Ecological Archives A017-011-A2

Michelle D. Boone, Raymond D. Semlitsch, Edward E. Little, and Meaghan C. Doyle. 2007. Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish. Ecological Applications 17:291–301.

Appendix B. Effects of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, the insecticide carbaryl, overwintered bullfrog tadpoles, and bluegill sunfish treatments on periphyton and cladocerans found in the amphibian community, and break-down of ammonium and nitrate in fertilizer and control treatments.

 
   FIG. B1. Amount of periphyton (the food resource of anurans) found in ponds exposed to nitrate (a) and overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (b) over time. Presence of nitrate and overwintered bullfrog tadpoles are denoted with an “N” or “B,” respectively. Error bars represent ± 1 SE. P values are from repeated measure analysis.

 

 
   FIG. B2. Abundance of cladocerans (food resource for A. maculatum) in ponds exposed to carbaryl (a) and bluegill (b). Presence of carbaryl and bluegill are denoted with a “C” or “F,” respectively. Error bars represent ± 1 SE. P values are from repeated measures analysis.

 

 
   FIG. B3. Change in concentration of ammonium (circle symbols) and nitrate (triangular symbols) over time between nitrate treatments. “N” denotes exposure to nitrate. Circles are ammonium levels, and triangles are nitrate levels. Error bars represent ± 1 SE.


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