo

none

M

Listeriosis

bacterium

mammal, man, bird, soil, water

none

M

Staphylococcus

bacterium

man, cattle

none

M

Tuberculosis

bacterium

man, cattle

none

M

Wound infection

bacterium

man, soil, water, air spores, animals, plants

none

M

Yaws

bacterium

man, primate (non-human)

none

M

Relapsing fever

bacterium

man, rodent, tick

tick, louse

M

Campylobacteriosis

bacterium

man, mammal, bird

none

M

Clostridial food poisoning

bacterium

soil, man, pig, cattle, fish, poultry

none

M

Shigellosis

bacterium

man, primates (non-human)

none

M

Dermatophytosis

fungus

man, dog, cat, rabbit, marsupial, other mammal

none

M

Lobomycosis

fungus

man, dolphin

none

M

Leishmaniasis-cutaneous

parasite

man, hyrax, rodent, marsupial, dog, sloth, anteater, armadillo

fly

M

Leishmaniasis-mucocutaneous

parasite

rodent, man, sloth, marsupial

fly

M

Leishmaniasis-visceral

parasite

man, rodent, dog, fox

fly

M

Trypanosomiasis-African

parasite

man, deer, wild carnivore, cattle

fly

M

Trypanosomiasis-American

parasite

man, dog, cat, pig, guinea pig, armadillo, rat,  fox, opossum, raccoon, bat, mouse, monkey

kissing bug

M

Malaria (P. falciparum, P. vivax)

parasite

man, mosquito

mosquito

M

Clonorchiasis

parasite

man, cat, dog, pig, snail

none

M

Cyclospora infection

parasite

man, primate (non-human)

none

M

Cysticercosis

parasite

pig, man

none

M

Diphyllobothriasis

parasite

man, dog, bear, fish-eating mammal

none

M

Echinostomiasis

parasite

mammal, bird, man, frog, cat, snail

none

M

Fasciolopsiasis

parasite

pig, man, dog, snail

none

M

Giardiasis

parasite

man, beaver

none

M

Hymenolepis nana infection

parasite

man, rodent

none

M

Paragonimiasis

parasite

man, dog, cat, pig, wild carnivore, snail

none

M

Strongyloidiasis

parasite

man, dog, monkey

none

M

Filariasis-Brugia malayi

parasite

man, primate (non-human), cat, civet

mosquito

M

Dengue fever

virus

man, monkey, mosquito

mosquito

M

Hepatitis E

virus

man, rat, pig

none

M

Hepatitis A

virus

man, primate (non-human)

