Ecological Archives E086-021-A1

Lisa A. Schulte and David J. Mladenoff. 2005. Severe wind and fire regimes in northern forests: historical variability at the regional scale. Ecology 86:431–445.

Appendix A (Table A1). Characteristics of ecosystem types defined by U.S. General Land Office surveyors. Status of inclusion/exclusion in the calculation of disturbance rotation period is also given.


Ecosystem type
Included
Number corners
Predominant bearing tree species
Mean distance (m) to 1st bearing tree
Mean diameter (cm) of 1st bearing tree

Barren

No

64

Red Pine, White Pine, Bur Oak

32.3

32.5

Bottom

Yes

609

Elm, White Pine, Black Ash

14.3

31.0

Clearing

No

12

Eastern Hemlock, Pine, Birch

45.7

33.8

Dead forest

Yes

85

Jack Pine, Red Pine, White Pine

16.2

30.0

Default (unmentioned)

Yes

63,754

Eastern Hemlock, Yellow Birch, Sugar Maple

5.8

31.2

Dry land

Yes

77

Eastern Hemlock, Sugar Maple, Yellow Birch

4.8

36.6

Farm

No

26

White Oak, Bur Oak, American Beech

17.0

31.5

Fenced enclosure

No

52

Aspen, White Oak, White Pine

18.0

31.2

Forest/Timber

Yes

534

Eastern Hemlock, Sugar Maple, Yellow Birch

8.3

32.0

Grove

Yes

23

White Pine, Aspen, Sugar Maple

4.6

33.8

Low land/wet area

Yes

345

Hemlock, Yellow Birch, Sugar Maple

5.2

33.5

Marsh/wetland

No

788

Tamarack, White Pine, Red Pine

40.5

24.9

Meadow

No

34

White Pine, Elm, Tamarack

23.8

25.4

Oak barren

No

17

White Oak, Elm, Northern Pin Oak

20.3

23.9

Oak opening

No

44

White Oak, Bur Oak, Northern Pin Oak

16.4

28.2

Opening (general)

No

106

Aspen, Pine, Oak

20.0

30.2

Pine grove

Yes

24

White Pine, Eastern Hemlock, Yellow Birch

6.7

35.8

Pine opening/barren

No

2,403

Jack Pine, Red Pine, White Pine

20.9

26.9

Plowed field

No

19

Sugar Maple, White Oak, American Basswood

9.4

26.7

Prairie

No

107

Aspen, Bur Oak, White Oak

19.3

9.4

Scattered oak

No

38

White Oak, Bur Oak, Northern Pin Oak

34.5

32.3

Scattered timber

No

995

White Pine, Red Pine, Aspen

27.1

33.8

Sugar camp

Yes

21

Sugar Maple, American Beech, White Oak

4.4

39.4

Swamp

Yes

13,694

Tamarack, Cedar, Spruce

5.8

25.2

Thicket/brush

Yes

431

Aspen, Jack Pine, Elm

9.2

25.2


Distances were recorded in links and have been converted to meters (5 links = 1 m). 

Diameters were estimated by surveyors in inches and have been converted to centimeters.



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