Ecological Archives E086-021-A2

Lisa A. Schulte and David J. Mladenoff. 2005. Severe wind and fire regimes in northern forests: historical variability at the regional scale. Ecology 86:431–445.

Appendix B (Table B1). Climate, landform, and soil characteristics of landscapes within northern Wisconsin. Landscapes are derived from subsections, one level of ecoregion patterning within the hierarchical USDA Forest Service Vegetation Classification (Albert 1995, Keys et al. 1995, WDNR 1999).


Landscape

Climate

Landform

Soils


Green Bay Till Plain (Hb)

Climate somewhat influenced by L. Michigan; moderate snow

Undulating till plain underlain by limestone dolomite bedrock

Rocky, podzolized pink sandy loams interspersed with peat and muck

Green Bay Lake Plain (Hc)

Climate somewhat influenced by L. Michigan; longer growing season

Flat plain of lacustrine clays

Leached red calcareous clays

Manitowoc Till Plain (Hd)

Climate influenced by L. Michigan; longest growing season in the study area

Flat to rolling till plain of clayey ground and end moraines

Leached red calcareous clays

Door/Escanaba Peninsulas (He)

Climate heavily moderated by L. Michigan & Green Bay, longer growing season

Various landforms of lacustrine origin underlain by limestone and dolomite

Diverse sandy to loamy soils, calcareous and poorly drained where bedrock near surface

Lake Superior Islands (Ia)

L. Superior climate; cooler in summer and warmer in winter than mainland

Glacial lake plain and ice scour

Leached calcareous silt and clay; peat extensive in wetlands

Lake Superior Clay Plain (Ja)

Climate heavily moderated by L. Superior; moderate snow

Glacial lake plain and water-reworked moraine

Leached calcareous red loams and clays; peat extensive in wetlands

Gogebic-Penokee Iron Range(Jb)

Continental climate; shortest growing season in the study area

Thin glacial till over volcanic bedrock ridge

Red loams and sandy loams

WinegarMoraines (Jc)

Continental climate; shorter growing season

Ice stagnated features with steep ridges, kettle lakes, and wetlands

Acidic, rocky, red sandy loam or loamy sand with fragipans common; peat extensive in wetlands

St. Croix Moraine (Jd)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Stagnation and end moraine

Neutral sandy loam, small inclusions of peat

Northwest Loess Plain (Je)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Undulating, nearly level plain

Acidic silt loams, often poorly drained, covered with wind-blown silt

Perkinstown End Moraine (Jf)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Hummocky end moraines and outwash channels

Acidic sandy loam, small inclusions of peat

West Lincoln Till Plain (Jg)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Dissected glacial till plain

Poorly drained silt loams over acidic loamy till

Rib Mountain Rolling Ridges (Ji)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Steeply dissected till plain with exposures of granitic bedrock

Well-drained shallow silt loams

Green Bay Stagnation Moraine (Jj)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Parallel end moraines separated by outwash channels and till plain

Neutral sandy loam to loam, small inclusions of peat

Spread Eagle/Dunbar (Jk)

Climate somewhat modified by L. Michigan; heavy snowfall

Bedrock knobs surrounded by extensive outwash plains, some pitted

Droughty outwash sands

Brule/Paint River Drumlins (Jl)

Winters long and cold; heavy snowfall

Gently rolling drumlins and adjacent swampy depressions

Well-drained sandy-loamy or loamy sand, may have silt cap of loess

Northern Highland (Jm)

Winters long and cold; heavy snowfall

Pitted outwash plain with coarse-textured moraines

Acidic sands

East Lincoln Till Plain (Js)

Continental climate; moderate snow

Dissected glacial till plain

Poorly drained silt loams over acidic loamy till

Bayfield Sand Plain (Ka)

Climate somewhat modified by L. Superior; lighter snows

Pitted outwash plain: flat terraces intersected by hummock sediments

Deep loamy sands low in organic matter

Mille Lacs Upland (Kb)

Climate somewhat modified by L. Superior; lighter snows

Lake Superior lobe ground moraine and drumlin fields

Acidic loams

Green Bay Islands (Ob)

L. Michigan climate; cooler in summer and warmer in winter than mainland

Glacial lake plain and ice scour

Calcareous loams, poorly drained where bedrock near surface


LITERATURE CITED

Albert, D. A. 1995. Regional landscape ecosystems of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin: a working map and classification. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NC178. North Central Forest Experiment Station St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Keys, J. Jr., C. Carpenter, S. Hooks, F. Koenig, W. H. McNab, W. Russell, and M. L. Smith. 1995. Ecological units of the eastern United States - first approximation. USDA Forest Service, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

WDNR (Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources). 1999. Ecological units of Wisconsin - First approximation, including land type associations (LTAS). Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.



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