none

M

Influenza

virus

man, ferret

none

M

Aeromonas and Vibrio infections

bacterium

salt or brackish water

none

R

Bacillis caereus

bacterium

soil, processed & dried foods

none

R

Nocardiosis

bacterium

soil

none

R

Whipple's disease

bacterium

unknown

none

R

Ehrlichiosis-E.sennetsu

bacterium

unknown

tick

R

Legionellosis

bacterium

water

none

R

Mycetoma

bacterium

soil, vegetation

none

R

Mycobacteriosis-M. scrofulaceum

bacterium

water, soil, plant material

none

R

Mycobacteriosis-M. ulcerans

bacterium

vegetation

none

R

Tetanus

bacterium

soil

none

R

Toxic shock syndrome

bacterium

man

none

R

Chromomycosis

fungus

wood, soil, vegetation

none

R

Zygomycosis

fungus

saprophytes

none

R

Aspergillosis

fungus

compost, hay, cereal, soil

none

R

Coccidioidomycosis

fungus

soil

none

R

Sporotrichosis

fungus

soil, vegetation, wood

none

R

Amibiasis free living

parasite

water, soil

none

R

Lagochilascariasis

parasite

unknown

none

R

Rhinosporidiosis

protistan

water, soil, vegetation

none

R

Brainerd diarrhea

unknown

unknown

none

R

Chronic fatigue syndrome

unknown

unknown

none

R

Gianotti-Crosti syndrome

unknown

unknown

none

R

Kawasaki disease

unknown

unknown

none

R

Kikuchi's disease and Kimura disease

unknown

unknown

none

R

Reye syndrome

unknown

unknown

none

R

Tropical sprue

unknown

unknown

none

R

Pityriasis rosea

unknown

unknown

unknown

R

Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia

unknown

unknown

unknown

R

Spondweni

virus

unknown

mosquito

R

Yellow fever

virus

man, monkey, marsupial, mosquito

unknown

R

Oropouche

virus

unknown

midge, mosquito

R

Onchocerciasis

virus

unknown

mosquito

R

Hendra virus disease

virus

horse, fruit bat, cats and guinea pigs

unknown

R

Nipah virus disease

virus

pig, bat

unknown

R

Plague

bacterium

rodent, rabbit, cat, wild carnivore

flea

Z

Rickettsia felis infection

bacterium

opossum, flying squirrel, flea

flea

Z

Typhus-endemic

bacterium

rat

flea

Z

Tularemia

bacterium

rabbit, hare, muskrat, beaver, wild bird

fly

Z

Anthrax

bacterium

soil, goat, cattle, sheep, water, horse

fly

Z

Rickettsialpox

bacterium

mice, mite

mite

Z

Brucellosis

bacterium

pig, cattle, sheep, goat, dog, coyote, caribou

none

Z

Erysipeloid

bacterium

mammal (non-human), bird, fish

none

Z

Glanders

bacterium

horse, mule, donkey

none

Z

Mycobacteriosis-M. marinum

bacterium

fresh and salt water, fish

none

Z

Mycobacteriosis-systemic

bacterium

water, soil, fish, mammal (non-human), bird

none

Z

Pasteurellosis, etc.

bacterium

cat, dog, marsupial, other mammal, rarely bird

none

Z

Plesiomonas enteritis

bacterium

fish, animal, soil

none

Z

Rat bite fever-streptobacillary

bacterium

rat, squirrel, weasel, turkey

none

Z

Rhodococcus equi infection

bacterium

farm animal and soil

none

Z

Salmonellosis

bacterium

mammal, bird, reptile

none

Z

Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

bacterium

fish

none

Z

Ehrlichiosis-human granulocytic

bacterium

rodent, deer, tick

tick

Z

Ehrlichiosis-human monocytic

bacterium

dog, deer, coyote

tick

Z

Flinders Island spotted fever

bacterium

rodent, tick

tick

Z

Japanese spotted fever

bacterium

dog, rodent, tick

tick

Z

Lyme disease

bacterium

deer, rodent, tick

tick

Z

Astrakhan fever

bacterium

dog, cat, hedgehog, hare, small rodents

tick

Z

Queensland tick typhus

bacterium

rodent

tick

Z

Bartonellosis (cat)

bacterium

cat

flea

Z

Typhus-scrub

bacterium

rodent, wild carnivore, mite

mite

Z

Botulism

bacterium

soil, animal, fish

none

Z

Enteritis necroticans

bacterium

soil, feces, mammal (non-human)

none

Z

Leptospirosis

bacterium

cattle, dog, horse, deer, rodent, fox, marine mammal, marsupial, frog

none

Z

Melioidosis

bacterium

soil, water, sheep, goat, horse, pig, rodent, monkey, marsupial

none

Z

Ornithosis

bacterium

parakeet, parrot, pigeon, turkey, duck, cat, sheep, goat, cattle

none

Z

Q fever

bacterium

cattle, sheep, goat, bird, fish, rodent, dog, cat, tick

none

Z

Rat bite fever-spirillary

bacterium

rat, mouse, cat

none

Z

Yersiniosis

bacterium

pig, rodent, rabbit, sheep, goat, cattle, horse, dog, cat

none

Z

Mediterranean spotted fever

bacterium

dog, rodent, tick

tick

Z

North Asian tick typhus

bacterium

rodent, dog

tick

Z

Rocky Mountain spotted fever

bacterium

dog, rodent, tick

tick

Z

African tick bite fever

bacterium

dog, rodent, tick

tick

Z

Israeli spotted fever

bacterium

dog, rodent, tick

tick

Z

Entomophthoramycosis

fungus

vegetation, soil, amphibian or reptile

none

Z

Histoplasmosis-African

fungus

bat, chicken, baboon, bird

none

Z

Penicilliosis marneffei

fungus

vegetation, soil, rodents

none

Z

Blastomycosis

fungus

soil, beaver, dog, rodent

none

Z

Cryptococcosis

fungus

pigeon, soil

none

Z

Histoplasmosis

fungus

soil, caves, chicken, bats

none

Z

Paracoccidioidomycosis

fungus

soil, dust, armadillos

none

Z

Myiasis

parasite

mammal (non-human)

biting arthropod

Z

Thelaziasis

parasite

dog, rabbit, deer, cat

fly

Z

Mansonelliasis-M.streptocerca

parasite

primate

midge

Z

Dirofilariasis

parasite

mammal, dog, wild carnivore

mosquito

Z

Angiostrongylosis

parasite

rat, prawn, frog

none

Z

Angiostrongylosis abdominal

parasite

cotton rat, slug

none

Z

Anisakiasis

parasite

marine mammals

none

Z

Baylisascaridiosis

parasite

mammals (non-human), birds

none

Z

Bertiellasis

parasite

primate (non-human)

none

Z

Capillariasis-intestinal

parasite

bird or fish

none

Z

Cercarial dermatitis

parasite

aquatic bird, snail

none

Z

Coenurosis

parasite

sheep, wild carnivore, horse, dog

none

Z

Cryptosporidiosis

parasite

mammals (non-human)

none

Z

Cutaneous larva migrans

parasite

cat, dog, cattle

none

Z

Dicrocoeliasis

parasite

sheep, snails, ant

none

Z

Dipylidiasis

parasite

dog, cat

none

Z

Echinococcosis-American polycystic

parasite

bush dog, paca, rodent

none

Z

Echinococcosis-multilocular

parasite

fox, wolf, coyote, dog, cat, vole, lemming, shrew, mouse

none

Z

Entamoeba polecki infection

parasite

pig, monkey

none

Z

Gongylonemiasis

parasite

sheep, cattle, pigs, bears, monkeys

none

Z

Hymenolepis diminuta infection

parasite

rodent, various insects

none

Z

Linguatulosis

parasite

herbivore

none

Z

Mammomonogamiasis

parasite

mammal

none

Z

Metagonimiasis

parasite

snail, fish, dog, cat

none

Z

Metorchiasis

parasite

snail, fish, cat, dog, mink, fox, racoon, vole, wolf, bear, coyote

none

Z

Microsporidiosis

parasite

rabbit, rodents, carnivores, primates, fish, dogs, birds

none

Z

Nanophyetiasis

parasite

snail, fish

none

Z

Ockelbo disease

parasite

primate, soil

none

Z

Pentastomiasis

parasite

amphibian or reptile, rodent

none

Z

Sarcocystosis

parasite

cattle, pig

none

Z

Schistosomiasis-haematobium

parasite

snail, rarely baboon or monkey

none

Z

Schistosomiasis-intercalatum

parasite

snail

none

Z

Schistosomiasis-japonicum

parasite

snail, water buffalo, dog, cat, rat, pig, horse, goat

none

Z

Schistosomiasis-mekongi

parasite

snail, dog

none

Z

Sparganosis

parasite

copepod, bird, amphibian or reptile

none

Z

Taeniasis

parasite

cattle, pig

none

Z

Toxocariasis

parasite

cat, dog, mouse

none

Z

Trichostrongyliasis

parasite

herbivore

none

Z

Tungiasis

parasite

pig, various other mammals

none

Z

Babesiosis

parasite

rodent, rabbit, deer, cattle, tick

tick

Z

Balantidiosis

parasite

pig, primate (nonhuman), rodent

none

Z

Capillariasis-hepatic

parasite

rat

none

Z

Dioctophyme renal infection

parasite

dog, mink

none

Z

Echinococcosis-unilocular

parasite

dog, wolf, dingo, sheep, horse

none

Z

Fascioliasis

parasite

sheep, cattle, snail

none

Z

Gastrodiscoidiasis

parasite

pig, herbivore, snail

none

Z

Gnathostomiasis

parasite

cat, dog, poultry, frog, fish

none

Z

Heterophyid infections

parasite

snail, fish

none

Z

Moniliformis moniliformis

parasite

rat

none

Z

Opisthorchiasis

parasite

cat, civet, dog, other fish-eating mammal, snail

none

Z

Schistosomiasis-mansoni

parasite

snail, dog, cat, pig, cattle, rodent, horse, primate

none

Z

Schistosomiasis-mattheei

parasite

snail, sheep, goat, cattle, horse, wild mammal

none

Z

Toxoplasmosis

parasite

rodent, pig, cattle, sheep, chicken, bird, cat, marsupial  kangaroo

none

Z

Trichinosis

parasite

wild carnivore, omnivore, marine mammal

none

Z

Protothecosis

protistan

cat, dog, cattle

none

Z

California encephalitis group

virus

chipmunk, squirrel, rodent, fox

mosquito

Z

Eastern equine encephalitis

virus

wild bird, horse, cattle, pig

mosquito

Z

Group C viral fevers

virus

rodent, marsupial, bat

mosquito

Z

Japanese encephalitis

virus

pig, bird

mosquito

Z

Murray Valley encephalitis

virus

bird

mosquito

Z

Pogosta disease

virus

bird

mosquito

Z

Rift Valley fever

virus

sheep, ruminant

mosquito

Z

Rocio

virus

wild bird

mosquito

Z

Ross River disease

virus

rodent, marsupial, bird, horse

mosquito

Z

Sindbis

virus

wild bird

mosquito

Z

St Louis encephalitis

virus

bird, mammal

mosquito

Z

West Nile fever

virus

bird, horse, bat, mostquito

mosquito

Z

Western equine encephalitis

virus

bird, horse, amphibian and reptile

mosquito

Z

Ilheus

virus

wild bird

mosquito

Z

Wesselsbron

virus

sheep, cattle

mosquito

Z

Bolivian Hemorrhagic fever

virus

rodent

none

Z

Brazilian hemorrhagic fever

virus

rodent

none

Z

Cowpox

virus

cattle, cat

none

Z

Ebola fever

virus

guinea pig, bat

none

Z

Hantavirus infections - New World

virus

deer mouse, pinon mouse, harvest mouse, brush mouse, western chipmunk

none

Z

Hantavirus infections-Old World

virus

field mice, vole, rat, bat, bird

none

Z

Herpesvirus simiae infection

virus

monkey

none

Z

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

virus

house mouse, guinea pig, hamster, monkey

none

Z

Marburg virus disease

virus

African green monkey, bat

none

Z

Orf

virus

sheep, goat, reindeer, musk ox

none

Z

Pseudocowpox

virus

cattle

none

Z

Rabies

virus

dog, fox, skunk, jackal, wolf, cat, raccoon, mongoose, bat

none

Z

Tanapox virus disease

virus

monkey

none

Z

Vesicular stomatitis

virus

horse, cattle, pig

none

Z

Whitewater Arroyo virus infection

virus

rodent woodrats

none

Z

Kyasanur Forest disease

virus

rodent, shrew, monkey, bat, bird, buffalo, cattle, tick

tick

Z

Louping ill

virus

sheep, deer, grouse, tick

tick

Z

Thogoto

virus

sheep, bird

tick

Z

Tick-borne encephalitis: Russian

virus

rodent, goat, cattle, tick

tick

Z

Tick-borne encephalitis: European

virus

rodent, bird, cattle, tick

tick

Z

New World phleboviruses

virus

rodent, fly

fly

Z

Sandfly fever

virus

rodent

fly

Z

Barmah Forest disease

virus

marsupial, cattle, horses

mosquito

Z

Karelian fever

virus

bird

mosquito

Z

Mayaro

virus

primate (non-human), bird

mosquito

Z

Venezuelan equine encephalitis

virus

rodent, horse

mosquito

Z

Chikungunya

virus

primate (non-human)

mosquito

Z

Bunyaviridae infections

virus

rat, bird, marsupial, chipmunk, cattle, sheep, horse, bat

mosquito, tick, flea

Z

Argentine hemorrhagic fever

virus

rodent

none

Z

Lassa fever

virus

multimammate mouse

none

Z

Monkeypox

virus

monkey, squirrel

none

Z

Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever

virus

cane mouse, other rodents, cotton rat

none

Z

Colorado tick fever

virus

ground squirrel, porcupine, chipmunk, mouse, rabbit, hare, porcupine, woodchuck

tick

Z

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

virus

hare, bird, cattle, sheep, goat, tick

tick

Z

Oesophagostomiasis

virus

rodent, muskrat

tick

Z

Powassan

virus

rodent, carnivore, tick

tick

Z



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